Chester is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales. With a population of 118,200 in 2011, it is the most populous settlement of Cheshire West and Chester, which had a population of 332,200 in 2014. Chester was granted city status in 1541. Chester was founded as a "castrum" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix in the reign of the Emperor Vespasian in 79 AD. One of the main army camps in Roman Britain, Deva became a major civilian settlement. In 689, King Æthelred of Mercia founded the Minster Church of West Mercia, which became Chester's first cathedral, the Saxons extended and strengthened the walls to protect the city against the Danes. Chester was one of the last cities in England to fall to the Normans. William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a castle, to dominate the town and the nearby Welsh border. Chester is one of the best preserved walled cities in Britain, it has a number of medieval buildings, but some of the black-and-white buildings within the city centre are Victorian restorations.
Apart from a 100-metre section, the listed Grade I walls are complete. The Industrial Revolution brought railways and new roads to the city, which saw substantial expansion and development – Chester Town Hall and the Grosvenor Museum are examples of Victorian architecture from this period; the Roman Legio II Adiutrix during the reign of the Emperor Vespasian founded Chester in AD 79, as a "castrum" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix. It was established in the land of the Celtic Cornovii, according to ancient cartographer Ptolemy, as a fortress during the Roman expansion northward, was named Deva either after the goddess of the Dee, or directly from the British name for the river. The'victrix' part of the name was taken from the title of the Legio XX Valeria Victrix, based at Deva. Central Chester's four main roads, Northgate and Bridgegate, follow routes laid out at this time. A civilian settlement grew around the military base originating from trade with the fortress; the fortress was 20% larger than other fortresses in the Roman province of Britannia built around the same time at York and Caerleon.
The civilian amphitheatre, built in the 1st century, could seat between 8,000 and 10,000 people. It is the largest known military amphitheatre in Britain, is a Scheduled Monument; the Minerva Shrine in the Roman quarry is the only rock cut. The fortress was garrisoned by the legion until at least the late 4th century. Although the army had abandoned the fortress by 410 when the Romans retreated from Britannia, the Romano-British civilian settlement continued and its occupants continued to use the fortress and its defences as protection from raiders from the Irish Sea. After the Roman troops withdrew, the Romano-British established a number of petty kingdoms. Chester is thought to have become part of Powys. Deverdoeu was a Welsh name for Chester as late as the 12th century. Another, attested in the 9th-century History of the Britons traditionally attributed to Nennius, is Cair Legion. King Arthur is said to have fought his ninth battle at the "city of the legions" and St Augustine came to the city to try to unite the church, held his synod with the Welsh Bishops.
In 616, Æthelfrith of Northumbria defeated a Welsh army at the brutal and decisive Battle of Chester, established the Anglo-Saxon position in the area from on. The Northumbrian Anglo-Saxons used an Old English equivalent of the British name, Legacæstir, current until the 11th century, when, in a further parallel with Welsh usage, the first element fell out of use and the simple name Chester emerged. In 689, King Æthelred of Mercia founded the Minster Church of West Mercia on what is considered to be an early Christian site: it is known as the Minster of St John the Baptist, Chester which became the first cathedral. Much the body of Æthelred's niece, St Werburgh, was removed from Hanbury in Staffordshire in the 9th century and, to save it from desecration by Danish marauders, was reburied in the Church of SS Peter & Paul - to become the Abbey Church, her name is still remembered in St Werburgh's Street which passes alongside the cathedral, near the city walls. The Saxons extended and strengthened the walls of Chester to protect the city against the Danes, who occupied it for a short time until Alfred seized all the cattle and laid waste the surrounding land to drive them out.
