The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the United States federal government in the 1960s to build robust, the primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s. Although the Internet was widely used by academia since the 1980s, Internet use grew rapidly in the West from the mid-1990s and from the late 1990s in the developing world. In the two decades since then, Internet use has grown 100-times, measured for the period of one year, newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators. The entertainment industry was initially the fastest growing segment on the Internet, the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries, the Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage, each constituent network sets its own policies. The term Internet, when used to refer to the global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, is a proper noun. In common use and the media, it is not capitalized. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. Historically, as early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangeably in everyday speech, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services.
The Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks, the term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web typically used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. The ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of Utah Graphics Department. In an early sign of growth, fifteen sites were connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971. These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks, early international collaborations on the ARPANET were rare. European developers were concerned with developing the X.25 networks, in December 1974, RFC675, by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine, used the term internet as a shorthand for internetworking and RFCs repeated this use. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation funded the Computer Science Network, in 1982, the Internet Protocol Suite was standardized, which permitted worldwide proliferation of interconnected networks.5 Mbit/s and 45 Mbit/s.
Commercial Internet service providers emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990
Collectivity of Saint Martin
Saint Martin, officially the Collectivity of Saint Martin is an overseas collectivity of France in the Caribbean. The southern 40% of the island of Saint Martin constitute Sint Maarten, before 2007, the French part of Saint Martin formed a part of the French overseas région and département of Guadeloupe. Saint Martin is separated from the island of Anguilla by the Anguilla Channel, Saint Martin was for many years a French commune, forming part of Guadeloupe, which is an overseas région and département of France. In 2003 the population of the French part of the island voted in favour of secession from Guadeloupe in order to form an overseas collectivity of France. On 9 February 2007, the French Parliament passed a bill granting COM status to both the French part of Saint Martin and the neighbouring Saint Barthélemy. The new status took effect on 15 July 2007, once the local assemblies were elected, Saint Martin remains part of the European Union. On 25 July 2008 Fleming resigned after being sanctioned by the Conseil dÉtat for one year over problems with his 2007 election campaign, on 7 August, Frantz Gumbs was elected as President of the Territorial Council.
However, his election was declared invalid on 10 April 2009, Gumbs was reelected on 5 May 2009. Before 2007, Saint Martin was coded as GP in ISO 3166-1, in October 2007, it received the ISO 3166-1 code MF, MAF, and 663. The coat of arms of the French overseas collectivity Saint-Martin features a ship, a palm and a sun, the commune that existed until 22 February 2007, used similar arms but with the legend Ville de Saint Martin. The French part of the island has an area of 53.2 square kilometres. A local English-based dialect is spoken in informal situations on both the French and Dutch sides of the island. At the January 2011 French census, the population in the French part of the island was 36,286, during the 1980s, the population more than tripled, at the time, the collectivity was administered as a part of Guadeloupe. The official currency of Saint Martin is the euro, though the US dollar is widely accepted. Tourism is the economic activity. INSEE estimated that the total GDP of Saint Martin amounted to 421 million euros in 1999, in that same year the GDP per capita of Saint Martin was 14,500 euros, which was 39% lower than the average GDP per capita of metropolitan France in 1999.
In comparison, the GDP per capita on the Dutch side of the island, Martin Economy of Saint Martin History of St
Jonathan Bruce Postel was an American computer scientist who made many significant contributions to the development of the Internet, particularly with respect to standards. He is known principally for being the Editor of the Request for Comment document series, in his lifetime he was known as the god of the Internet for his comprehensive influence on the medium. The Internet Societys Postel Award is named in his honor, as is the Postel Center at Information Sciences Institute and his obituary was written by Vint Cerf and published as RFC2468 in remembrance of Postel and his work. In 2012, Postel was inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame by the Internet Society, the Channel Islands Domain Registry building was named after him in early 2016. Postel attended Van Nuys High School, and UCLA where he earned his B. S. as well as his M. A. in Engineering. He went on to complete his Ph. D. there in Computer Science in 1974, Postel started work at UCLA on 23 December 1969 as a Postgraduate Research Engineer where he was involved in early work on the ARPANET.
