Marie of Saxe-Altenburg
Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg, VA was Queen of Hanover and the consort of George V, a grandson of George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. Marie was born at Hildburghausen, as Princess Marie of Saxe-Hildburghausen, the eldest daughter of Joseph, the Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Hildburghausen and Duchess Amelia of Württemberg. In 1826, the family moved to Altenburg as a result of a transfer of territories among the various branches of the Ernestine Wettins, Marie took the title Princess of Saxe-Altenburg in place of the previous. Marie married, on 18 February 1843, at Hanover, Crown Prince of Hanover, they had three children: Prince Ernest Augustus, Princess Frederica, Princess Marie. The Crown Prince, blind since his youth, his wife became King and Queen of Hanover upon the death of his father, Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, on 18 November 1851. Between 1858 and 1867 George V had Marienburg Castle built as a birthday present to his wife, named after her. However, he was expelled from his kingdom in 1866 as a result of his support for Austria in the Austro-Prussian War, on 20 September 1866, the Kingdom was annexed by Prussia.
George never abdicated. Marie succeeded in having the Hanoverian crown jewels and other precious items smuggled abroad, before leaving for Austria herself. There, the family moved into a villa in Gmunden near Salzburg, which they rented and acquired. On 18 September 1872, Queen Marie was godmother to Queen Victoria's granddaughter, Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein. Princess Marie Louise was the youngest daughter of Princess Helena. George V. died in 1878 on a travel in Paris where he had attempted to re-establish his Guelphic Legion, a military unit aimed at a re-conquest of his kingdom. He was buried in St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. Queen Marie died, some twenty-eight years after her husband, on 9 January 1907, in The Queen's Villa at Gmunden, where she was buried in a mausoleum that her eldest son had built next to his residence, Cumberland Castle. 14 April 1818 – 12 November 1826: Her Highness Princess Marie of Saxe-Hildburghausen 12 November 1826 – 18 February 1843: Her Highness Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg 18 February 1843 – 18 November 1851: Her Royal Highness The Crown Princess of Hanover 18 November 1851 – 9 January 1907: Her Majesty The Queen of Hanover
Victoria, Princess Royal
Victoria, Princess Royal was German Empress and Queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III. She was the eldest child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was created Princess Royal in 1841, she was the mother of German Emperor. Educated by her father in a politically liberal environment, she was betrothed at the age of sixteen to Prince Frederick of Prussia and supported him in his views that Prussia and the German Empire should become a constitutional monarchy on the British model. Criticised for this attitude and for her English origins, Victoria suffered ostracism by the Hohenzollerns and the Berlin court; this isolation increased after the arrival of Otto von Bismarck to power in 1862. Victoria was empress and queen of Prussia for only a few months, during which she had opportunity to influence the policy of the German Empire. Frederick III died in 1888 – just 99 days after his accession – from laryngeal cancer and was succeeded by their son William II, who had much more conservative views than his parents.
After her husband's death, she became known as Empress Frederick. The empress dowager settled in Kronberg im Taunus, where she built Friedrichshof, a castle, named in honour of her late husband. Isolated after the weddings of her younger daughters, Victoria died of breast cancer a few months after her mother in 1901; the correspondence between Victoria and her parents has been preserved completely: 3,777 letters from Queen Victoria to her eldest daughter, about 4,000 letters from the empress to her mother are preserved and catalogued. These give a detailed insight into the life of the Prussian court between 1858 and 1900. Princess Victoria was born on 21 November 1840 at London, she was her husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. When she was born, the doctor exclaimed sadly: "Oh Madame, it's a girl!" And the Queen replied: "Never mind, next time it will be a prince!". She was baptised in the Throne Room of Buckingham Palace on 10 February 1841 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Howley.
The Lily font was commissioned for the occasion of her christening. Her godparents were Queen Adelaide, the King of the Belgians, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Duke of Sussex, the Duchess of Gloucester and the Duchess of Kent; as a daughter of the sovereign, Victoria was born a British princess. On 19 January 1841, she was made Princess Royal, a title sometimes conferred on the eldest daughter of the sovereign. In addition, she was heir presumptive to the throne of the United Kingdom, before the birth of her younger brother Prince Albert Edward on 9 November 1841. To her family, she was known as "Vicky"; the royal couple decided to give their children as complete an education as possible. In fact, Queen Victoria, who succeeded her uncle King William IV at the age of 18, believed that she herself had not been sufficiently prepared for the government affairs. For his part, Prince Albert, born in the small Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, had received a more careful education, thanks to his uncle King Leopold I of Belgium.
