Countess Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf
Countess Augusta Caroline Sophie Reuss-Ebersdorf, was by marriage the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She was born in Saalburg-Ebersdorf, she was the maternal grandmother of Queen Victoria and the paternal grandmother of Albert, Prince Consort. She was the second of seven children of Heinrich XXIV, Count Reuss of Ebersdorf and his wife Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg, her birthplace, was a center of Pietism in Thuringia and Augusta's grandparents were ardent admirers of this religious movement. Augusta's great-aunt Countess Erdmuthe Dorothea of Reuss-Ebersdorf was married to Count Nicholas Louis von Zinzendorf und Pottendorf, leader of the revivalist Moravian Church; this background explains the deep religious feelings of Duchess Augusta in years. Her father commissioned a portrait of Augusta as Artemisia by the painter Johann Heinrich Tischbein. Count Heinrich XXIV showed this painting during the Perpetual Diet so potential marriage candidates were aware of his beautiful daughter. In Ebersdorf on 13 June 1777 Augusta married Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
Duke Francis acquired the Artemisia painting for four times the original price because he was in love with Augusta, but he had to marry a relative, Princess Sophie of Saxe-Hildburghausen. Princess Sophie died seven months after the wedding, so the duke was free to pursue the hand of his beloved. During her marriage, Augusta bore her husband ten children. Countess Augusta is the grandmother of many notable monarchs of Europe, including both Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and her husband, Prince Albert, King Consort of Portugal Ferdinand II, Empress Carlota of Mexico and her brother Leopold II of Belgium. 19 January 1757 – 13 June 1777: Her Illustrious Highness Countess Augusta Reuss-Ebersdorf 13 June 1777 – 8 September 1800: Her Ducal Serene Highness The Hereditary Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 8 September 1800 – 9 December 1806: Her Highness The Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 9 December 1806 – 16 November 1831: Her Highness The Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Gertraude Bachmann: Natur und Kunst in den Reisetagebüchern der Herzogin Auguste Caroline Sophie von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld, Coburg 2006
Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476; the title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I, in 924. The title was revived again in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.
Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role; the exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, but the concept of translatio imperii, the notion that he—the sovereign ruler—held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome, was fundamental to the prestige of the emperor. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although controlled by dynasties; the German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire elected one of their peers as "King of the Romans", he would be crowned emperor by the Pope. The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, duchies, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, other domains.
The power of the emperor was limited, while the various princes, lords and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806 following the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by emperor Napoleon I the month before. In various languages the Holy Roman Empire was known as: Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich, Italian: Sacro Romano Impero, Czech: Svatá říše římská, Polish: Święte imperium rzymskie, Slovene: Sveto rimsko cesarstvo, Dutch: Heilige Roomse Rijk, French: Saint-Empire romain. Before 1157, the realm was referred to as the Roman Empire; the term sacrum in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa: the term was added to reflect Frederick's ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy. The form "Holy Roman Empire" is attested from 1254 onward.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, a form first used in a document in 1474. The new title was adopted because the Empire had lost most of its Italian and Burgundian territories to the south and west by the late 15th century, but to emphasize the new importance of the German Imperial Estates in ruling the Empire due to the Imperial Reform. By the end of the 18th century, the term "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" had fallen out of official use. Besides, contradicting the traditional view concerning that designation, Hermann Weisert has stated in a study on imperial titulature that, despite the claim of many textbooks, the name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" never had an official status and points out that documents were thirty times as to omit the national suffix as include it. This, or the shortened "Roman Empire of the German Nation", is used in Germany to refer to the Holy Roman Empire. In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body, called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire."