He worked there until 24 August 1973 when he left to join MITRE Corporation and he assisted with Network Information Center which was being set up at SRI by Elizabeth Feinler. In March 1977, he joined the Information Sciences Institute at the University of Southern California as an Assistant Professor, between 1982 and 1984 Postel co-authored the RFCs which became the foundation of todays DNS which were joined in 1995 by RFC1591 which he co-wrote. In total, he wrote or co-authored more than 200 RFCs, Postel served on the Internet Architecture Board and its predecessors for many years. He was the Director of the names and number assignment clearinghouse and he was the first member of the Internet Society, and was on its Board of Trustees. He was the original and long-time. us Top-Level Domain administrator and he managed the Los Nettos Network. ROOT-SERVERS. NET to IANAs DNSROOT. IANA. ORG. Though usage of the Internet was not interrupted, he received orders from senior government officials to undo this change.
On October 16,1998, Postel died of complications from surgery in Los Angeles. He was recovering from a surgery to replace a heart valve. ARPANET Computer Networks, The Heralds of Resource Sharing History of the Internet Jonathan B. Postel Service Award STD8 Jon Postel at DMOZ postel. org Research center at USC/ISI created in his honor
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
It is governed as part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha, of which the main island, Saint Helena, is around 1,300 kilometres to the southeast. The territory includes the sparsely populated Tristan da Cunha archipelago, some 3,730 kilometres to the south, the island is named after the day of its recorded discovery, Ascension Day. It played a role as an important safe haven and coaling station to mariners, during World War II it was an important naval and air station, especially providing antisubmarine warfare bases in the Battle of the Atlantic. Ascension Island was garrisoned by the British Admiralty from 22 October 1815 to 1922, the island was used extensively by the British military during the Falklands War. Ascension Island hosts one of four antennas that assist in the operation of the Global Positioning System navigational system. Ascension is a young formation, the tip of an undersea volcano which rose above the waves only a million years ago. It is associated both with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge plate boundary 80 km to the west and with a hotspot 25–300 km to the south east and its last eruption may have occurred in the 16th Century.
Due to its short history, its soil consists mostly of clinker. In 1501, the Portuguese navigator Afonso de Albuquerque sighted the island on Ascension Day and barren, the island had little appeal for passing ships except for collecting fresh meat, and was not claimed for the Portuguese Crown. Mariners could hunt for the seabirds and the enormous female green turtles that laid their eggs on the sandy beaches. The Portuguese introduced goats as a source of meat for future mariners. In February 1701, HMS Roebuck, commanded by William Dampier, sixty men survived for two months until they were rescued. Almost certainly, after a few days they found the water spring in the high interior of the island. British mariners found the Dutchmans tent and diary in January 1726, organised settlement of Ascension Island began in 1815, when the British garrisoned it as a precaution after imprisoning Napoleon I on Saint Helena to the southeast. On 22 October the Cruizer class brig-sloops Zenobia and Peruvian claimed the island for His Britannic Majesty King George III, the Royal Navy designated the island as a stone frigate, HMS Ascension, with the classification of Sloop of War of the smaller class.
The location of the island made it a useful stopping-point for ships, the Royal Navy used the island as a victualling station for ships, particularly those of the West Africa Squadron working against the slave trade. A garrison of Royal Marines was based at Ascension from 1823, in 1836 the Beagle voyage visited Ascension. Charles Darwin described it as a treeless island, with nothing growing near the coast
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
au is the Internet country code top-level domain for Australia. It was first created on 5 March 1986, Domain name policy is managed by. au Domain Administration, with the registry operated by AusRegistry. The domain name was allocated by Jon Postel, operator of IANA to Kevin Robert Elz of Melbourne University in 1986. After an approximately five-year process in the 1990s, the Internet industry created a body called. au Domain Administration to operate the domain. It obtained assent from ICANN in 2001, and commenced operating a new regime for domain registration on 1 July 2002. Since this new regime, any registration has to be ordered via a registrar, oversight of. au is by. au Domain Administration. It is an organisation whose membership is derived from Internet organisations, industry members. The organisation operates with the endorsement of the Australian Government and with the authority of ICANN. Policy for. au is devised by policy development panels and these panels are convened by auDA and combine public input with industry representation to derive policy.
The day-to-day operation of the. au registry technical facility is tendered out by auDA, the current operator is AusRegistry who has performed this role since the initial tender in 2002. AusRegistry does not sell domain registration services direct to the consumer, rather consumers who wish to register a domain must do so via a domain name registrar, after the industrys liberalisation in 2002, there is an active competitive market in registrars with a variety of prices and services. In 2008 auDA changed its policy and allowed changes in ownership of. au domains. AuDA introduced the ISS in October 2013 as a mandatory requirement, discount Domain Name services, Cheaper Domains and Information Brokers, part of the Total Internet Group, are the first three auDA accredited registrars to achieve ISS compliance. The naming rules for. au require registrations under second-level categories that describe a type of entity. com. au and this follows a similar allocation policy to that formerly used in other countries such as the United Kingdom and New Zealand.
