Duchy of Cleves
The Duchy of Cleves was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged from the mediaeval Hettergau. It was situated in the northern Rhineland on both sides of the Lower Rhine, around its capital Cleves and the towns of Wesel, Xanten, Emmerich and Duisburg bordering the lands of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster in the east and the Duchy of Brabant in the west, its history is related to that of its southern neighbours: the Duchies of Jülich and Berg, as well as Guelders and the Westphalian county of Mark. The Duchy was archaically known as Cleveland in English; the duchy's territory covered the present-day German districts of Cleves and the city of Duisburg, as well as adjacent parts of the Limburg, North Brabant and Gelderland provinces in the Netherlands. In the early 11th century Emperor Henry II entrusted the administration of the Klever Reichswald, a large forested area around the Kaiserpfalz at Nijmegen directly subordinate to the Imperial rule, to local Lower Lorrainian nobles at Geldern and Kleve.
A County of Cleves was first mentioned in the 11th century. In 1417, the county became a duchy. Upon the death of Count Johann in 1368, the fief was inherited by his nephew Adolf III of the Marck. Cleves and the Marck were ruled in personal union by the House of La Marck after Adolf's elder brother Count Engelbert III had died without issue in 1391. King Sigismund of Germany raised Count Adolph I to the status of a duke and a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1417; the Cleves-Mark territories became one of the most significant estates of the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle in 1500, rivaled by the Prince-Bishops of Münster. In 1511 John III of La Marck, son of Duke John II of Cleves, by his marriage with Maria inherited the fiefs of Jülich and Berge upon the death of his father-in-law Duke William IV; when John III succeeded his father as Duke of Cleves in 1521, the states of Jülich, Berge and Mark formed the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. His daughter Anne of Cleves became Queen Consort of England for a few months in 1540, as her brother William, duke since 1539, quarrelled with Emperor Charles V over the possession of Guelders and sought support from King Henry VIII.
When the last duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berge died issueless in 1609, the War of the Jülich succession broke out. The lands were divided between the Wittelsbach dukes of Palatinate-Neuburg and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, who gained Cleves with Mark and Ravensberg according to the 1614 Treaty of Xanten; the Hohenzollern margraves thereby got a first foothold in the Rhineland. Incorporated into Brandenburg-Prussia by the Great Elector Frederick William I of Brandenburg in 1666 and part of the Kingdom of Prussia after 1701, Cleves was occupied by French forces in the Seven Years' War. In 1795 the Duchy of Cleves west of the Rhine and Wesel was occupied by France, became part of the French département of the Roer; the rest of the duchy was occupied between 1803 and 1805, became part of the département of Yssel-Supérieur and the puppet-state Grand Duchy of Berg. In 1815, after the defeat of Napoleon, the duchy became part of the Prussian Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, which merged in the Prussian Rhine Province in 1822.
The cities Gennep and Huissen became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands as a result of the 1815 Congress of Vienna. 1092–1119 Dietrich I 1119–1147 Arnold I 1147–1172 Dietrich II 1172–1188 Dietrich III 1188–1198 Dietrich IV 1198–1201 Arnold II 1201–1260 Dietrich V 1260–1275 Dietrich VI 1275–1305 Dietrich VII of Meissen 1305–1310 Otto I the Peaceable 1310–1347 Dietrich VIII the Pious 1347–1368 Johann 1368–1394 Adolf III of the Marck 1394–1448 Adolph I, son of Adolf III 1394–1448 Adolph I, Duke of Cleves 1448–1481 John I, son of Adolph I 1481–1521 John II the Pious, son of John I 1521–1539 John III the Peaceful, son of John II 1539–1592 William the Rich, son of John III 1592–1609 John William, son of William Edicts of Jülich, Berg, Grand Duchy Berg, 1475–1815 online Settlement of Dortmund between Brandenburg and Palatinate-Neuburg and the conflict of succession in Jülich, in full text Map of the Duchy of Cleves in 1789
Francis I, Duke of Nevers
Francis I of Cleves, was a commander in the French Royal Army and the first Duke of Nevers. He participated in the suppression of the Amboise conspiracy; the only son of Charles II of Nevers and Marie d'Albret, Countess of Rethel, Francis succeeded his father as Count of Nevers and Eu. In 1539 he became Duke of Nevers; when his mother died in 1549, he inherited the title of Count of Rethel. In 1538, Francis married Marguerite of Bourbon-La Marche, daughter of Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Françoise of Alençon, they had five children: Duke of Nevers, 2nd Duke. Henriette of Cleves. James, Duke of Nevers, 3rd Duke, no issue. Catherine of Cleves. Marie of Cleves. Boltanski, Ariane. Les ducs de Nevers et l'État royal: genèse d'un compromis. Librairie Droz. Potter, David. Keen, Maurice, ed. A History of France, 1460–1560: The Emergence of a Nation State. Macmillan
Henry V of England
Henry V called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England from 1413 until his early death in 1422. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster. Despite his short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe. Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England. In his youth, during the reign of his father Henry IV, Henry gained military experience fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr and against the powerful aristocratic Percy family of Northumberland at the Battle of Shrewsbury. Henry acquired an increasing share in England's government due to the king's declining health, but disagreements between father and son led to political conflict between the two. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt and saw him come close to conquering France. Taking advantage of political divisions within France, he conquered large portions of the kingdom and Normandy was occupied by the English for the first time since 1345–1360. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes recognised Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne and he was subsequently married to Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois. Following this arrangement, everything seemed to point to the formation of a union between the kingdoms of France and England, in the person of King Henry, his sudden and unexpected death in France two years condemned England to the long and difficult minority of his infant son and successor, who reigned as Henry VI in England and Henry II in France. Henry was born in the tower above the gatehouse of Monmouth Castle in Wales, for that reason was sometimes called Henry of Monmouth.
