Peter I, Duke of Bourbon
Peter I of Bourbon was the second Duke of Bourbon, from 1342 to his death. Peter was son of Louis I of Bourbon, whom he succeeded as Grand Chamberlain of France. Peter I took part in several of the campaigns of the Hundred Years War which broke out in 1337. In the summer of 1339 he took part in Jean de Marigny, in autumn 1341 he took part in the John, Duke of Normandys campaign in Brittany. He was present at the coronation of Pope Clement VI at Avignon 19 May 1342, summer 1342 he was together with the Raoul I of Brienne, Count of Eu given command of the covering force protecting France from attacks from the north while king Philip VI campaigned in Brittany. On 8 August 1345 Peter I was appointed by Philip VI as his lieutenant on the south-west march and his opponent was to be Henry, Earl of Derby who completed disembarking his army at Bordeaux the day after Peter Is appointment. Peter I arrived to take up his lieutenancy in Languedoc in September, Bourbon set up headquarters at Angoulême and begun an extensive recruitment campaign to raise a new army, command of which fell to the Duke of Normandy.
However on 21 October the Earl of Derby won another crushing victory outside Auberoche over parts of this force, the Duke of Normandy abandoned his campaign once he heard the news. In early November he disbanded his army and left for the north, the Earl of Derby exploited the absence of a French commander in the field to lay siege to the important fortress-city of La Réole. Bourbon proclaimed the arrière-ban in Languedoc and the provinces in an attempt to find troops to relieve the siege. However the results were poor as many of the recruits were still on their way home from the army just disbanded by John of Normandy. Attempts by John I, Count of Armagnac to raise troops from his domains in the Rouergue produced little, early January 1346 the garrison of La Réole marched away under truce. Winter 1346 Bourbon kept his winter quarters at the capital of Agen. Spring however opened with the so far greatest French effort in the south-west, in April Normandy laid siege to the town of Aiguillon which controlled the confluence between the Lot and the Garonne.
There they still remained in August when John of Normandy was urgently recalled to the north to help stop Edward III who had landed in Normandy, and so the French 1346 campaign in the south ended having accomplished nothing. In July 1347 he took part in negotiations with the English outside Calais in the days just before that citys capitulation. On 8 February 1354 he was together with the Guy, Cardinal of Boulogne appointed as King John IIs commissioners to King Charles II of Navarre, empowered to offer whatever Charles wanted. The treaty concluded 22 February granted to Charles of Navarre a considerable part of Lower Normandy which he was to hold with the rights as the Duke of Normandy
Louis II, Duke of Bourbon
Louis de Bourbon, called the Good, son of Peter de Bourbon and Isabella de Valois, was the third Duke of Bourbon. The teenage Louis inherited the duchy from his father Duke Peter I after his death in the Battle of Poitiers in 1356 and its objective was to suppress piracy based in the city of Mahdia, but the siege was unsuccessful. Duke Louis died at Montlucon in 1410, at the age of 72 or 73, archaeologia, or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity, Vol.20,236 Housley, The Crusades, 1274-1580, from Lyons to Alcazar, Oxford University Press,1992
John I, Duke of Bourbon
Jean de Bourbon was Duke of Bourbon, from 1410 to his death and Duke of Auvergne since 1416. He was the eldest son of Louis II and Anne of Auvergne, through his mother, John inherited the County of Forez. During the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War he took sides against the Burgundians, John was captured at the Battle of Agincourt and died a prisoner in London, in spite of the payment of several ransoms, and promises to support the king of England as king of France. In 1400 in Paris, he married his niece Marie, Duchess of Auvergne, daughter of John, Duke of Berry, who inherited the Auvergne title from her father. They had three sons, Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon Louis of Bourbon, Count of Forez Louis de Bourbon, Michael, Agincourt 1415, triumph against the odds, Osprey Publishing,1991
Charles II, Duke of Bourbon
Charles II, Duke of Bourbon, was Archbishop of Lyon from an early age and a French diplomat under the rule of Louis XI of France. He had a 2-week tenure as Duke of Bourbon in 1488, being ousted afterward by his brother and successor, Peter II. This election followed the death of Amedée de Talaru and the renunciation of John III of Bourbon, illegitimate offspring of his grandfather John I, Duke of Bourbon. In January 7,1469 Charles II signed a letters patent as the kings adviser, at Plessis-lèz-Tours. As namesake, he was, along with Joan of Valois, Duchess of Bourbon and Edward of Westminster, when Louis XI ends the Hundred Years War in 1475, the archbishop assisted him in diplomatic matters while the king lives with Charles II at the Notre-Dame-de-la-Victoire-lès-Senlis abbey near Senlis. He arrives with Louis XI and his elder brother John II of Bourbon in August 19 at Picquigny to sign the eponymous treaty, later, in October 16 he signed in the abbey a letters patent to reestablish peaceable relations with Francis II, Duke of Brittany.
