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Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae

Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae is a plant pathogen infecting soybean and peanut. Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae is the perfect form of the causal pathogen of pod and stem blight of soybean. It is a fungal ascomycete that infects seeds, pods and petioles; this pathogen is found in its imperfect state, Phomopsis sojae. This is a common disease of most soybean growing regions in the United States. Losses result from losses in field stands, reductions in yield, poor seed quality. Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae can infect any above ground parts of the plant. Early-season infection takes place without showing any symptoms. Mid-season symptoms appear as tiny black dots on abscised petioles. Late-season symptoms appear on dead stems and seed pods. Infected seeds will fail to germinate. Visual symptoms include: • Light brown spots on cotyledons or lower stems,• Small black dots appear in rows along necrotic stem and petiole tissue,• Infected seeds exhibiting: cracked seed coats, flattening, grey mold, or black spots on the seed coat.

Alternate hosts include: Lima bean, snap beans, lespedeza, pepper, okra and garlic. Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae is present throughout the world wherever soybeans are in production. Conditions that favor this fungal infection include: • A warm and humid growing season during pod development and maturation, • Continuous soybean planting and infected seed,• Delayed harvest, insect damage, hail damage lead to seed infection. Disease cycle Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae and Phomopsis sojae overwinter as mycelia in infected seeds and plant debris. This serves as the primary inoculum. In the spring, pycnidium are produced on the petioles of abscise leaves. In the early summer perithecia develop on decaying stem tissue; the perithecium contain asci. Spores will germinate and penetrate through immature or wounded tissue. Spores need at least 24 hours of free moisture to cause infection; the spores can spread into mycelium and form perithecia and pycnidia. More progressive spread of disease can occur through secondary infection.

Secondary infections will occur when conidia are dispersed onto different parts of the by the splashing of water. High quality cleaned seed and crop rotation are the primary controls of Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae. Resistant varieties are available but not used. Proper seed treatments will increase stand count. A higher stand count will lead to less branching and breaking of branches. Broken branches provide a point of entry for Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae. Harvesting soybeans at first maturity reduces the time of seed infection through the pod. Maturing varieties tend to produce higher quality soybeans with less infection; when inoculated plant debris is present, a deep tillage option can be taken to bury the residue. Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database

Pam Marsh

Pam Marsh is an American Democratic politician serving in the Oregon House of Representatives. She represents the 5th district, which covers southern Jackson County, including the city of Ashland. Marsh attended the University of California, Berkeley from 1973 until 1975, graduated from Southern Oregon University in 2005, she lived in Palo Alto, where she served as field representative for state assemblymember Byron Sher and as city planning commissioner from 1985 until 1993, before moving to Ashland in 1994. Marsh served as a member of the Ashland Charter Review Commission from 2004 until 2006, as chair of the Ashland City Planning Commission from 2006 until 2012, she was appointed to the City Council in December 2012. In February 2016, Marsh declared her candidacy for the Oregon House seat vacated by the retiring Peter J. Buckley, she defeated Republican Steven Richie in the general election with 63% of the vote. Marsh and her husband, Diarmuid McGuire, have 4 children: Kerry, Meghan and Molly.

She is religiously unaffiliated. Campaign website Legislative website

Abubakar Sodangi

Abubakar Danso Sodangi was elected Senator for the Nasarawa West constituency of Nasarawa State, taking office in May 1999, was reelected in 2003 and 2007. He is a member of the ruling party All Progressives Congress. Abubakar Danso Sodangi was born on 31 January 1954 in Nasarawa State, he worked as a preventive Officer with the Department of Excise. He attended the school of Preliminary Studies and the University of Sokoto, gained an LLB, he attended the Nigeria Law School, becoming a Barrister at Law in May 1984. He became a Member of the Board of Directors of PRTV, member of the National Human Rights Commission and Assistant Secreatary, Federal Capital Territory Judiciary. Sodangi was one of the founding members of the PDP, he was elected to the Senate seat in 1999, was re-elected in 2003 and 2007. After resuming his seat in 2007 he was appointed to committees on Judiciary, Human Rights & Legal Matters, Interior Affairs, Foreign Affairs and Federal Capital Territory. In April 2008 a document from the Abuja Geographic Information System surfaced that appeared to show that Sodangi or his family members were owners of 14 residential plots and six commercial plots in the Abuja Federal Capital Territory.

A letter to the Minister of the FCT, Nasir el-Rufai, showed he had requested plots of land to replace others where the structures had been demolished. The request was granted after el-Rufai left office in May 2007. Sodangi was chairman of the Senate committee probing the sale of houses in the FCT, he stated. In a mid-term evaluation of Senators in May 2009, ThisDay said that Sodangi had not sponsored any bills in the last year, but had worked hard as chairman of the committee probing the FCT, he is the Chairman of the Board of trustees of Human Rights Radio, established to promote respect for Human Rights in Nigeria


Galeandra, abbreviated as Gal in horticultural trade, is a genus of 37 known species of orchids native to South America, Central America, the West Indies and Florida. Species accepted as of June 2014: Galeandra arundinis Galeandra badia Galeandra batemanii Galeandra baueri Galeandra beyrichii Galeandra bicarinata Galeandra biloba Galeandra blanchetii Galeandra camptoceras Galeandra carnevaliana Galeandra claesii Galeandra curvifolia Galeandra devoniana Galeandra dives Galeandra duidensis Galeandra graminoides Galeandra greenwoodiana Galeandra harveyana Galeandra huebneri Galeandra hysterantha Galeandra junceaoides Galeandra lacustris Galeandra lagoensis Galeandra leptoceras Galeandra levyae Galeandra macroplectra Galeandra magnicolumna Galeandra minax Galeandra multifoliata Galeandra nivalis Galeandra paraguayensis Galeandra pilosocolumna Galeandra santarena Galeandra schunkii Galeandra stangeana Galeandra styllomisantha Galeandra xerophila Lindley, J. Illustrations of Orchidaceous Plants sub pl. 8.