He was the son of Henry of Bolingbroke and Mary de Bohun, thus the paternal grandson of the influential John of Gaunt, great-grandson of Edward III of England. At the time of his birth, Richard II, his first cousin once removed, was king. Henry's grandfather, John of Gaunt, was the king's guardian; as he was not close to the line of succession to the throne, Henry's date of birth was not documented. However, records indicate that his younger brother Thomas was born in the autumn of 1387 and that his parents were at Monmouth in 1386 but not in 1387, it is now accepted that he was born on 16 September 1386. Upon the exile of Henry's father in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge and treated him kindly; the young Henry accompanied King Richard to Ireland. While in the royal service, he visited Trim Castle in County Meath, the ancient meeting place of the Irish Parliament. In 1399, Henry's grandfather died. In the same year, King Richard II was overthrown by the Lancastrian usurpation that brought Henry's father to the throne and Henry was recalled from Ireland into prominence as heir apparent to the Kingdom of England.
He was created Prince of Wales at his father's coronation and Duke of Lancaster on 10 November 1399, the third person to hold the title that year. His other titles were Duke of Earl of Chester and Duke of Aquitaine. A contemporary record notes that during that year, Henry spent time at The Queen's College, Oxford under the care of his uncle Henry Beaufort, the chancellor of the university. From 1400 to 1404, he carried out the duties of High Sheriff of Cornwall. Less than three years Henry was in command of part of the English forces, he led his own army into Wales against Owain Glyndŵr and joined forces with his father to fight Henry "Hotspur" Percy at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403. It was there that the sixteen-year-old prince was killed by an arrow that became stuck in his face. An ordinary soldier might have died from such a wound, but Henry had the benefit of the best possible care. Over a period of several days, John Bradmore, the royal physician, treated the wound with honey to act as an antiseptic, crafted a tool to screw into the broken arrow shaft and thus extract the arrow without doing further damage, flushed the wound with alcohol.
The operation was successful, but it left Henry with permanent scars, evidence of his experience in battle. For eighteen months in 1410–11, Henry was in control of the country during his father's ill health and took full advantage of the opportunity to impose his own policies; when the king recovered, he dismissed the prince from his council. The Welsh revolt of Owain Glyndŵr absorbed Henry's energies until 1408; as a result of the king's ill health, Henry began to take a wider share in politics. From January 1410, helped by his uncles Henry Beaufort and Thomas Beaufort, legitimised sons of John of Gaunt, he had practical control of the government. Both in foreign and domestic policy he differed from the king, who discharged the prince from the council in November 1411; the quarrel of father and son was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had discussed the abdication of Henry IV. Their opponents endeavoured to defame the prince, it may be that the tradition of Henry's riotous youth, immortalised by Shakespeare, is due to political enmity.
Henry's record of involvement in war and politics in his youth, disproves this tradition. The most famous incident, his quarrel wi
John II, Count of Nevers
John II, Count of Nevers was a French noble. John was the son of Philip II, Count of Nevers by his wife, Bonne of Artois, daughter of Philip of Artois, Count of Eu. John's elder brother, Charles I, Count of Nevers and Rethel, had no legitimate children, so on his death in 1464 his titles passed to John. In 1472, his uncle Charles of Artois, Count of Eu, having no legitimate children, his title passed to John. John fought in the army of his stepfather Philip the Good and was active in Picardy, Calais and Flanders, but he clashed with Philip's successor, Charles the Bold, he defected to King Louis XI of France. He fought alongside Louis XI in the War of the Public Weal and became Lieutenant General of Normandy. John was first married on 24 November 1435 in Amiens, to Jacqueline d'Ailly, Dame d'Engelmuenster, they had two children: Elizabeth, who married John I, Duke of Cleves. Philip. Upon Jacqueline's death in 1470 he married secondly on 30 August 1471, in Château de Boussac, to Pauline de Brosse, daughter of Jean II de Brosse.
They had one child: Charlotte, who married John d'Albret and had a daughter, Marie d'Albret, Countess of Rethel. John's final marriage was on 11 March 1480, to Marie d'Albret. Boltanski, Ariane. Les ducs de Nevers et l'État royal: genèse d'un compromis. Librairie Droz S. A. Vaughan, Richard. Philip the Good; the Boydell Press. Cawley, Burgundy Duchy, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
Countess of Eu
This is a list of the countesses of Eu, a French fief in the Middle Ages. Raoul IV was accused of treason in 1350, the county was confiscated; the county was given to John of Artois. None None Countess of Artois Duchess of Nevers Duchess of Guise Duchess of Orléans Duchess of Aumale Edmund Chester Waters,'The Counts of Eu, Sometime Lords of the Honour of Tickhill', The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Journal, No. 9