Kerstin Lundgren is a Swedish Centre Party politician. She has been a member of the Riksdag since 2002. Lundgren is the current Third Deputy Speaker of the Riksdag. She's a member of the AWEPA Governing Council. In the Swedish parliament, Lundgren has been serving on the Committee on Foreign Affairs since 2006, she is the foreign policy spokeswoman of the Centre Party. In addition to her role in parliament, Lundgren has been serving as member of the Swedish delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe since 2007; as member of the Centre Party, she is part of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe group. She is the vice-chairwoman of the Assembly's Sub-Committee on the Middle East and the Arab World. Alongside Boris Tsilevitch of Latvia and Titus Corlățean of Romania, she serves as the Assembly's co-rapporteur on Georgia. Prior to that mandate, she was the rapporteur on the impact of the Lisbon Treaty on the Council of Europe. Kerstin Lundgren at the Riksdag website
Judiciary of Sweden
The judicial system of Sweden consists of the law of Sweden and a number of government agencies tasked with upholding security and rule of law within the country. The activities of these agencies include police and law enforcement, prosecution and prisons and other correctional services; the courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems: The general courts for criminal and civil cases, general administrative courts for cases relating to disputes between private persons and the authorities. Each of these systems has three tiers, where the top tier court of the respective system only will hear cases that may become precedent; the general courts deal with criminal cases, like an act defined in the Swedish Penal Code or in another law, for which a sanction is prescribed. The general courts handle some civil law disputes, for example, disputes over the contents of a business agreement or cases relating to family law, a number of other non-contentious matters. District courts; the district courts are the court of first instance for the general courts.
In 1971, the tingsrätt became the district court all over Sweden, replacing the previous distinction between rådhusrätt in larger cities and häradsrätt for other parts of the country. Courts of appeal There are six appellate courts; the courts of appeal are the second instance on issues relating to criminal cases, contentious cases and other judicial issues that have been dealt with by a district court. The appellate court may in some circumstances require a leave to appeal, meaning they will only proceed with a case if there is reason to believe they would arrive at a conclusion different to that of the district court. Supreme Court The supreme court is the final instance of the general courts. A leave to appeal is required; this is granted by the court itself and only done when it is deemed important to establish a precedent for the lower courts. The general administrative courts handle numerous types of cases relating to disputes between private persons and the authorities. Over 500 different kinds of cases are assigned to the general administrative courts, like appeals against decisions made by the Swedish Tax Agency or the Swedish Social Insurance Agency.
Administrative courts There are 12 administrative courts. They are the court of first instance for the general administrative courts. Administrative courts of appeal There are four administrative courts of appeal, they handle cases and other judicial issues that have been dealt with by the lower administrative courts, but act as court of first instance in cases related to the principle of public access to official records. The court needs to grant a leave to appeal to hear a case. A leave of appeal is only granted if there's reason to believe a decision might be overturned, or set an important precedent in a higher court. Supreme Administrative Court The Supreme Administrative Court is the final instance of the general administrative courts. A permission to appeal will only be granted by the Supreme Administrative Court if there is reason to believe the case may be of importance as a precedent. Simple erroneous judicial decision-making by the lower courts is not sufficient for the court to consider a case.
There are a number of special courts, which will hear a narrower set of cases, as set down by legislation. While independent in their rulings, some of these courts are operated as divisions within courts of the general or general administrative courts; the special courts have a one-tier or two-tier system. Land and environmental courts: five first-tier courts and one second-tier court Migration courts: three first-tier courts and one second-tier court The Labour Court The Market Court The Court of Patent Appeals The Defence Intelligence Court A number of tribunals are very similar to special courts in the way they operate: Regional rent tribunals, of which there are eight, within district courts. Regional tenancy tribunals, of which there are eight, in the same locations as regional rent tribunals; the tribunal for traffic injuries in Stockholm. If the parties don't want to accept its recommendation, the case is appealed in the district court. Other insurance matters have their own tribunals: Ansvarsförsäkringens Personskadenämnd, Ombudskostnadsnämnden, Personförsäkringsnämnden and Nämnden för rättsskyddsfrågor.
The National Board for Consumer Disputes pronounces recommendation verdicts, but without imposing anything, yet are these respected. Sweden has a civil law system with laws created by the Parliament of Sweden. However, Sweden has an extensive system of administrative law. Sweden allows hearsay evidence; the role of judicial review of legislation is not practiced by the courts. Courts are not bound by precedent; the Ministry of Justice, a cabinet-level department in th
Åsa Lindestam is a Swedish social democratic politician. She has been a member of the Riksdag since 2002 and First Deputy Speaker since September 2018, she is a member of the Committee on Defence and a Swedish member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. Åsa Lindestam at the Riksdag website
Supreme Court of Sweden
The Supreme Court of Sweden is the supreme court and the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent; the Supreme Court consists of 16 Justices who are appointed by the government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, the Government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court. All judicial power was vested in the Monarch, but in 1614 Gustavus Adolphus instituted Svea Hovrätt and authorized it to issue sentences in his name; those not satisfied with sentencing were able to turn directly to the monarch, appeals were handled by the Justice Department of the Privy Council, a committee of that council. Under the rule of King Gustav III, the noble Privy Council was suspended in 1789 after the Riksdag of the estates introduced an addition to the instrument of government from 1772 called the Union and Security Act.