It was Lady of the Mercians, that built the new Saxon burh. A new Church dedicated to St Peter alone was founded in AD 907 by the Lady Æthelfleda at what was to become the Cross. In 973, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that, two years after his coronation at Bath, King Edgar of England came to Chester where he held his court in a palace in a place now known as Edgar's Field near the old Dee bridge in Handbridge. Taking the helm of a barge, he was rowed the short distance up the River Dee from Edgar's Field to the great Minster Church of St John the Baptist by six (the monk Henry Bradshaw records he
Cheshire West and Chester Council
Cheshire West and Chester Council is the local authority of Cheshire West and Chester. It is a unitary authority, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined, it provides a full range of local government services including Council Tax billing, social services, processing planning applications, waste collection and disposal, it is a local education authority. The council was first elected on 1 May 2008 a year before coming into its legal powers on 1 April 2009; the local authority derives its powers and functions from the Local Government Act 1972 and subsequent legislation. It has a'general power of competence' as described in the Localism Act 2011, i.e. it is permitted to act in any manner whatsoever, not unlawful. For the purposes of local government, Cheshire West and Chester is one of the fifty-five unitary authorities in England; this means, the only principal authority in its territorial jurisdiction, it has the statutory powers and functions of both a non-metropolitan county and a non-metropolitan district council.
The only exceptions to this are the fire and police services, which are still provided on a Cheshire-wide basis by joint boards composed of elected councillors and are funded by a Council Tax precept. Conversely, it is unnecessary for Cheshire West and Chester Council to set a precept for itself as it is a billing authority. Since the first election of the council in 2008, political control has been held by the following parties: Colour key: Conservative Labour General Licensing sub-committee Licensing Act sub-committee Overview and Scrutiny Overview and Scrutiny Overview and Scrutiny Planning Appeals Audit and Governance Community Governance Review Local Plan Staffing Standards Dispensation
Royal College of Nursing
The Royal College of Nursing is a membership organisation and trade union with over 432,000 members in the United Kingdom. It was founded in 1916, receiving its royal charter in 1928, her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II is the patron. The majority of members are registered nurses; the RCN describes its mission as representing nurses and nursing, promoting excellence in practice and shaping health policies. It has a network of stewards, safety representatives and union learning representatives as well as advice services for members. Services include regional libraries around the country; the RCN Institute provides courses for nurses. In 1916 the College of Nursing Ltd was founded with 34 members as a professional organisation for trained nurses on a proposal from Arthur Stanley. Part of the objective was to set up a register of nurses, it was explicitly not to be a Trade Union. It attempted an amalgamation with the Royal British Nurses' Association, but this was frustrated by the efforts of Ethel Gordon Fenwick.
In March 1917 the College had 2,553 members and by 1919 13,047, a great deal more than the RBNA. It had most of the nursing places on the General Nursing Council when it was first established, by 1925 it had about 24,000 members. Membership was restricted to registered general nurses. A Royal Charter was granted in 1928 and the organisation became the College of Nursing, it pushed for registered nurses to be given precedence, to be in charge. In 1935 the Trades Union Congress promoted a Bill to secure a 48-hour working week for all hospital employees; the college opposed this and was accused by the TUC of being "an organisation of voluntary snobs". In 1939 the college's name was changed to the Royal College of Nursing; the Ministry of Health guaranteed a salary of £40 to nursing students in training in 1941, about double what voluntary hospitals were paying before the war. The Royal College said. Since 1977 the RCN has been registered as a trade union. In 2018, after a pay agreement, not explained to the membership was agreed, a motion of no confidence in the RCN Council was passed in September 2018 with 78% of members votes, but only 3.7% of the membership voted.
The Chief Executive and General Secretary, the Director of Member Relations, had resigned. 12 of the 17 council members resigned, ten of them standing for re-election in the subsequent election. The headquarters are at 20 Cavendish Square, London, a Grade II listed building, built as a substantial town house in 1729 and became the residence of British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith; the building was refronted and incorporated by architect Edwin Cooper in 1930 into his redevelopment of the corner site with Henrietta Place. The RCN has offices throughout the UK. In England regional offices are located in Birmingham, Bury St Edmunds, Exeter, Nottingham and Sunderland; the Northern Ireland office is in Belfast. The Scottish offices are located in Aberdeen and Glasgow; the RCN is governed by its Council. Council members are guardians/trustees of the organisation's mission and values on behalf of the members, they are charity trustees and carry legal duties and responsibilities laid down by charity law.