Again, in January 8,1476, as the head of the Kings Council, Charles II signs four letters patent, from 1472 to 1476, he was incumbent as the papal legate at Avignon though he only arrived there November 23,1473. In May 23,1474, the Pope Sixtus IV appoints his nephew Giuliano della Rovere as bishop of Avignon and this set Louis XI and the pope into conflict, with the royal army and papal troops coming to bear. In June 15,1476, to resolve this difficulty, the king welcomed Giuliano della Rovere at Lyon and this is the reason why, in 1476, he became the administrator of the diocese of Clermont and was made a Cardinal by Sixtus IV. It seems that after leaving Avignon, Charles II followed again in the wake of Louis XI, the cardinal was present with the king at Arras in March 18,1477, during the campaign following the death of Charles the Bold. He was in 1486 the first commendatory abbot of the Priory Notre-Dame de La Charité-sur-Loire and he was Duke of Bourbon and Auvergne for a short period of time in April 1488, succeeding his elder brother, John II when the latter died in April 1.
This prompted Charles II, as his brothers nearest heir, to claim the inheritance in the Bourbonnais. The move was not tolerated by his brother and Peters wife, Anne of France. Charles died in the year in mysterious circumstances. His brief tenure of the title during the period 1 April-15 April would, however, be confirmed in 1505. Charles II had with Gabrielle Bartine an illegitimate daughter, made legitimate by Charles VIII, Charles II of Bourbon features in Victor Hugos novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame
Louis I, Duke of Bourbon
Louis I, called the Lame was Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and La Marche and the first Duke of Bourbon. Louis was born in Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, the son of Robert, Count of Clermont, Louis mother was Beatrix of Burgundy, heiress of Bourbon and a granddaughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy. He fought on the side in the Battle of the Golden Spurs and in the Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle. In 1310, he was made Grand Chambrier of France, in 1327, Charles IV of France persuaded him to exchange the County of Clermont for that of La Marche, and elevated Bourbon to a duchy-peerage. However, Clermont was restored to him by Philip VI of France in 1331 and he belonged to Philip VIs small circle of trusted advisors. Duke Louis is reported to have been mentally unstable, in particular suffering from nervous breakdowns. He was buried in the church of the Couvent des Jacobins in Paris. In 1310, Louis married Mary of Avesnes, daughter of John II of Avesnes, Count of Hainaut and they had eight children, Peter I, Duke of Bourbon, married Isabella of Valois, had issue.
Only her first marriage produced surviving children, Philip James James I, Count of La Marche, killed at the Battle of Brignais, from whom the royal Bourbons descend. Beatrice of Bourbon, married first at Vincennes in 1334 John of Luxembourg, King of Bohemia as his second wife, married in 1315 Agnès of Chastellus, between 1330 and 1333 Isabelle of Chastelperron, Jeannette, bâtarde de Bourbon, married in 1310 to Guichard of Chastellus. Louis is a character in Les Rois maudits, a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon. He was portrayed by Robert Nogaret in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, de la Thaumassière, Gaspard Thaumas, Histoire de Berry, Vol.3, Imprimerie et Lithographie de A. Jollet,1868. The Encyclopedia Americana, a library of universal knowledge, Vol.4, J. D. Lyon Company, New York,1919
Charles III, Duke of Bourbon
He was the Constable of France from 1515 to 1521. Also known as the Constable of Bourbon, he was the last of the feudal lords to oppose the King of France himself. He commanded the Imperial troops of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in what known as the Sack of Rome in 1527. Charles was born at Montpensier, the son of Gilbert. Clara was a daughter of Federico I Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua, Gilbert died in 1496, and his elder son Louis II, Count of Montpensier died unwed in 1501, leaving Charles the heir to the familys titles and extensive lands in Auvergne. On 10 May 1505, Charles married his second cousin, Suzanne. It was a match, intended to settle the question of succession to the Bourbon estates, which had arisen because Suzannes father. Charles was the scion of the next-senior Bourbon line, and thus the heir male of the House of Bourbon, with the marriage, Charless position as Duke of Bourbon became undisputed. However, Francis was uneasy with the proud and wealthy duke, the death of his wife in 1521 provoked the final breach between Charles and Francis I.
Suzanne had left all her estates to Charles, but the Kings mother, Louise of Savoy, claimed them as the heir in proximity in blood, due to their previous entailments. She proposed to settle the question by marrying Charles, he refused the proposal because Louise was over forty-five years of age, on behalf of his mother, Francis confiscated a portion of the Bourbon estates before the lawsuit had even been opened. Seeing no hope of prevailing, Charles made an agreement to betray his King. The Emperor, the Constable, and King Henry VIII of England devised a plan to partition France. This however came to nothing because the plot was discovered, Charles was stripped of his offices and he fled into Italy in 1523. In 1524, he drove the French under Bonnivet from Lombardy, the Emperor gave Duke Charles command of a mixed Spanish-German army sent to chastise Pope Clement VII. He neglected to supply this army with money or food, though Clement arranged a truce with the Emperor, the army continued its advance, reaching Rome in May 1527.
