The counties of Ireland are sub-national divisions that have been, in some cases continue to be, used to geographically demarcate areas of local government. These land divisions were formed following the Norman invasion of Ireland in imitation of the counties in use as units of local government in the Kingdom of England; the older term ‘shire’ was equivalent to ‘county’. The principal function of the county was to impose royal control in the areas of taxation and the administration of justice at the local level. Cambro-Norman control was limited to the southeastern parts of Ireland. At the same time, the now obsolete concept of county corporate elevated a small number of towns and cities to a status, deemed to be no less important than the existing counties in which they lay; this double control mechanism of 32 counties plus 10 counties corporate remained unchanged for a little over two centuries until the early 19th century. Since counties have been adapted and in some cases divided by legislation to meet new administrative and political requirements.
The powers exercised by the Cambro-Norman barons and the Old English nobility waned over time. New offices of political control came to be established at a county level. In the Republic of Ireland, some counties have been split resulting in the creation of new counties. Along with certain defined cities, counties still form the basis for the demarcation of areas of local government in the Republic of Ireland. There are 26 county level, 3 city level and 2 city and county entities – the modern equivalent of counties corporate – that are used to demarcate areas of local government in the Republic. In Northern Ireland, counties are no longer used for local government. Upon the partition of Ireland in 1921, the county became one of the basic land divisions employed, along with county boroughs; the word "county" has come to be used in different senses for different purposes. In common usage, many people have in mind the 32 counties that existed prior to 1838 – the so-called traditional counties. However, in official usage in the Republic of Ireland, the term refers to the 28 modern counties.
The term is conflated with the 31 areas used to demarcate areas of local government in the Republic of Ireland at the level of LAU 1. In Ireland, usage of the word county nearly always comes before rather than after the county name; the former "King's County" and "Queen's County" were exceptions. The abbreviation Co. is used, as in "Co. Roscommon". A further exception occurs in the case of those counties created after 1994 which drop the word county or use it after the name. There appears to be no official guidance in the matter, as the local council uses all three forms. In informal use, the word county is dropped except where necessary to distinguish between county and town or city; the synonym shire is not used for Irish counties, although the Marquessate of Downshire was named in 1789 after County Down. Parts of some towns and cities were exempt from the jurisdiction of the counties that surrounded them; these towns and cities had the status of a County corporate, many granted by Royal Charter, which had all the judicial and revenue raising powers of the regular counties.
The political geography of Ireland can be traced with some accuracy from the 6th century. At that time Ireland was divided into a patchwork of petty kingdoms with a fluid political hierarchy which, in general, had three traditional grades of king; the lowest level of political control existed at the level of the túath. A túath was an autonomous group of people of independent political jurisdiction under a rí túaithe, that is, a local petty king. About 150 such units of government existed; each rí túaithe was in turn subject to a regional or "over-king". There may have been as many as 20 genuine ruiri in Ireland at any time. A "king of over-kings" was a provincial or semi-provincial king to whom several ruiri were subordinate. No more than six genuine rí ruirech were contemporary. Only five such "king of over-kings" existed contemporaneously and so are described in the Irish annals as fifths; the areas under the control of these kings were: Ulster, Connacht and Mide. Record-makers dubbed them provinces, in imitation of Roman provinces.
In the Norman period, the historic fifths of Leinster and Meath merged due to the impact of the Pale, which straddled both, thereby forming the present-day province of Leinster. The use of provinces as divisions of political power was supplanted by the system of counties after the Norman invasion. In modern times clusters of counties have been attributed to certain provinces but these clusters have no legal status, they are today seen in a sporting context, as Ireland's four professional rugby teams play under the names of the provinces, the Gaelic Athletic Association has separate Provincial councils and Provincial championships. With the arrival of Cambro-Norman knights in 1169, the Norman invasion of Ireland commenced; this was foll
Focused on the next six months after the coup that overthrew the monarchy, conclusions estimated: "likely developments in Libyan policy with regard to issues affecting US interests. "The young captains and lieutenants who took over Libya four months ago want foreign military installations removed from Libya as soon as possible. Evacuation of the bases in a manner satisfactory to the Libyans will not guarantee good relations between Libya and the US, but any other outcome would prejudice US interests; the members of the Revolutionary Command Council are clearly determined to identify with the militant Arab line toward Israel. In these two desires, they reflect the prevailing mood in Libya itself, any successor regime would follow similar policies. "Beyond this, we know little concerning the policies of the RCC, there seem to be potential sources of dissension within the group. Unsure of its own hold on power and lacking clear domestic policy objectives, it will be disposed to look for advice to other Arab countries--especially Egypt, with which the RCC leaders are developing close ties.