The Council is responsible for the overall governance of the RCN, has ultimate responsibility for the sustainability and the finances of the organisation. The Council is made up of 31 Council members: two elected by each of the 12 geographical sections, two elected by student members, two elected by HCA members, the RCN President and Deputy President, elected by all members, the Chair of RCN Congress, elected by Congress voting entities; the RCN's General Secretary is appointed by Council. Council members are not paid to serve on Council but voluntarily give up their time to serve the RCN and its members, in their governance role; the current holder of the office is Sue Warner, elected to replace Maria Nicholson who failed to be re-elected following the successful vote of no confidence in council by the membership in 2018. Chairs of Council: 2005–2013 Sandra James 2013–2018 Michael Brown 2018–2019 Maria Nicholson 2019– Sue Warner The RCN is a membership organisation and a trade union with over 435,000 members.
Nursing students may join at reduced fees. Following the announcement of the removal of NHS Student bursaries in November 2015 the RCN initiated its support through the campaign "Nursing counts". RCN holds events nationwide throughout the year, including branch events, educational events and the annual Congress and AGM; the annual congress aims to help members to meet to learn and share nursing practice. In 2016 Congress will be in Glasgow; the RCN Library claims to be Europe's largest nursing-specific collection. The RCN has four libraries in the United Kingdom: in Belfast, Cardiff and London; the London Library, now known as the UK Library, was founded in 1921, its contents include 60,000 volumes, 500 videos and 400 current periodicals on nursing and related subjects. The catalogue, with information on over 600m records, is now online. Due to its historical holdings, the Library is a member of The London Museums of Health & Medicine group. Special collections include the Historical Collection and the RCN Steinberg Collection of Nursing Research, the latter of which comprises over 1,000 nursing theses and dissertations.
Set up in 1974, the RCN Steinberg Collectio
Liverpool Women's Hospital
Liverpool Women's Hospital is a major obstetrics and neonatology research hospital in Liverpool, England. It is one of several specialist hospitals located within the Liverpool City Region, alongside Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, the Walton Centre, Mersey Regional Burns and Plastic Surgery Unit and Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, it is managed by the Liverpool Women's NHS Foundation Trust. The hospital, which replaced the Women's Hospital in Catharine Street, the Liverpool Maternity Hospital and Mill Road Maternity Hospital in a single new building in Crown Street, was designed by the Percy Thomas Partnership and was constructed in red brick with white cladding and light blue metal roofs, it was opened by Diana, Princess of Wales in November 1995. A sculpture entitled Mother and Child was erected outside the main entrance to the hospital in 1999 by Terry McDonald. List of hospitals in England Liverpool Women's NHS Foundation Trust
Alder Hey Children's Hospital
Alder Hey Children's Hospital is a children's hospital and NHS foundation trust in West Derby, England. It is one of the largest children's hospitals in the United Kingdom, one of several specialist hospitals within the Liverpool City Region, alongside the Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool Women's Hospital, Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, the Walton Centre, Mersey Regional Burns and Plastic Surgery Unit, Clatterbridge Cancer Centre; the hospital was first established as a military hospital in 1914. During the First World War, the United States Army established Camp Hospital 40 on the site, operated by Hospital Unit Q and, Unit W. American sources refer to Alder Hey as being within Liverpool's Knotty Ash area. During the Second World War, parts of the hospital were again used to treat injured military personnel. In the 1950s it opened a neonatal unit to treat sick babies. In 1990 when Myrtle Street Children's Hospital closed, Alder Hey absorbed its A&E department; the hospital authority was one of 57 such bodies which became an NHS hospital trust in 1991.
Ronald McDonald House, a home for the families of sick children, opened in 1993. In August 2008 the Royal Liverpool Children's NHS Trust became an NHS foundation trust and changed its name to Alder Hey NHS Foundation Trust. Between 2010 and 2014 the number of doctors employed at the trust increased from 269 to 344, while the number of managers increased from 70 to 86. At the end of March 2017, the trust was confirmed as one of four additional NHS Global Digital Exemplars, joining the twelve announced in September 2016. Alder Hey had its centenary year in 2014, the last year in which it operated from the buildings on its original site. A new hospital was procured under Private Finance Initiative contract in neighbouring Springfield Park; the works, which were carried out by Laing O'Rourke at a cost of £187 million, began on 26 March 2013 and the hospital opened in October 2015. It was Europe's first children's hospital built in a park; the original Alder Hey buildings were demolished and the land was reclaimed as new parkland for the surrounding community.