By Suzanne, Charles was the father of twins and of Francis of Bourbon, the county of Montpensier and dauphinate of Auvergne were returned to his sister Louise
John II, Duke of Bourbon
John de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon, sometimes referred to as John the Good and The Scourge of the English, was a son of Charles I of Bourbon and Agnes of Burgundy. He was Duke of Bourbon and Auvergne from 1456 to his death, John earned his nicknames John the Good and The Scourge of the English for his efforts in helping drive out the English from France. He was made constable of France in 1483 by his brother Peter and sister-in-law Anne, in an effort to win discontented nobles back to his side, Louis XI of France made great efforts to give out magnificent gifts to certain individuals, John was a recipient of these overtures. According to contemporary chronicles, the King received John in Paris with honours, pardon, in further attempts to gain the nobles favor, the King proposed a match between his eldest legitimized daughter Marguerite to Johns eldest illegitimate son Louis de Bourbon. The marriage was celebrated in Paris with royal magnificence and the couple were heaped with honors. It has been said despite all of his brilliant marriages, nothing flattered John more than this particular marriage between his son and a legitimized daughter of the King.
John is notable for making three brilliant alliances but leaving no legitimate issue, in 1447, his father, the Duke of Bourbon, had his heir married to a daughter of Charles VII, King of France, Joan of Valois. They were duly married at the Château de Moulins, in 1484 at St. However, this succession was strongly contested due to the political strength of Peter and Anne. Within a span of days, Charles was forced to renounce his claims to the Bourbon lands to Peter in exchange for a financial settlement. Johns widow Jeanne would remarry to John III, Count of Auvergne and by him she became the mother of Madeleine de La Tour dAuvergne, the mother of Catherine de Medici. ASIN B000V1RCR2. de Commynes, Jean de Troyes, and Andrew Richard Scoble, The memoirs of Philip de Commines, Lord of Argenton
Oise is a department in the north of France. It is named after the river Oise, natives of the department are called Isariens. Oise is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4,1790 and it was created from part of the province of Île-de-France and Picardy. After the coalition victory at Waterloo, the department was occupied by British troops between June 1815 and November 1818, Oise is part of the current region of Hauts-de-France and is situated 35 km north of Paris. It is surrounded by the departments of Somme, Seine-et-Marne, Val-dOise, the major tourist attraction of the department is the Parc Astérix, which opened in 1989. Another very interesting site is Beauvais Cathedral, to be seen is the Chateau de Pierrefonds, restored by Viollet-le-Duc. The art collection of the Château de Chantilly is one of the largest outside Paris, one of the villages along the river Oise is Auvers-sur-Oise, famous for having been visited by several impressionist artists.
This is where Vincent van Gogh spent his last 70 days and it is his and his brother Theos resting place
Peter II, Duke of Bourbon
Peter II, Duke of Bourbon, was the son of Charles I, Duke of Bourbon, and Agnes of Burgundy, and a member of the House of Bourbon. He and his wife Anne of France ruled as regents during the minority of Charles VIII of France, a loyal and capable subject of the crown, Peter earned the grudging respect of Louis XI through his demonstration of the Bourbon familys meekness and humility. Peter and Anne were married on November 3,1473, Peter and Anne immediately took up their duties, and began to position themselves as leaders of a regency government. Having assisted his wife in the governing of France, in 1488 both were able to begin building up a power-base of their own in the Bourbonnais. The new Duke and Duchess of Bourbon proceeded to add to these domains, adding Bourbon-Lancy in December 1488, on 10 May 1491, the pair finally acquired an heir of their own, a daughter, Suzanne. By 1491, the Bourbon influence over the crown was waning, Charles VIII was an adult now, nor were either able to prevent Charles disastrous Italian expeditions, although both were left in control of France on several of his absences.
Both continued to be major figures in the court for the rest of Charles VIIIs reign, without surviving male issue, the next heir to the Bourbon Duchy was Suzanne. It was in the question of the future of Suzanne and the Bourbon territories that Peter and Anne found themselves opposing each another in his final years. With Charles VIII dead and the more cautious Louis XII on the throne, Suzanne needed a husband to support her in her inheritance, which risked being disputed by the crown and the Montpensiers. Peter decided to betroth Suzanne to Charles IV, Duke of Alençon, a favourite of Louis XII and this contract was signed on 21 March 1501 at Moulins, Charles being 11, Suzanne 9. Before this marriage could be completed, Peter died of a fever
Robert, Count of Clermont
Robert of Clermont was created Count of Clermont in 1268. He was the son of King Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence, in 1272, Robert married Beatrice of Burgundy, heiress of Bourbon and had the following issue, Louis I, le Boiteux, first Duke of Bourbon. Blanche of Clermont, married in 1303 in Paris Robert VII, Count of Auvergne and Boulogne, grandmother of Joan I, john of Clermont, Baron of Charolais, married c.1309 Jeanne dArgues, widow of Hugh, Count of Soissons, and had issue. During his first joust, in 1279, Robert suffered head injuries which rendered him an invalid for the remainder of his life, Robert is mentioned in the prologue of the Coutumes de Beauvaisis by Philippe de Beaumanoir. He was buried in the church of the Couvent des Jacobins in Paris. Robert is a character in Les Rois maudits, a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon. He was portrayed by Alexandre Rignault in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, Bourbon family tree French monarchs family tree