Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Louis Comfort Tiffany
Louis Comfort Tiffany was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art Aesthetic movements, he was affiliated with a prestigious collaborative of designers known as the Associated Artists, which included Lockwood de Forest, Candace Wheeler, Samuel Colman. Tiffany designed stained glass windows and lamps, glass mosaics, blown glass, jewelry and metalwork, he was the first Design Director at his family company, Tiffany & Co. founded by his father Charles Lewis Tiffany. Louis Comfort Tiffany was born in New York City, the son of Charles Lewis Tiffany, founder of Tiffany and Company, Harriet Olivia Avery Young, he attended school at Pennsylvania Military Academy in West Chester and Eagleswood Military Academy in Perth Amboy, New Jersey. His first artistic training was as a painter, studying under George Inness in Eagleswood, New Jersey and Samuel Colman in Irvington, New York.
He studied at the National Academy of Design in New York City in 1866–67 and with salon painter Leon-Adolphe-Auguste Belly in 1868–69. Belly's landscape paintings had a great influence on Tiffany. Tiffany started out as a painter, but became interested in glassmaking from about 1875 and worked at several glasshouses in Brooklyn between and 1878. In 1879 he joined with Candace Wheeler, Samuel Colman, Lockwood de Forest to form Louis Comfort Tiffany and Associated American Artists; the business was short-lived. The group made designs for wallpaper and textiles, he opened his own glass factory in Corona, New York, determined to provide designs that improved the quality of contemporary glass. Tiffany's leadership and talent, as well as his father's money and connections, led this business to thrive. In 1881 Tiffany did the interior design of the Mark Twain House in Hartford, which still remains, but the new firm's most notable work came in 1882 when President Chester Alan Arthur refused to move into the White House until it had been redecorated.
He commissioned Tiffany, who had begun to make a name for himself in New York society for the firm's interior design work, to redo the state rooms, which Arthur found charmless. Tiffany worked on the East Room, the Blue Room, the Red Room, the State Dining Room, the Entrance Hall, repainting in decorative patterns, installing newly designed mantelpieces, changing to wallpaper with dense patterns, and, of course, adding Tiffany glass to gaslight fixtures and windows and adding an opalescent floor-to-ceiling glass screen in the Entrance Hall; the Tiffany screen and other Victorian additions were all removed in the Roosevelt renovations of 1902, which restored the White House interiors to Federal style in keeping with its architecture. A desire to concentrate on art in glass led to the breakup of the firm in 1885 when Tiffany chose to establish his own glassmaking firm that same year; the first Tiffany Glass Company was incorporated December 1, 1885, in 1902 became known as the Tiffany Studios.
In the beginning of his career, Tiffany used cheap jelly jars and bottles because they had the mineral impurities that finer glass lacked. When he was unable to convince fine glassmakers to leave the impurities in, he began making his own glass. Tiffany used opalescent glass in a variety of colors and textures to create a unique style of stained glass, he developed the "copper foil" technique, which, by edging each piece of cut glass in copper foil and soldering the whole together to create his windows and lamps, made possible a level of detail unknown. This can be contrasted with the method of painting in enamels or glass paint on colorless glass, setting the glass pieces in lead channels, the dominant method of creating stained glass for hundreds of years in Europe; the First Presbyterian Church building of 1905 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is said to be unique in that it uses Tiffany windows that make use of painted glass. Use of the colored glass itself to create stained glass pictures was motivated by the ideals of the Arts and Crafts movement and its leader William Morris in England.
Fellow artists and glassmakers Oliver Kimberly and Frank Duffner, founders of the Duffner and Kimberly Company and John La Farge were Tiffany's chief competitors in this new American style of stained glass. Tiffany and Kimberly, along with La Farge, had learned their craft at the same glasshouses in Brooklyn in the late 1870s. In 1889 at the Paris Exposition, Tiffany was said to have been "overwhelmed" by the glass work of Émile Gallé, French Art Nouveau artisan, he met artist Alphonse Mucha. In 1893, Tiffany built a new factory called the Stourbridge Glass Company called Tiffany Glass Furnaces, located in Corona, New York, hiring the Englishman Arthur J. Nash to oversee it. In 1893, his company introduced the term Favrile in conjunction with his first production of blown glass at his new glass factory; some early examples of his lamps were exhibited in the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago. At the Exposition Universelle in Paris, he won a gold medal with his stained glass windows The Four Seasons He trademarked Favrile on November 13, 1894.