Features of the new hospital include access to play areas, natural light and striking views of the park are available wherever possible Children and young people were involved with the design of the new hospital. A drawing of a flower by teenage patient Eleanor Brogan impressed architects and inspired their final design; the hospital is a centre of excellence for Oncology and Muscular Dystrophy as well as spinal and brain conditions. It was the first UK Centre of Excellence for Childhood Lupus and is: A Department of Health Centre for Head and Face Surgery One of four national centres for childhood epilepsy surgery, a joint service with the Royal Manchester Children's Hospital A designated Children's Major Trauma CentreAlder Hey has Europe's first 3T Intraoperative MRI scanner, a pioneering technology for neurosurgery, providing surgeons with high resolution images and reducing the need for repeat operations in 90% of cases, it employs about 2,400 staff and treats over 270,000 children from across the UK each year.
Alder Hey conducts paediatric research into children's medicines, infection and oncology. It has research partners including the University of Liverpool and is a member of Liverpool Health Partners. Alder Hey conducts more than 100 clinical research studies on an ongoing basis, ranging from observation to clinical trials; the hospital is within the NHS National Institute for Health Research's Top 100 Performing Trust's for participation recruitment in 2013/14. Alder Hey was a finalist in the Clinical Research Impact category of the 2013 HSJ Awards and in 2014 the innovation team received the Health Service Journal Award for improving health care with technology. In 2016 the first phase of a bespoke research and innovation centre, Institute in the Park, opened next to Alder Hey in the Park. In November 2015, the institute hosted a children's health Hackathon in conjunction with Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Alder Hey was the first hospital to: Test penicillin, saving a child from pneumonia in 1944 Establish a neonatal unit in the UK Pioneer various splints and appliances, including the Thomas splint Introduce ‘liquid glass’ to reduce infection Be accredited by the World Health Organization for public health promotion Alder Hey Children's Charity supports the work of the hospital.
In addition to NHS funding which covers the running costs of the hospital, Alder Hey relies on charitable support. Funds are spent directly on initiatives in the hospital to benefit patients, it funds research initiatives and family enhancements and state of the art medical equipment. Known as the'Imagine Appeal' until 2012, Alder Hey Children's Charity is based within the hospital. On 14 October 2013 the charity launched a public appeal to raise £30m to fund equipment and research at Alder Hey's new hospital, Alder Hey in the Park. In October 2015 the charity announced over £20m had been raised. Alder Hey has numerous notable supporters, including Yoko Ono as Honorary Patron, Steven Gerrard as Appeal Founding Partner and Patrons including: In 2009 charitable support allowed Alder Hey to buy Europe's first 3T intraoperative MRI scanner. In one charitably funded project, the sound recordist and musician Chris Watson was employed to devise an art project, using bird song recordings made by children to calm other young patients as they received injections and other treatments.
In 1978, the charity Art For Their Sake, a team of volunteer artists led by founder George Nicholas, produced the world's longest mural in the
University of Liverpool School of Medicine
The University of Liverpool School of Medicine is a medical school located in Liverpool, United Kingdom and a part of the University of Liverpool. It is one of the largest medical schools in the UK, in 1903 became one of the first to be incorporated into a university; the school used to have a problem-based learning curriculum, replaced in 2014 with a new'integrated' curriculum for its flagship five-year MBChB course, which has an annual intake of 280 students. Around 1800 medical undergraduates and 1200 taught postgraduates study at the school at any one time; the school offers an MD programme and courses for continuing professional development. A medical school in Liverpool was established in 1834. Dr Richard Formby, who ran a course of lectures in anatomy and physiology since 1818, joined with a group of colleagues to form a school of medicine attached to the Liverpool Royal Institution, which occupied rooms in Colquitt Street. William Gill, who had set up a second Anatomy School in Liverpool in 1827, accepted a joint Lectureship in Anatomy with Dr Formby, who lectured in Medicine.