Registrations are currently permitted below a second-level domain, such as yourname. com. au, in April 2016, auDA announced it would introduce registrations directly at the second level, such as yourname. au. Direct registrations are due to be implemented in 2017, registering a domain in the. au namespace requires registrants to have either an exact match or a “close and substantial connection” to their desired domain name. Registration of a. au domain is completed through a reseller, known as a registrar and these domains are managed by the. au Community Domains Trust on behalf of auDA. CGDNs use the state or territorys common abbreviation as the level of the domain
United States Minor Outlying Islands
Among them, Palmyra Atoll is the only incorporated territory. As of 2017, none of the islands have any permanent residents, the only human population consists of temporarily stationed scientific and military personnel. The 2000 census counted 315 people on Johnston Atoll and 94 people on Wake Island, there has been no modern indigenous population, except at the 1940 census. In 1936 a colonization program began to settle Americans on Baker and Jarvis, the islands are grouped together as a statistical convenience. They are not administered collectively, nor do they share a cultural or political history beyond being uninhabited islands under the sovereignty of the United States. They are collectively represented by the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code UM, the individual islands have ISO 3166-2 numerical codes, see ISO 3166-2, UM. The Internet country code top-level domain. um has historically been assigned to the islands, however, ISO introduced the term United States Minor Outlying Islands in 1986. From 1974 until 1986, five of the islands were grouped under the term United States Miscellaneous Pacific Islands, the code of Midway Atoll was MI, the code of Johnston Atoll was JT, and the code of Wake Island was WK.
The Pacific islands are surrounded by large Exclusive Economic Zones, see Organized incorporated territories, Unincorporated territories and List of territorial disputes in North America. The following is a list of airports with ICAO codes, PJON, Johnston Atoll Airport, Johnston Atoll PMDY, Henderson Field, Sand Island. Kingman Reef and Navassa Island have offshore anchorage only. S, Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges CIA World Factbook, United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Svalbard and Jan Mayen is a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1 of two parts of Norway under separate jurisdictions—Svalbard and Jan Mayen. While the two are combined for the purposes of the International Organization for Standardization category, they are not administratively related and this has further resulted in the country code top-level domain. sj being issued for Svalbard and Jan Mayen, and ISO 3166-2, SJ. The United Nations Statistics Division uses this code, but has named it Svalbard, Svalbard is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean under the full sovereignty of Norway, but is subject to the special status granted by the Svalbard Treaty. Jan Mayen is an island in the Arctic Ocean, it has no permanent population and is administrated by the County Governor of Nordland. Svalbard and Jan Mayen have in common that they are the integrated parts of Norway not allocated to counties. While a separate ISO code for Svalbard was proposed by the United Nations, Svalbard is an archipelago in the Arctic about midway between mainland Norway and the North Pole.
The group of range from 74° to 81° north latitude. The area is 61,022 square kilometres and there were 2,572 residents in 2009, spitsbergen is the largest island, followed by Nordaustlandet and Edgeøya. The Svalbard Treaty of 1920 recognizes Norwegian sovereignty, and the 1925 Svalbard Act made Svalbard a full part of the Kingdom of Norway, the archipelago is administrated by the Governor of Svalbard, which is subordinate to the Norwegian Ministry of Justice and the Police. Unlike the rest of Norway, Svalbard is an economic zone and a demilitarized zone. Jan Mayen is an island in the Arctic Ocean located at the border of the Norwegian Sea. The single island covers an area of 377 square kilometres and is dominated by the 2, the islands only population is a combined military and meteorological outpost that operates a LORAN-C transmitter at Olonkinbyen. The Norwegian Meteorological Institute annexed the island for Norway in 1922, on 27 February 1930, the island was made de jure a part of the Kingdom of Norway.
Since 1994, the island has been administrated by the County Governor of Nordland, neither Svalbard nor Jan Mayen have their own flag or coat of arms, and the flag of Norway is used for both of them, both alone and as a group. An attempt to change the ISO code to just Svalbard has previously failed because of opposition from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, for statistics use within population and trade and Jan Mayen essentially means just Svalbard. ISO 3166-2, SJ is the entry for Svalbard and Jan Mayen in ISO 3166-2, by virtue of the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code SJ, Svalbard and Jan Mayen were grouped together and allocated the Internet country code top-level domain. sj. Norid, who administrated the Norways. no ccTLD, was given the responsibility for the. sj. Policy prohibits any registration with either of the domains, as connected to Svalbard can use the. no domain