Shortly after the birth of Victoria, Prince Albert wrote a memoir detailing the tasks and duties of all those involved with the royal children. Another 48-page document, written a year and a half by the Baron Stockmar, intimate of the royal couple, details the educational principles which were to be used with the little princes; the royal couple, had only a vague idea of the proper educational development of a child. Queen Victoria, for example, believed that the fact that her baby sucked on bracelets was a sign of deficient education. According to Hannah Pakula, biographer of the future German empress, the first two governesses of the princess were therefore well chosen. Experienced in dealing with children, Lady Lyttelton directed the nursery through which passed all royal children after Victoria's second year; the diplomatic young woman managed to soften the unrealistic demands of the royal couple. Sarah Anne Hildyard, the children's second governess, was a competent teacher who developed a close relationship with her students.
Precocious and intelligent, Victoria began to learn French at the age of 18 months, she began to study German when aged four. She learned Greek and Latin. From the age of six, her curriculum included lessons of arithmetic and history, her father tutored her in politics and philosophy, she studied science and literature. Her school days, interrupted by three hours of recreation, began at 8:20 and finished at 18:00. Unlike her brother, whose educational program was more severe, Victoria was an excellent student, always hungry for knowledge. However, she showed an obstinate character. Queen Victoria and her husband wanted to remove their children from court life as much as possible, so they acquired Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Near the main building, Albert built for his children a Swiss-inspired cottage with a small kitchen and a carpentry workshop. In this building, the royal children learned practical life. Prince Albert was involved in the education of their offspring, he followed the progress of his children and gave some of their lessons himself, as well as spending time playing with them.
Victoria is described as having "idolised" her father and having inherited his li
Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg was the third Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Friedrich was the second-eldest son of Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel and an elder brother of Christian IX of Denmark. Friedrich inherited the title of Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg upon his childless brother Karl's death on 14 October 1878. Friedrich married Princess Adelheid of Schaumburg-Lippe, second-eldest daughter of George William, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe and his wife Princess Ida of Waldeck and Pyrmont, on 16 October 1841 in Bückeburg, Schaumburg-Lippe. Friedrich and Adelheid had five children: Princess Marie Karoline Auguste Ida Luise of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, married Prince William of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld. Friedrich Ferdinand Georg Christian Karl Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein. Princess Luise Karoline Juliane of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, married George Victor, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont.
Princess Marie Wilhelmine Luise Ida Friederike Mathilde Hermine of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Prince Albrecht Christian Adolf Karl Eugen of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. 23 October 1814 – 6 July 1825: His Serene Highness Prince Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck 6 July 1825 – 19 December 1863: His Serene Highness Prince Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 19 December 1863 – 24 October 1878: His Highness Prince Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 24 October 1878 – 27 November 1885: His Highness The Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Wilhelm Horst: Die Entstehung und Entwicklung der Freimaurerlogen in Schleswig-Holstein. Ludwig 2004, p. 138. John C. G. Röhl: Wilhelm II. Der Aufbau der Persönlichen Monarchie 1888-1900. C. H. Beck 2012, ISBN 978-3-406-48229-8. Media related to Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg at Wikimedia Commons
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Wilhelm II, German Emperor
Wilhelm II was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, reigning from 15 June 1888 until his abdication on 9 November 1918 shortly before Germany's defeat in World War I. He was the eldest grandchild of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe, most notably his first cousin King George V of the United Kingdom and Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, whose wife, was Wilhelm and George's first cousin. Assuming the throne in 1888, he dismissed the country's longtime chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in 1890 before launching Germany on a bellicose "New Course" to cement its status as a respected world power. However, due to his impetuous personality, he undermined this aim by making tactless, alarming public statements without consulting his ministers beforehand, he did much to alienate other Great Powers from Germany by initiating a massive build-up of the German Navy, challenging French control over Morocco, backing the Austrian annexation of Bosnia in 1908.