As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control. In the late 5th and early 6th centuries, the Merovingians, under Clovis I and his successors, consolidated Frankish tribes and extended hegemony over others to gain control of northern Gaul and the middle Rhine river valley region. By the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel's son Pepin became King of the Franks, gained the sanction of the Pope; the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768, Pepin's son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm, he incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, beyond, linking the Frankish kingdom with Papal lands. In 797, the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VI was removed from the throne by his mother Irene who declared herself Empress; as the Church regarded a male Roman Emperor as the head of Christendom, Pope
Thurnau is a municipality in the district Kulmbach, Germany. It is known for golfing as well as its potteries. Thurnau is known for transmitter Thurnau, the medium wave transmission site for Deutschlandfunk, a German national information radio station. Thurnau is arranged in the following boroughs: Carl von Linde, was a German engineer who developed refrigeration and gas separation technologies
Princess Antoinette of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Princess Antoinette of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was a German princess of the House of Wettin. By marriage, she was a Duchess of Württemberg. Through her eldest surviving son, she is the ancestress of today's House of Württemberg. Born in Coburg, she was the second daughter of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Countess Augusta Reuss-Ebersdorf, she was the elder sister of King Leopold I of Belgium and the aunt of both Queen Victoria and her husband, Prince Albert. Her maternal grandparents were Heinrich XXIV, Count Reuß-Ebersdorf and Karoline Ernestine von Erbach-Schönberg, her paternal grandparents were Ernst Friedrich and Antoinette of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. In Coburg on 17 November 1798, she married Alexander of Württemberg; the couple settled in Russia, where Alexander, as a maternal uncle of both Emperors Alexander I and Nicholas I made a military and diplomatic career. Antoinette, regarded as influential, was bearer of the Grand Cross of the Imperial Russian Order of Saint Catherine.
Antoinette died in St. Petersburg, she was buried in the Ducal crypt of Schloss Friedenstein in Gotha, where her husband and sons Paul and Frederick found their final resting place. According to Queen Louise of Prussia, Antoinette could have had an illegitimate child, her brother George wrote on 18 May 1802: " The Württemberg couple didn't speak to each other in 2 years, but she was with child and the father was some Herr von Höbel, a Canon. I know all this from the Duke of Weimar, is holy true." Duchess Marie of Württemberg. She remained unwed until the age of 33 and on 23 December 1832, she married her mother's own brother, Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, thus became the step-mother of Prince Albert Duke Paul of Württemberg died in infancy at the age of one Duke Alexander of Württemberg he married Princess Marie d'Orléans on 17 October 1837, they had one son. Duke Ernest of Württemberg he married Natalie Eischborn on 21 August 1860, they had one daughter: Alexandra von Grünhof she married Robert von Keudell on 15 September 1883.
They had three children: Walter von Keudell he married Johanna von Kyaw on 6 February 1912. They had four children. Otto von Keudell he married Maria Momm on 14 August 1920, they have seven children. He remarried Edelgarde von Stülpnagel on 5 September 1947, they have four children. Hedwig von Keudell she married Karl von der Trenck on 17 July 1918, they had five children. Duke Frederick Wilhelm Ferdinand of Württemberg. Died at the age of four years old. Von Wiebeking, Carl Friedrich. Biographie des Herzogs Alexander zu Württemberg. Munich, 1835. Sauer, Paul. "Alexander." In Das Haus Württemberg. Ein biographisches Lexikon, ed. Sönke Lorenz, Dieter Mertens, Volker Press. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1997. ISBN 3-17-013605-4 Media related to Princess Antoinette of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld at Wikimedia Commons
Christine of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
Christine of Mecklenburg-Güstrow was a German noblewoman member of the House of Mecklenburg and by marriage Countess of Stolberg-Gedern. Born in Güstrow, she was the sixth of eleven children born from the marriage of Gustav Adolph, Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow and Magdalene Sibylle of Holstein-Gottorp. From her ten older and younger siblings, eight survived to adulthood: Marie, Sophie, Hereditary Prince of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, Louise and Augusta. In Güstrow on 14 May 1683, Christine married Louis Christian, Count of Stolberg-Gedern as his second wife. Between 1684 and 1705 she had 23 children in 19 pregnancies. From them, only 11 survive adulthood: Hereditary Prince of Stolberg-Gedern. A daughter, twin of Gustav Adolph. Gustav Ernest, Hereditary Prince of Stolberg-Gedern. Fredericka Charlotte, married on 8 December 1709 to Frederick Ernest, Count of Solms-Laubach. Emilie Auguste, married on 1 October 1709 to Jost Christian, Count of Stolberg-Rossla. Christiana Louise. Albertine Antonie. Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Stolberg-Gedern, twin of Albertine Antonie.