Oil operations in Libya netted the US balance of payments over $800 million in 1968... The RCC will press vigorously, to increase its income from oil. Nationalization of oil production does not seem but it cannot be ruled out, in dealing with the oil companies, Libya holds a number of high cards; the RCC will contribute financially to the Arab cause more than did the monarchy. It may station token contingents of troops in Egypt and Jordan. If Egypt so desired, the RCC would agree to make Libyan airfields available to Egyptian aircraft. Over the longer run, it is possible that Soviet-manned reconnaissance aircraft in some guise might be permitted access to facilities in Libya; the circumstances under which such a contingency might arise will be more explored in NIE 11-6-70, "Soviet Policies in the Mediterranean Basin," scheduled for publication in the first quarter of 1970 Properly requested and conducted over flights and port visits by the Soviets would certainly be permitted. See the NIE for additional detail.
A global finding in 1981 orders CIA to take action against Muammar Gaddafi, thought to be distributing weapons to terrorists throughout Europe and Africa. In his Senate Intelligence Committee statement, Porter Goss described the status of Libya as a success story in nonproliferation Goss said that Libya, by the end of 2004, had taken a number of significant steps it had promised: Dismantling key elements of its nuclear weapons program and opened itself to the IAEA. Giving up some key chemical warfare assets and opened its former CW program to international scrutiny. After disclosing its Scud stockpile and extensive ballistic and cruise missile R&D efforts in 2003, Libya took important steps to abide by its commitment to limit its missiles to the 300-km range threshold of the Missile Technology Control Regime; the US continued to work with Libya to clarify some discrepancies in the declaration. After the Arab Spring movement overthrew the rulers of Tunisia and Egypt, its neighbours to the west and east Libya had a major revolt beginning in February 2011.
In response, the Obama administration sent in CIA Special Activities Division paramilitary operatives to assess the situation and gather information on the opposition forces. During the early phases of the Libyan air strike offensive, paramilitary operatives assisted in the recovery of a U. S. Air Force pilot who had crashed due to mechanical problems. There was speculation in The Washington Post that President Obama issued a covert action finding in March 2011 that authorized the CIA to carry out a clandestine effort to provide arms and support to the Libyan opposition. Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown in the Libyan civil war
Robert Montagu Poore, DSO, CIE was a cricketer and British army officer who, whilst serving in South Africa in 1896, played in three Tests for the South African cricket team. Much of his cricket was played when he held the rank of Major, but he became a Brigadier-General. "Of all the people in the history of the game," wrote Leo Cooper in an introduction to A. A. Thomson's Odd Men In, "he seems to stand for the Eccentric Ideal." Poore was the son of Major Robert Poore and his wife Juliana Lowry-Corry, daughter of Rear-Admiral Armar Lowry-Corry. He joined the 7th Hussars and served in the Second Matabele War in Rhodesia 1896–1897, he was appointed Provost Marshal in South Africa during the Second Boer War 1899–1902, received the Distinguished Service Order in 1901. In a despatch dated 31 March 1900, the Commander-in-Chief, Lord Roberts, described how Poore "has exercised his responsible duties, whether as regards the care of prisoners, or in maintaining order in camp and on the line of march, in a most satisfactory manner".
Poore was Provost Marshall during the trial and execution of Breaker Morant and Peter Handcock, his diary includes contemporary notes on their case. In 1899, Poore became the most fertile run-scorer in all of England, hitting 1,399 runs between 12 June and 12 August at an average of 116.58. Against Somerset he made 304 not out and with fellow Army officer Captain Wynyard shared in a stand of over 400 for the sixth wicket – still the highest for that wicket in county cricket. In 21 innings over the course of the entire season, Poore managed 1,551 runs at 91.23, a record average for an English season not broken until Don Bradman averaged 98.66 in 1930. Poore was rewarded with selection as a Wisden Cricketer of the Year. Poore returned to South Africa after the 1899 season to fight in the Boer War. After he returned to England, a broken arm caused him to miss most of the 1902 season, but he showed he retained his former skill with a superb innings of 62 not out against Hugh Trumble on a sticky wicket for Hampshire against the touring Australians.
It was hoped Major Poore would be available again in 1903, but he went to India that summer and when he returned to Hampshire in the middle of 1904 to great expectations, his form was disappointing. Although there were few difficult pitches in the nine games he played, he averaged under twenty and only once did he show the skill that allowed him to dominate bowlers in 1899. In 1905 he again could not play at all, but he rejoined the team against Derbyshire in 1906 and in two matches scored 232 runs including 129 against Sussex, but another injury ended his season and as it turned out, his county career. In spite of his impressive success, Poore was not yet overly enamoured with the game, which he had learnt not through classical coaching but the perusal of textbooks. Not until, as a subaltern, he visited India with the 7th Hussars did he realise his love for cricket, a love that he sustained all through his life. Poore remained a dangerous batsman in club games right up to his mid-fifties, played first-class cricket in India as late as 1913.
In 1898 Poore married Lady Flora Mary Ida Douglas-Hamilton, daughter of Captain Charles-Douglas-Hamilton, sister of the 13th Duke of Hamilton. The couple had no children. Three years after their marriage, Poore's sister Nina Mary Benita Poore, married her brother's brother-in-law, became Duchess of Hamilton. List of Test cricketers born in non-Test playing nations Media related to Robert Poore at Wikimedia Commons Robert Poore at ESPNcricinfo Robert Poore at CricketArchive Thomson, AA: Odd Men In. Profile