Other doctors from the Infirmary and Dispensary lectured on Surgery, Chemistry and Medical jurisprudence. In 1844, the medical school became attached to the Liverpool Infirmary, renamed in 1851 to become the Liverpool Royal Infirmary School of Medicine. In November 1877, a joint meeting was held between the Liverpool Association for the Promotion of Higher Education and the Council of the School of Medicine to look to establishing a University in Liverpool. Several staff members of the medical school were mentioned at the meeting including Dr Richard Caton, William Mitchell Banks and Reginald Harrison; that same year, Experimental physics was included in the syllabus for University of London medical degrees, which Liverpool could not provide. Thus, University College Liverpool was established in 1881; the Royal Infirmary School of Medicine kept its independence, but in 1884 became the Faculty of Medicine when University College was affiliated to Victoria University, along with Owen's College and Yorkshire College, Leeds.
Victoria University had the power to award medical degrees with its own syllabus requirements. The University of Liverpool received its royal charter in 1903, establishing its independence and leading the way for many provincial medical schools; this made it possible for degrees to be awarded to women. The associated Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine was the first school of Tropical Medicine in the world. In 2011 following an internal restructure of the University, the Faculty of Medicine was demoted back to School status under the stewardship of the new Faculty of Health and Life Sciences; the school's facilities have undergone a massive refurbishment and redevelopment. The refurbished Liverpool Royal Infirmary Waterhouse buildings house the Clinical Skills Resource Centre for clinical teaching, a centre for the development of personalised medicine; the school makes use of a Human Anatomy Resource Centre for anatomy teaching. The School of Medicine is based in the 19th century Cedar House building on Ashton Street.
Cedar House includes teaching rooms, administrative offices for the senior management, a medical student common room. The medical school has close links with the region's NHS organisations, which are involved in designing its courses and in hosting students for the practical aspects of training. Hospitals include: Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Broadgreen Hospital, Whiston Hospital, Aintree University Hospital, The Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Arrowe Park Hospital, Liverpool Women's Hospital, Countess of Chester Hospital and Alder Hey Children's Hospital; the medical school has close links with the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. The School provides postgraduate courses in medicine. In 2011 there were around 1,800 undergraduate students enrolled on the MBChB course and 1200 taught postgraduates For the five-year A100 course, the current conditional offer given to a student taking A-Level examinations is AAA, to include Biology and Chemistry at A-Level. Candidates are required to sit the UKCAT examination.
The style of interviews is MMI. As with all UK Medical Students, successful applicants must be immunised against Hepatitis B, Polio, Tetanus and Tuberculosis. Dr Richard Formby, founder of Liverpool Medical School William Gill, one of the first anatomy teachers at Liverpool Medical School Dr Richard Caton, prominent physiologist, inaugural president of Liverpool Royal Infirmary School of Medicine Debating Society, president of Liverpool Medical Institution William Mitchell Banks and first Chair of Anatomy, president of Liverpool Medical Institution William Thelwall Thomas, president of Liverpool Medical Institution Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, prominent physiologist, the discoverer of the synapse, president of Liverpool Medical Institution Alumni include: Lord Henry Cohen, a prominent lecturer at the medical school and taught there for over five decades Linda de Cossart, graduated 1972, vascular surgeon Andrew Cudworth, graduated 1963, endocrinologist Thomas Cecil Gray, pioneer in anaesthetics, medical historian, President of the Liverpool Medical Institution J.
M. Leggate, graduated 1929, President of Guild of Students, Dean of Faculty of Medicine, lecture theatre in the Victoria Building is named after him Averil Mansfield, graduated 1960, vascular surgeon Mary Sheridan, graduated 1922, paediatrician Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Liverpool Medical Institution Healthcare in Liverpool Liverpool Royal Infirmary School of Medicine Debati