After the Riksdag ended the King on May 19 instituted the King's Supreme Court to handle legal matters. There were twelve judges of the court, half of, to be nobles and half commoners. While in session, no more than eight judges could serve at the same time, with equal numbers of nobles and commoners. In the court the king held two votes, as well as the deciding vote in case of a tie. However, this voting right was never exercised, except on the centennial of the court, when King Oscar II took part in the decision of one case. Under the 1809 Instrument of Government, the judges of the Supreme Court became salaried civil servants, with the title of Councillor of Justice; the earlier Lord High Steward or Justiciar became the new Minister of State for Justice and the foremost member of the court in 1809, but when the modern government ministries were created in 1840, this minister of justice were separated from the court. In 1844 the requirement on equal numbers of noblemen and commoners in service as judges of the court was dropped.
In 1909 the Supreme Administrative Court and the Council on Legislation were created to assume certain tasks, handled by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Administrative Court assumed responsibility for ruling on administrative cases and the Legal Council received the responsibility for judicial review. At the same time the monarch lost voting power in the court; the right to appeal cases to the Supreme Court was limited for the first time in 1915. A special dispensation was required before trying a minor criminal case. Dispensation was to be given when there was a ruling that could become a precedent, in 1945 this requirement was extended to all cases. In 1948, the legal procedure was supplemented with oral proceedings and to satisfy the need for additional space the Supreme Court was moved in 1949 from the Royal Palace to the Bonde Palace on Stadsholmen. By the Instrument of Government of 1974 the Supreme Court discontinued the practice to award sentencing in the name of the Swedish monarch, as well as announcing them at the Royal Palace where they were adorned with the royal seal.
The current Councillors of Justice of the Supreme Court of Sweden, followed by year of appointment: Anders Eka, Chairman Gudmund Toijer, Chairman of Chamber Ann-Christine Lindeblad Kerstin Calissendorff Johnny Herre Agneta Bäcklund Ingemar Persson Svante O. Johansson Dag Mattsson Lars Edlund Sten Andersson Stefan Johansson Petter Asp Malin Bonthron Eric M. Runesson Official website
Löfven I Cabinet
The first cabinet of Stefan Löfven was the cabinet of Sweden between 2014 and 2018. It was a coalition government, consisting of two parties: the Green Party; the cabinet was installed on 3 October 2014, following the 2014 general election. It lost a vote of no confidence following the 2018 election, but remained in office as a caretaker government. With only 37.9% of the popular votes in 2014 and 138 out of 349 seats in the Riksdag, the “red-green” coalition began as one of the weakest minority governments in Swedish history and relied on support from other parties in the Riksdag. At the 2018 election it became weaker. On 25 September 2018 the Riksdag passed a motion of no confidence in it by 204 votes to 142, Löfven resigned. However, the Speaker invited him to stay on as acting Prime Minister of a caretaker government.2014 was the first time that the Green Party had been part of a government, the first time in 57 years that the Social Democrats had formed a coalition cabinet. From on, this was led by Prime Minister Stefan Löfven, leader of the Social Democrats.
The cabinet consisted of 12 women. The cabinet was installed following a formal government meeting with King Carl XVI Gustaf on 3 October 2014. Stefan Löfven had announced his cabinet ministers at 09:00 AM on the same day. In May 2016, Löfven reshuffled his cabinet. In July 2017, three cabinet ministers were challenged by a vote of confidence by the opposition and a majority in the Riksdag. Löfven subsequently removed Johansson and Ygeman from office, but retained Hultqvist, the no-confidence motion against Hultqvist collapsed in September 2017 after the Centre Party and Liberals dropped their support for it; the cabinet ruled out cooperation with the Sweden Democrats. The numbers below refer to the composition of the cabinet at its formation on 3 October 2014. Number of ministers: 24 Number of women: 12 Number of men: 12 Average age: 45,4 Youngest minister: Aida Hadžialić Oldest minister: Kristina Persson Number of foreign-born ministers: 4 Party breakdown of cabinet ministers: On 3 December, 2014, the proposed budget of the Löfven Cabinet failed in the Riksdag due to the Sweden Democrats siding with the centre-right opposition Alliance's budget.
Prime Minister Löfven announced plans to call for fresh elections in March 2015. However, on 27 December, the early election was cancelled after the governing parties signed an agreement with the four parties in the opposition Alliance. Under the "Decemberöverenskommelsen", the six parties agreed not to vote against a budget proposed by the government for the next eight years; the December Agreement fell in October 2015. The government has announced the outline of its policy on 3 October 2014. Plans included reducing unemployment to the lowest level in the EU by 2020, reducing deficits, phasing out nuclear energy, reducing emissions from fossil fuels and having a more liberal asylum policy. In its statement the government identified as feminist, it aims to increase gender equality, reduce the gender wage gap and introduce quota if female representation on governing boards is below 40% by 2016. It promised to increase penalties for aggravated sexual offences; the government's foreign policy will consist of pursuing membership of the Security Council and remaining outside NATO.
The government said it opposes ISIL. It was the first EU government to recognise the State of Palestine in view to "facilitate a peace agreement by making the parties less unequal", resulting in that Israel the same day recalled its ambassador for consultations. Prime Minister Stefan Löfven lost the motion of no confidence against him and his cabinet on 25 September 2018. 142 members of parliament voted for retaining Löfven's cabinet. Löfven stated in a subsequent press conference that he will not be stepping down as Social Democratic party leader and that he is willing to partake in talks regarding the formation of a new government, but insists that it is up to the Speaker of the Riksdag. Löfven stated that he finds it unbelievable that the Alliance could form a government, if they intend on holding their promise of not co-operating with the Sweden Democrats. Löfven and his cabinet will continue to serve as a caretaker government until a new cabinet is elected
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.