Wilhelm II's turbulent reign culminated in his guarantee of military support to Austria-Hungary during the crisis of July 1914, which resulted in the outbreak of World War I. A lax wartime leader, he left all decision-making regarding military strategy and organisation of the war effort in the hands of the German General Staff; this broad delegation of authority gave rise to a de facto military dictatorship whose authorisation of unrestricted submarine warfare and the Zimmerman Telegram led to the United States' entry into the conflict in April 1917. After Germany's defeat in 1918, Wilhelm lost the support of the German army, abdicated on 9 November 1918, fled to exile in the Netherlands, where he died in 1941. Wilhelm was born on 27 January 1859 at the Crown Prince's Palace, Berlin, to Victoria, Princess Royal, the wife of Prince Frederick William of Prussia, his mother was the eldest daughter of Britain's Queen Victoria. At the time of his birth, his great-uncle Frederick William IV was king of Prussia, his grandfather and namesake Wilhelm was acting as regent.
He was the first grandchild of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, but more the first son of the crown prince of Prussia. From 1861, Wilhelm was second in the line of succession to Prussia, after 1871, to the newly created German Empire, according to the constitution of the German Empire, was ruled by the Prussian king. At the time of his birth, he was sixth in the line of succession to the British throne, after his maternal uncles and his mother. A traumatic breech birth resulted in Erb's palsy, which left him with a withered left arm about six inches shorter than his right, he tried with some success to conceal this. In others, he holds his left hand with his right, has his crippled arm on the hilt of a sword, or holds a cane to give the illusion of a useful limb posed at a dignified angle. Historians have suggested. In 1863, Wilhelm was taken to England to be present at the wedding of his Uncle Bertie, Princess Alexandra of Denmark. Wilhelm attended the ceremony in a Highland costume, complete with a small toy dirk.
During the ceremony, the four-year-old became restless. His eighteen-year-old uncle Prince Alfred, charged with keeping an eye on him, told him to be quiet, but Wilhelm drew his dirk and threatened Alfred; when Alfred attempted to subdue him by force, Wilhelm bit him on the leg. His grandmother, Queen Victoria, missed seeing the fracas, his mother, was obsessed with his damaged arm, blaming herself for the child's handicap and insisted that he become a good rider. The thought that he, as heir to the throne, should not be able to ride was intolerable to her. Riding lessons were a matter of endurance for Wilhelm. Over and over, the weeping prince was compelled to go through the paces, he fell off time despite his tears was set on its back again. After weeks of this he got it right and was able to maintain his balance. Wilhelm, from six years of age, was tutored and influenced by the 39-year-old teacher Georg Hinzpeter. "Hinzpeter", he wrote, "was a good fellow. Whether he was the right tutor for me, I dare not decide.
The torments inflicted on me, in this pony riding, must be attributed to my mother."As a teenager he was educated at Kassel at the Friedrichsgymnasium. In January 1877, Wilhelm finished high school and on his eighteenth birthday received as a present from his grandmother, Queen Victoria, the Order of the Garter. After Kassel he spent four terms at the University of Bonn, he became a member of the exclusive Corps Borussia Bonn. Wilhelm possessed a quick intelligence, but this was overshadowed by a cantankerous temper; as a scion of the royal house of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm was exposed from an early age to the military society of the Prussian aristocracy. This had a major impact on him and, in maturity, Wilhelm was seen out of uniform; the hyper-masculine military culture of Prussia in this period did much to frame his political ideals and personal relationships. Crown Prince Frederick was viewed by his respect, his father's status as a hero of the wars of unification was responsible for the young Wilhelm's attitude, as were the circumstances in which he was raised.
Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick
Ernest Augustus was the reigning Duke of Brunswick from 2 November 1913 to 8 November 1918. He was a grandson of George V of Hanover, whom the Prussians had deposed from the Hanoverian throne in 1866, Christian IX of Denmark. Ernest Augustus was born at Penzing near Vienna, the sixth and youngest child of former Crown Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover and his wife, Princess Thyra of Denmark, his great-grandfather, Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, the fifth son of George III of the United Kingdom, became king of Hanover in 1837 because Salic Law barred Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom, from inheriting the Hanoverian throne. His father succeeded as pretender to the Hanoverian throne and as Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale in the peerage of Great Britain in 1878; the younger Ernest August became heir apparent to the dukedom of Cumberland and to the Hanoverian claim upon the deaths of his two elder brothers and Christian. Through his mother, he was a first cousin of Christian X of Denmark, Haakon VII of Norway, George V of the United Kingdom, Constantine I of Greece and Nicholas II of Russia.
In 1884, the reigning Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, a distant cousin, died. Since the younger branch of the House of Guelph ended with him, under house rules it would have passed to the Duke of Cumberland, who claimed the throne. However, the Imperial Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, managed to get the Federal Council of the German Empire to rule that the Duke of Cumberland would disturb the peace of the empire if he ascended the throne of Brunswick. Bismarck did this because the duke had never formally renounced his claims to the kingdom of Hanover, annexed to Prussia in 1866 following the end of the Austro-Prussian War. Instead, Prince Albrecht of Prussia became the regent of Brunswick. After Prince Albrecht's death in 1906, the duke offered that he and his elder son, Prince George, would renounce their claims to the Duchy in order to allow Ernest Augustus, his only other surviving son, to take possession of the Duchy, but this option was rejected by the Bundesrat and the regency continued, this time under Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, who had acted as regent for his nephew in Mecklenburg.
When Ernest Augustus's older brother George died in an automobile accident on 20 May 1912, the German Emperor sent a message of condolence to the Duke of Cumberland. In response to this friendly gesture, the Duke sent his only surviving son, Ernest Augustus, to Berlin to thank the Emperor for his message. Ernest Augustus and the German Emperor were third cousins through George III of the United Kingdom. In Berlin, Ernest Augustus met and fell in love with the Emperor William II's only daughter, Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia. On 24 May 1913, Ernest Augustus and Victoria Louise, third cousins once removed through descent from George III's sons King Ernest Augustus of Hanover and Edward, Duke of Kent, were married to each other; this marriage ended the decades-long rift between the Houses of Hanover. The wedding of Prince Ernest Augustus and Princess Victoria Louise was the last great gathering of European sovereigns before the outbreak of the Great War. In addition to the German Emperor and Empress and the Duke and Duchess of Cumberland, King George V and Queen Mary of the United Kingdom and Tsar Nicholas II attended.
Upon the announcement of his betrothal to Princess Victoria Louise in February 1913, Ernest Augustus took an oath of loyalty to the German Emperor and accepted a commission as a cavalry captain and company commander in the Zieten–Hussars, a Prussian Army regiment in which his grandfather and great-grandfather had been colonels. Two imprisoned British spies Captain Stewart and Captain Trench, were pardoned and released by the German Emperor as a wedding present to the United Kingdom. King George V of the United Kingdom gave his consent to the marriage on 17 March 1913, as required by the Royal Marriages Act. On 27 October 1913, the Duke of Cumberland formally renounced his claims to the duchy of Brunswick in favor of his surviving son; the following day, the Federal Council voted to allow Ernest Augustus to become the reigning Duke of Brunswick. The new Duke of Brunswick formally took possession of his duchy on 1 November, he received a promotion to colonel in the Zieten–Hussars. During the First World War, Ernest Augustus rose to the rank of major-general.
In 1917, the British dukedom of Ernest Augustus's father, his own title as a Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, were suspended by the Titles Deprivation Act 1917, as a result of the Duke's service in the German army during the war. On 8 November 1918, Ernest Augustus was forced to abdicate his throne, as were all the other German kings, grand dukes and princes. Thus, when his father died in 1923, Ernest Augustus did not succeed to his father's title of Duke of Cumberland. For the next thirty years, Ernest Augustus would remain as head of the House of Hanover, living in retirement on his various estates. By the time the Second World War ended in Europe in April 1945, he and his family were living at Blankenburg Castle, he lived to see one of his children become a consort to a monarch – in 1947 his daughter Frederica became Queen of the Hellenes when her husband Prince Paul of Greece and Denmark succeeded his brother as King. The Duke of Brunswick is the maternal grandfather of Queen Sophia of Spain and the former King Constantine II of Greece.