He used this word to apply to all of his glass and pottery. Tiffany's first commercially produced lamps date from around 1895. Much of his company's production was in making stained glass windows and Tiffany lamps, but his company designed a complete range of interior decorations. At its peak, his factory employed more than 300 artisans. Recent scholarship led by Rutgers professor Martin Eidelberg suggests that a team of ta
Lafayette Square, Los Angeles
LaFayette Square is a historic semi-gated neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. Although founded in 1913 by real estate developer George L. Crenshaw, it is named after the French marquis who fought alongside Colonists in the American Revolution, it sits just off of Crenshaw Boulevard in the Mid-City area. It was designated by the city as a Los Angeles Historic Preservation Overlay Zone in 2000 for its significant residential architecture and history. LaFayette Square is regarded for large homes; the neighborhood is notable for its central location to the entire city—an important incentive for many residents. According to the Los Angeles Conservancy, "LaFayette Square was the last and greatest of banker George L. Crenshaw's ten residential developments in the City of Los Angeles." Around the turn of the twentieth century, there was a large oil boom in southern California: Between the extraordinary climate that California had to offer and the rich resources that provided jobs to the oil and agricultural industries, the state experienced great population booms.
In Los Angeles, Crenshaw invested in and oversaw the development of ten residential real estate ventures to help satiate the population growth. LaFayette Square was developed during the early 20th century. Wrought-iron gates surrounding the district are a recent addition, coming only in 1989; the addition of the iron gates eliminated cut-through commuter traffic. LaFayette Square is situated about 7 miles west of Downtown Los Angeles, 2 miles east of Beverly Hills, 4 miles south of Hollywood; the nearest beach is Santa Monica Beach, about 9 miles away. It consists of eight blocks, centered on St. Charles Place, situated between Venice Boulevard on the north, Washington Boulevard on the south, Crenshaw Boulevard on the east and West Blvd on the west. There are 236 homes in the neighborhood, it is south of Victoria Park, southeast of the Crestview and Pico-Robertson neighborhoods in West Los Angeles and north of Wellington Square. The central region of Los Angeles experiences warm and dry summers, with average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, this area has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps. Crenshaw wanted this development to have a European flair so it was designed as an elegant residential park centered on St. Charles Place—a broad palm tree-lined avenue with a landscaped median; the houses in Lafayette Square reflect residential styles popular during the 1910s and 1920s such as Tudor Revival architecture, Mediterranean Revival, Neo-Federalist, American Craftsman, Spanish Colonial Revival, American Colonial Revival. Several houses, such as architect Paul Williams’ own home, were designed in the Modern style, exemplifying an important trend in Los Angeles’ architectural development; the neighborhood was designed for wealthy families and now-historic houses have 5,000 to 6,000 square feet floor plans, although the average home size is 3,600 square feet. According to a Los Angeles Times real-estate section article on the district, "Most of the properties have period details: Juliet balconies, mahogany staircases and libraries, sitting rooms, stained glass windows, triple crown molding, soaring ceilings—even four-car garages."
Lafayette Square has shifted between white-only homeownership during the 1920s through the 1940s to nearly all African American homeownership in the 1950s after restrictive deed covenants preventing African Americans from buying homes there, as well as in other well-to-do Los Angeles neighborhoods, were lifted in the 1940s. The community is more racially mixed now as more white families began moving back into the neighborhood over a decade ago. Most of the families in the neighborhood do not send their children to public school, and those that do use public schools tend to use Charter schools outside of the district. Some nearby private schools used by families in the neighborhood are: Marlborough School, private high for young women, 250 South Rossmore Avenue Loyola High School, Jesuit preparatory school for young men The neighborhood is zoned to schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District; the neighborhood is zoned to the following schools: Alta Loma Elementary School Johnnie L. Cochran Jr.
Middle School Los Angeles High School George Pepperdine Paul R. Williams, famous architect W. C. Fields Fatty Arbuckle Norton Simon and art collector Joe Louis, American professional boxer and former heavyweight champion Princess Conchita Sepulveda Chapman Pignatelli Alexander Pantages Syd Tha Kyd Taco Bennett of Odd Future Kris Bowers the Crenshaw family Lafayette Square Association
Mid-City, Los Angeles
Mid-City is a neighborhood in Central Los Angeles, California. Attractions include restaurants and a post office named for singer Ray Charles, who had his recording studio in Mid-City; the neighborhood hosts eleven private schools. The Crenshaw/LAX Line from north-south is proposed to serve this area; the City of Los Angeles Department of Transportation has posted Mid-City signage to mark the area. City installed signs are at the following intersections: Hoover Street and Washington Boulevard, Vermont Avenue and Pico Boulevard, Western Avenue and Pico Boulevard, Normandie Avenue and the Santa Monica Freeway, La Brea Avenue and the Santa Monica Freeway. Google Maps outlines an area labeled “Mid-City” that runs from Hoover Street on the East to La Cienega Boulevard & Robertson Boulevard on the West; the North is bordered by Olympic Boulevard and the Santa Monica Freeway is on the South. The Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times states as follows: Mid-City is bounded on the north by Pico Boulevard, on the east by Crenshaw Boulevard, on the south by the Santa Monica Freeway, on the southwest by Washington and National boulevards, on the west by Robertson Boulevard and on the northwest by Cadillac Avenue and La Cienega Boulevard.