Pridgeon, A. M. Cribb, P. Chase, M. W. and Rasmussen, F. N. Genera Orchidacearum Volume 5: Epidendroideae: Epidendroideae, 29 ff. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Media related to Galeandra at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Galeandra at Wikispecies

Borregos Salvajes

The Borregos Salvajes is the name of all the cultural and sports teams that represent the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education in various disciplines, such as: basketball, swimming, american football, association football, dance representative teams, instrumental ensambles and leadership representatives among many others. The name of said teams is derived from official mascot of the institution: the bighorn ram; the Tec de Monterrey teams are best known for college football across Mexico. The two most successful Borregos football teams are those from the Monterrey and State of Mexico campuses; these two teams have won the majority of the mexican college league championships since the early 1990s. In 1945, a group of young students from an emerging educational institution came together to create a team of a sport called american football to accept an invitation to compete against the newly created team of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León, they did not realize at the time that this invitation would give way to one of the most iconic sports teams in Mexico.

The first "Clásico" was played on November 20, 1945, the Borregos won 12-7. From 1945 to 1947, they competed in a league that included Gatos Negros. However, the rapid growth of this sport in Monterrey allowed for its expansion, the so-called Second Force league was established in 1946; when the First Force season of 1947–1948 arrived, the Borregos obtained their first victory in a First Force Clásico on November 8, 1947, under the command of a new head coach, Leroy Willeford. The next year, on December 11, 1948, the Borregos won their first championship in the major category. On July 17, 1950, the Estadio Tecnológico was inaugurated; the Borregos won the major league trophy in 1950, 1951, 1953, 1958 and 1959, were crowned champions of 1962-1964 season. In 1965, the team was reassembled the following year. In 1974, with a new head coach, Julio Ayala, the Borregos Salvajes became the new national champions. In 1985, coach Frank González inherited a team that would become champions in the 1987, 1988 and 1989 seasons of the National Conference of the newly created ONEFA.

After losing the title despite advancing to the postseason in 1991 and 1992, the Borregos Salvajes started the 1993 season with the assurance that they were on the right track to achieve their first national championship trophy in the "10 Grandes" conference. In 1994, González led the Borregos Salvajes to an ONEFA title. In 1996, the team began a 14-year winning streak; the Borregos Salvajes have played the ONEFA Major League championship game 14 consecutive times, winning 9 titles in the highest level of college football in Mexico. The team's dominance of the sport is such that it has won the title 5 consecutive seasons from 2004-2008; the Borregos Salvajes are a sports fixture, renowned throughout the country, their games are viewed on the main sports television channel, ESPN, broadcasting throughout Mexico and Central America. This team began in the major league in 1995. In 1997, with an administrative change and a new head coach, they reached the "10 Grandes" conference. In 2000, another head coach took over, with committed staff members, they retained their position in the conference as one of the most important teams in the league.2017: Toluca became CONADEIP National Champions over Aztecas UDLAP 31 -28, after that became National Champions in the "Tazón de Campeones" beating Pumas CU 16–15.

2018: Toluca became once again National Champions CONADEIP in 2018 over Borregos Salvajes Monterrey 21 - 28 American football at the Mexico City campus began in 1992. Participation was low but a dedicated group of young students secured it as a traditional sport at the campus. In 1994, coach Manuel "Pibe" Vallarí arrived. Vallarí restructured the team, making an effort to recruit players from outside the campus, inviting them to play and study at the Institute. In 1995, the Mexico City Borregos played their first championship in the free intermediate category, which encouraged more students to join the team; this interest made it possible to launch a major league team on campus. In 1996, the Borregos Salvajes won the Youth "AA" CONA league championship, noting that the competitive level of this team was on the rise; the scholarship program began to support student football players, bringing the team into the major leagues. In 1997, the Borregos Salvajes entered the national conference, ONEFA; the new stage of football at the Mexico City campus began in 1999 with the arrival of head coach Jaime Antonio Martinez Celaya.

For the 2000 season, the Mexico City campus were the favorites to win the championship, advanced to the "10 Grandes" conference. From 2001 to 2004, Mexico City campus won a single game in the conference; the male volleyball team, beating teams like the CEM, Mty, UANL, UNAM, UDLA and others won three national championships which coincidentally are same number of games won by the American football team in the same period of time. The administration hired a new head coach, Mario Revuelta Zúñiga, who brought the Youth A team to an uncontested championship and, in the major leagues, the team managed to win three matches. In 2006, an advisory committee was created in which both the Mexico City campus and the Santa Fe campus would cooperate to strengthen the football program; this committee appointed César Martínez Sánchez. Under this new leadership, the team rema