Gustave Magdalene. Christian Ernest, Count of Stolberg-Wernigerode. Christine Eleonore, married on 8 August 1708 to Ernest Casimir I, Count of Isenburg-Büdingen in Büdingen. Frederick Charles, Prince of Stolberg-Gedern. Ernestine Wilhelmine, married on 7 December 1725 to Ferdinand Maximilian, Count of Isenburg-Büdingen in Wächtersbach. Fredericka Louise. Louis Adolph. Henry August, Count of Stolberg-Schwarza, twin of Louis Adolph. Sophie Christiane, unmarried. Ferdinande Henriette, married on 15 December 1719 to George August, Count of Erbach-Schönberg. Through her, Christine was the great-great-great-grandmother of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. Rudolph Lebrecht. Louis Christian, twin of Rudolph Lebrecht. Auguste Marie, a nun in Herford, created Princess in 1742. Caroline Adolphine. Philippina Louise, married on 2 April 1725 to William Maurice II, Count of Isenburg-Philippseich
Gedern is a town in the Wetteraukreis district in Hesse and belongs to Oberhessen. It is located 38 kilometres northeast of Hanau at the foot of the Vogelsberg, once one of the largest inactive volcanoes in Europe. Gedern is bordered by Schotten in the north, by Grebenhain in the northeast, by Birstein in the east, by Kefenrod in the south, by Ortenberg in the southwest, Hirzenhain in the west. Gedern is divided into the districts of Gedern, Mittel-Seemen, Nieder-Seemen, Ober-Seemen and Wenings; the first records of Gedern come from the year 730 AD. City rights were given to Gedern on January 10, 1356, by Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, 20 years after Wenings, a current district of Gedern, received its city rights from Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor. After the Congress of Vienna, command of Gedern passed to the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Many zoning reforms have taken place in Gedern since then. In 1852 Gedern was placed into the Kreis Nidda district; when this district was removed in 1874, Gedern was placed into the Schotten district.
There was yet another reform in 1936, Gedern was placed into Landkreis Büdingen. After the last reorganization in 1972, along with five other towns, was incorporated into Wetteraukreis; the town council consists of the mayor, Stefan Betz, the aldermen Klaus Hein, Walter Lutz and Barbara Gundlach, Klaus Bechthold and Andreas Steder, Reinhold Landmann and Irmtraud Köhler and Willi Herbst. The last election for mayor was held in 2015 in which Guido Kempel was elected to replace Klaus Bechthold who retired for health reasons; the city coat of arms shows two trout on a silver striped background. These represent the copious amounts of fish that were caught in and around Gedern throughout its history; the silver stripes stand for the two creeks that run through Gedern "Mühlbach" and "Gänsbach". Gedern is twinned with Columbia and Polanów, through the Sister Cities Program; the village of Wenings is partnered with Nucourt, France. The sister city arrangement with Columbia roots in an initiative of some inhabitants of Columbia in 1990.
During a genealogical research, they figured out that most of the 156 people who emigrated from Gedern in the 19th century, found a new home in the area of Columbia. In April 1992 the representatives of both cities signed a treaty of friendship during a visit of a Columbian delegation in Gedern; the official partnership ceremony was held in May 1993 in Illinois. Measured by its size, Gedern was an important industrial hub during the 1980s in the industrially weak area around the Vogelsberg. There were several textile, wood and metal refining factories. Today only a large metal-refining company is still active. Today Gedern is economically unimportant. Retail, manual labor, trade work that make up the core of the economic activities are done on a small scale; the vast majority of the inhabitants of Gedern commute to other areas in the Rhein-Main and Gießen regions. Gedern has a comprehensive school with the levels Hauptschule and Gymnasium up to tenth grade. Several elementary schools are found in Gedern and the surrounding area.
The Gederner See attracts many swimmers every summer. Gedern has a heated indoor pool in the recreation center on Schmitterberg—the hill that separates the village from the lake area. Around the lake, there is a glider runway. On weekends with nice weather one can see the gliders in the sky all around Gedern; the Volcano Bike Path runs from Stockheim to Lauterbach along the old train tracks. Ober-Seemen is home to the county youth summer camp Groß-Gerau. Christian Ernest of Stolberg-Wernigerode, reigning Count of the County of Wernigerode Frederick Charles of Stolberg-Gedern, owner of the Stolbergian domination of Gedern Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern, Countess of Albany Eduard von Fransecky, Prussian General of the Infantry Otto of Stolberg-Wernigerode and Vice Chancellor with Otto von Bismarck Edgar Itt, athlete Sandra Minnert, football player and manager Official website