It is flanked by Carthay and Mid-Wilshire to the north, Arlington Heights to the east, Culver City and West Adams to the south, Palms to the southwest, Beverlywood to the west and Pico-Robertson to the northwest. The 2000 U. S. census counted 52,197 residents in the 3.47-square-mile neighborhood—an average of 15,051 people per square mile, among the highest population densities in Los Angeles County. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 55,016; the median age for residents was 31, about average for the county. Mid-City was said to be "highly diverse" when compared to the city at large, with a diversity index of 0.637. The ethnic breakdown in 2000 was: Latinos, 45.2%. Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 35.1% of the residents who were born abroad, a figure, considered average for the city and county. The median household income in 2008 dollars was $43,711, considered average for the city; the percentage of households earning $20,000 or less was high, compared to the county at large.
The average household size of 2.8 people was just about average for Los Angeles. Renters occupied 68.9% of the housing units, home- or apartment owners the rest. The percentages of never-married men and never-married women were among the county's highest; the census found 2,748 families headed by single parents, the 23.4% rate being considered high for both the city and the county. Smaller neighborhoods within Mid-City include: Reynier Village. Rocha House, the 13th Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, is located in the village. Lafayette Square, it was designated by the city as a Los Angeles Historic Preservation Overlay Zone in 2000. Brookside Crestview Little Ethiopia Picfair Village Wellington Square Victoria Park Arlington Heights As part of their long-range plans, the Los Angeles County MTA has proposed the Metro Crenshaw/LAX Line, which would place a rail transit station in Mid-City; the proposed rail stop is at the intersection of Pico and San Vicente Boulevards—site of the old Vineyard Junction.
That same intersection was a former rail stop of the Pacific Electric Red Car lines more than 50 years ago. The Pacific Electric Red Car lines heading west from downtown Los Angeles diverged at Vineyard Junction. One line continued on to Beverly Hills; the old Vineyard Junction site is now occupied by the end terminal for the Santa Monica Big Blue Bus. The Crenshaw Light Rail Line would allow Mid-City residents to easy access to the city's east/west rail lines: the Purple Line along Wilshire Boulevard, the Expo Line from Downtown Los Angeles to Downtown Santa Monica, the Green Line from Norwalk to Redondo Beach and soon near LAX; the Mid-City alignment is unfunded, part of the Crenshaw Corridor's "Northern Feasibility Study". DASH Midtown serves the Mid-City area. Nate Holden Performing Arts Center - Located at 4718 West Washington Boulevard, the center is the home of the Ebony Repertory Theater Company; the Del Mar Theater - Located at 5036 W. Pico Boulevard, the theater's blue and yellow neon facade was re-lit in 2003 as part of the non-profit "Pico Revitalization Project".
The Comedy Union - Located at 5040 W. Pico Boulevard, The Comedy Union is a comedy club that showcases black comedians; the Mint - Located at 6010 W. Pico Boulevard, The Mint is a music club, established in 1937. Past performers include Macy Gray, The Wallflowers, Natalie Cole. Beth Chayim Chadashim - recognized by the Los Angeles Conservancy for its "cultural significance" as the world's first lesbian and gay synagogue Roscoe's House of Chicken and Waffles - Local branch of the restaurant chain. United States Post Office, Ray Charles Station - An existing post office at 4960 West Washington Boulevard was renamed in honor of singer Ray Charles in 2005. Gladys Jean Wesson Park, 2508 S W Blvd Vineyard Recreation Center, 2942 Vineyard Ave Mascot Park, Mascot Street and Pickford Street Washington Irving Pocket Park, 4103 W. Washington Blvd Mid-City has an aquatic gym in the name of Eleanor Green Roberts Aquatic Center located on 4526 W Pico Blvd Mid-city residents aged 25 and older holding a four-year degree amounted to 16.8% of the population in 2000, about average for both the city and the county.