Ernest Augustus died at Marienburg Castle in 1953. He was interred to be joined by the remains of his wife, in front of the Royal Mausoleum in the Berggarten at Her
Louise of Hesse-Kassel
Louise of Hesse-Kassel was Queen of Denmark by marriage to King Christian IX of Denmark. She was a daughter of Princess Charlotte of Denmark. Louise of Hesse lived in Denmark from the age of three; as a niece of King Christian VIII, who ruled Denmark between 1839 and 1848, Louise was close to the succession after several individuals of the royal house of Denmark who were elderly and childless. As children, her brother Frederik Wilhelm, her sisters and she were the closest relatives of King Christian VIII who were to produce heirs, it was easy to see that the agnatic succession from King Frederick III of Denmark would become extinct within a generation. Louise was one of the females descended from Frederick III of Denmark, she enjoyed the remainder provisions of the succession in the event that his male line became extinct, she and her siblings were not agnatic descendants of the House of Oldenburg and the Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein, thus ineligible to inherit the twin duchies, since there existed a number of agnatic lines eligible to inherit those territories.
Louise was married at the Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen on 26 May 1842 to her second cousin Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg. He was soon selected as hereditary prince of Denmark and ascended the throne of Denmark as King Christian IX; the marriage strengthed Christian's efforts to secure the Danish throne, since it joined two competing claimants whose children would have an enhanced connection to the ancient bloodlines of the Danish monarchy. Louise and Christian lived a quiet family life. Louise's mother and siblings renounced their rights to the Danish throne to her. Louise herself in turn renounced her rights to the throne to her spouse Christian. In 1852, this succession order was confirmed by foreign powers in London. In 1847, Prince Christian was, with the approval of Europe's Great Powers, chosen as successor to the Danish throne by Christian VIII; this choice of heir was made more dynastically palatable by the fact that, thanks to the mass renunciations of the Hesses, Christian's wife Louise became the heiress eventual to the crown, meaning that the couple's children would be heirs to the throne both by right of international treaty and by compliance with the Lex Regia.
This resolved the succession to the Danish crown, but not Denmark's claim on the twin duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. German Holstein's historic law of succession was Salic and could not so be reconciled with Christian's claim so long as the Augustenborgs survived and Prussia offered itself as the international champion of German nationalism; the result of this conflict was the Second War of Schleswig. On 3 July 1853, King Frederick VII confirmed this succession. By that act and Christian became Crown Princess and Crown Prince of Denmark. Louise had a tense relationship with King Frederick VII, who contradicted the succession of her spouse, whose marriage to the non-royal Louise Rasmussen she did not approve of. Therefore, the King and the Crown Prince couple did not see each other often. On 15 November 1863, Christian became Queen and King of Denmark; the relationship between Louise and Christian seems to have been at least a marriage of love, is described as happy: she supported him in his struggle to be acknowledged as heir to the throne of Denmark, the couple became attached to each other during the years of succession struggle.
Her loyalty is said to have been of great importance to him, Christian is described as dependent upon her intelligence and psychological strength, all of which were considered to be superior to his own. Their life style is described as simple and puritan, as this suited the contemporary view of an exemplary family life, the royal family was regarded as a morally correct role model; because of this, the pregnancy of her unmarried daughter Thyra in 1870 became a burden. As queen, Louise lived a life isolated from the people and did not seek a relationship with or recognition from the public, she took no part in state affairs. The high status marriages she arranged for her children secured the newly established Danish dynasty international status, connecting Denmark to Great Britain, Russia and Greece. Known as "The Mother-in-law of Europe," her annual family gatherings at Bernstorff and Fredensborg attracted more attention every year and made her a popular symbol of family life. Significant events in her life included her wedding anniversary on 26 May 1867, when she received great public praise.
Louise supported 26 different charity organizations. Among them were Vallø stift. In 1857, she founded the Louisestiftelsen, an orphanage for girls with the purpose of raising them to a life of domestic servants, which illustrated her conservative ideals, her most known project, one which she herself referred to as her most important, was the D