These are the elementary or secondary schools within the neighborhood's boundaries: The Los Angeles Unified School District operates public schools: Hamilton High School, 2955 Robertson Boulevard Saturn Stre
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
The Los Angeles County Museum of Art is an art museum located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles. LACMA is on Museum Row, adjacent to the La Brea Tar Pits. LACMA is the largest art museum in the western United States, it attracts nearly a million visitors annually. It holds more than 150,000 works spanning the history of art from ancient times to the present. In addition to art exhibits, the museum features concert series; the Los Angeles County Museum of Art was established as a museum in 1961. Prior to this, LACMA was part of the Los Angeles Museum of History and Art, founded in 1910 in Exposition Park near the University of Southern California. Howard F. Ahmanson, Sr. Anna Bing Arnold and Bart Lytton were the first principal patrons of the museum. Ahmanson made the lead donation of $2 million, convincing the museum board that sufficient funds could be raised to establish the new museum. In 1965 the museum moved to a new Wilshire Boulevard complex as an independent, art-focused institution, the largest new museum to be built in the United States after the National Gallery of Art.
The museum, built in a style similar to Lincoln Center and the Los Angeles Music Center, consisted of three buildings: the Ahmanson Building, the Bing Center, the Lytton Gallery. The board selected LA architect William Pereira over the directors' recommendation of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the buildings. According to a 1965 Los Angeles Times story, the total cost of the three buildings was $11.5 million. Construction began in 1963, was undertaken by the Del E. Webb Corporation. Construction was completed in early 1965. At the time, the Los Angeles Music Center and LACMA were concurrent large civic projects which vied for attention and donors in Los Angeles; when the museum opened, the buildings were surrounded by reflecting pools, but they were filled in and covered over when tar from the adjacent La Brea Tar Pits began seeping in. Money poured into LACMA during the boom years of the 1980s, a $209 million in private donations during director Earl Powell's tenure. To house its growing collections of modern and contemporary art and to provide more space for exhibitions, the museum hired the architectural firm of Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates to design its $35.3-million, 115,000-square-foot Robert O. Anderson Building for 20th-century art, which opened in 1986.
In the far-reaching expansion, museum-goers henceforth entered through the new roofed central court, nearly an acre of space bounded by the museum's four buildings. The museum's Pavilion for Japanese Art, designed by maverick architect Bruce Goff, opened in 1988, as did the B. Gerald Cantor Sculpture Garden of Rodin bronzes. In 1999, the Hancock Park Improvement Project was complete, the LACMA-adjacent park was inaugurated with a free public celebration; the $10-million renovation replaced dead trees and bare earth with picnic facilities, viewing sites for the La Brea tar pits and a 150-seat red granite amphitheater designed by artist Jackie Ferrara. In 1994, LACMA purchased the adjacent former May Company department store building, an impressive example of streamline moderne architecture designed by Albert C. Martin Sr. LACMA West increased the museum's size by 30 percent when the building opened in 1998. In 2004 LACMA's Board of Trustees unanimously approved a plan for LACMA's transformation by architect Rem Koolhaas, who had proposed razing all the current buildings and constructing an new single, tent-topped structure, estimated to cost $200 million to $300 million.
Kohlhaas edged out French architect Jean Nouvel, who would have added a major building while renovating the older facilities. The list of candidates had narrowed to five in May 2001: Koolhaas, Steven Holl, Daniel Libeskind and Thom Mayne. However, the project soon stalled. In 2004 LACMA's Board of Trustees unanimously approved plans to transform the museum, led by architect Renzo Piano; the planned transformation consisted of three phases. Phase I started in 2004 and was completed in February 2008; the renovations required demolishing the parking structure on Ogden Avenue and with it LACMA-commissioned graffiti art by street artists Margaret Kilgallen and Barry McGee. The entry pavilion is a key point in architect Renzo Piano's plan to unify LACMA's sprawling confusing layout of buildings; the BP Grand Entrance and the adjacent Broad Contemporary Art Museum comprise the $191 million first phase of the three-part expansion and renovation campaign. BCAM is named for Edy Broad, who gave $60 million to LACMA's campaign.
BCAM opened on February 2008, adding 58,000 square feet of exhibition space to the museum. In 2010 the Lynda and Stewart Resnick Exhibition Pavilion opened to the public, providing the largest purpose-built lit, open-plan museum space in the world; the second phase was intended to turn the May building into new offices and galleries, designed by SPF Architects. As proposed, it would have had flexible gallery space, education space, administrative offices, a new restaurant, a gift shop and a bookstore, as well as study centers for the museum's departments of costume and textiles and prints and drawings, a roof sculpture garden with two works by James Turrell. However, construction of this phase was halted in November 2010. Phase two and three were never completed. In October 2011, LACMA entered into an agreement with the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences under which the Academ
Collegiate Gothic is an architectural style subgenre of Gothic Revival architecture, popular in the late-19th and early-20th centuries for college and high school buildings in the United States and Canada, to a certain extent Europe. A form of historicist architecture, it took its inspiration from Gothic buildings, it has returned in the 21st century in the form of prominent new buildings at schools and universities including Princeton and Yale. Ralph Adams Cram, arguably the leading Gothic Revival architect and theoretician in the early 20th century, wrote about the appeal of the Gothic for educational facilities in his book Gothic Quest: "Through architecture and its allied arts we have the power to bend men and sway them as few have who depended on the spoken word, it is for us, as part of our duty as our highest privilege to act...for spreading what is true." Gothic Revival architecture was used for American college buildings as early as 1829, when "Old Kenyon" was completed on the campus of Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio.
Another early example was Alexander Jackson Davis's University Hall, on New York University's Washington Square campus. Richard Bond's church-like library for Harvard College, Gore Hall, became the model for other library buildings. James Renwick, Jr.'s Free Academy Building, for what is today City College of New York, continued in the style. Inspired by London's Hampton Court Palace, Swedish-born Charles Ulricson designed Old Main at Knox College in Galesburg, Illinois. Following the Civil War, idiosyncratic High Victorian Gothic buildings were added to the campuses of American colleges, including Yale College. In 1871, English architect William Burges designed a row of vigorous French Gothic-inspired buildings for Trinity College – Seabury Hall, Northam Tower, Jarvis Hall – in Hartford, Connecticut. Tastes became more conservative in the 1880s, "collegiate architecture soon after came to prefer a more scholarly and less restless Gothic." Beginning in the late-1880s, Philadelphia architects Walter Cope and John Stewardson expanded the campus of Bryn Mawr College in an understated English Gothic style, sensitive to site and materials.
Inspired by the architecture of Oxford and Cambridge universities, historicists but not literal copyists, Cope & Stewardson were influential in establishing the Collegiate Gothic style. Commissions followed for collections of buildings at the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, Washington University in St. Louis, marking the nascent beginnings of a movement that transformed many college campuses across the country. In 1901, the firm of Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge created a master plan for a Collegiate Gothic campus for the fledgling University of Chicago spent the next 15 years completing it; some of their works, such as the Mitchell Tower, were near-literal copies of historic buildings. George Browne Post designed the City College of New York's new campus at Hamilton Heights, Manhattan, in the style; the style was experienced up-close by a wide audience at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri; the World's Fair and 1904 Olympic Games were held on the newly completed campus of Washington University, which delayed occupying its buildings until 1905.
The movement gained further momentum when Charles Donagh Maginnis designed Gasson Hall at Boston College in 1908. Maginnis & Walsh went on to design Collegiate Gothic buildings at some twenty-five other campuses, including the main buildings at Emmanuel College, the law school at the University of Notre Dame. Ralph Adams Cram designed one of the most poetic collections of Collegiate Gothic buildings for the Princeton University Graduate College. James Gamble Rogers did extensive work at Yale University, beginning in 1917; some critics claim he took historicist fantasy to an extreme, while others choose to focus on what is considered to be the resulting beautiful and sophisticated Yale campus. Rogers was criticized by the growing Modernist movement, his cathedral-like Sterling Memorial Library, with its ecclesiastical imagery and lavish use of ornament, came under vocal attack from one of Yale's own undergraduates: A modern building constructed for purely modern needs has no excuse for going off in an orgy of meretricious medievalism and stale iconography.
Other architects, notably John Russell Pope and Bertram Goodhue, advocated for and contributed to Yale's particular version of Collegiate Gothic. When McMaster University moved to Hamilton, Canadian architect William Lyon Somerville designed its new campus in the style. American architect Alexander Jackson Davis is "generally credited with coining the term" documented in a handwritten description of his own "English Collegiate Gothic Mansion" of 1853 for the Harrals of Bridgeport, Connecticut. By the 1890s, the movement was known as "Collegiate Gothic". In his praise for Cope & Stewardson's Quadrangle Dormitories at the University of Pennsylvania, architect Ralph Adams Cram revealed some of the racial and cultural implications underlying the Collegiate Gothic: It was, of course, in the great group of dormitories for the University of Pennsylvania that Cope and Stewardson first came before the entire country as the