Trifels Castle is a reconstructed medieval castle at an elevation of 500 m near the small town of Annweiler, in the Palatinate region of southwestern Germany. It is located high above the Queich valley within the Palatinate Forest on one peak of a red sandstone mountain split into three. Trifels Castle is on the peak of the Sonnenberg, on both of the other two rock elevations there are castle ruins: Anebos Castle and Scharfenberg Castle. Trifels Castle has been restored since the 19th century and today replicas of the Imperial Regalia of the Holy Roman Empire are on display here, it is—together with Hambach Castle—one of the most popular tourist destinations in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The castle in Rhenish Franconia was first mentioned in a 1081 deed of donation, when it was held by a local noble Diemar, a relative of Archbishop Siegfried I of Mainz. From him Trifels passed to the Imperial Salian dynasty. Emperor Henry V in 1113 made it a Reichsburg, rejecting the inheritance claims raised by Archbishop Adalbert of Mainz.
The archbishop, allied with Henry's opponent Lothair of Supplinburg, had to spend several years of imprisonment at Trifels. Upon the death of Emperor Henry V in 1125, his nephew Duke Frederick II of Swabia made the castle a place of safekeeping for the Imperial Regalia of the Hohenstaufen emperors until in 1220 Frederick II of Hohenstaufen moved them to Waldburg Castle in Swabia. Trifels Castle is famous as the site where Richard the Lionheart, King of England was imprisoned after he was captured by Duke Leopold V of Austria near Vienna in December 1192 on his return from the Third Crusade. Handed over to Emperor Henry VI of Hohenstaufen, a period of three weeks of captivity at Trifels from 31 March to 19 April 1193 is well documented. According to one legend, Richard was found by the trobador Blondel de Nesle, who reported the king's location to his friends. Trifels Castle lost its importance with the Interregnum. After the fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, the castle was pledged several times.
In 1330, it was mortgaged to the Electoral Palatinate. It fell to the Dukes of Palatinate-Simmern and Zweibrücken in 1410 and decayed after the Thirty Years' War. Deserted and derelict, the ruin served as a stone quarry, as a result of which the late-Romanesque residential building completely disappeared and the outer bailey for the most part. From about 1840, the Wittelsbach kings of Bavaria had the castle rebuilt. After Ludwig I of Bavaria had reconstruction plans prepared by his court architect August von Voit in 1851, Georg von Schacky made a reconstruction drawing in 1881 and the Trifels Association had carried out structural measures in 1882, in particular the erection of the great well arch, the Munich architect Rudolf Esterer designed a monumental rebuilding project following the model of south Italian Hohenstaufen castles, initiated by the Trifels Association and born by the cultural-political ideology of the Nazi epoch; the Nazi era reconstruction in 1938-1942 and reconstructions in 1946-1959, 1960, 1963-1966, 1972-1978 and 1988-1989 utilized in part the preserved walls from the Middle Ages or those found by archaeological investigations in 1935-1937, but in many cases rigorously ignored the original medieval findings and created an architectural reinterpretation of the 20th century.
The present-day castle is in large parts not true to the medieæval original. It is characterized by a large well tower outside the ring wall, linked to the castle by a bridge; the surrounding rocky landscape is a popular venue for mountaineers
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
Lords of Eppstein
The Lords of Eppstein were a family of German nobility in the Middle Ages. From the 12th century they ruled extensive territories in the Rhine Main area from their castle in Eppstein, northwest of Frankfurt, Germany. Between 1180 and 1190, the Archbishop of Mainz enfeoffed Eppstein Castle, along with neighboring district courts and villages to Gerhard III of Hainhausen. Gerhard changed his name to Eppstein and having control of the present-day district of Offenbach, became the first in the line, soon to become one of the most influential families in the Rhine Main area. Four of the seven Archbishops of Mainz and Electoral Princes in the 13th century were of the house of Eppstein, they raised the Electorate to considerable power and played a significant role in the politics of the Holy Roman Empire. In the struggle between the Emperor and the Pope, Archbishop Siegfried III took sides with the anti-Staufer group which played an important part in the beginnings of German federalism; the secular Eppsteiners, by purchase and enfeoffment, acquired extensive territories and rights between Middle Rhine to the Vogelsberg hills and between the Lahn River to the Odenwald.
The realm of the Lords of Eppstein was divided in 1433 between brothers Gottfried VII and Eberhard II. The last of these branches became extinct in 1535 and Eppstein was passed to the Landgraves of Hesse and the Ecclesiastical Principality of Mainz. Bad Homburg vor der Höhe Walter Pietsch: Die Entwicklung des Territoriums der Herren von Eppstein im 12. Und 13. Jahrhundert, vornehmlich aufgrund ihrer Lehensverzeichnisse. In: HJL. 12, 1962, S. 15–50. Regina Schäfer: Die Herren von Eppstein. Herrschaftsausübung, Verwaltung und Besitz eines Hochadelsgeschlechts im Spätmittelalter. Historische Kommission für Nassau, Wiesbaden 2000, ISBN 3-930221-08-X
Königstein im Taunus
Königstein im Taunus is a health spa and lies on the thickly wooded slopes of the Taunus in Hesse, Germany. The town is part of the Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area. Owing to its advantageous location for both scenery and transport on the edge of the Frankfurt Rhine Main Region, Königstein is a favourite residential town. Neighbouring places are Kronberg im Taunus, Glashütten, Schwalbach am Taunus, Bad Soden am Taunus and Kelkheim. Königstein borders - from northwest to east - on the communities of Glashütten, Schmitten and Kronberg, from southeast to southwest on Schwalbach, Bad Soden and Kelkheim. Besides the main town, which bears the same name as the whole, Königstein has three outlying centres: Falkenstein and Schneidhain. Since 2001, Falkenstein has borne the designation Heilklimatischer Kurort independently of the town's status as such. Shrouded in legend, the town's founding date is unknown; the name'Königstein' means'King stone'. The local legend states that King Chlodwig, founded the town after building a castle on a hill as well as a chapel.
Königstein had its first documentary mention in 1215, making it likelier that the castle was built around the 12th century for the town's – and the Frankfurt-Cologne commercial road's – security. In that time came the town's first lords, the Counts of Nürings, but they were supplanted in 1239 by the Lords of Hagen-Münzenberg into whose ownership the castle went as an Imperial fief; the Lords of Hagen-Münzenberg were in turn followed by the Lords of Bolanden-Falkenstein from 1255 to 1418, under whose rule Königstein was granted town rights in 1313. The Lords of Bolanden-Falkenstein were succeeded by the Lords of Eppstein, who were themselves followed by the Counts of Stolberg in 1535, it was they. By 1581, Königstein belonged to the Electorate of Mainz, which had incorporated the old County by force. Early in the 17th century, in connection with the Counterreformation, the castle was remodelled into a mighty fortress, but this newer military stronghold met its end in the French Revolutionary Wars when the French blew it up in 1796, although this may have been unintentional..
In 1803, Königstein passed to the Principality of Nassau-Usingen, which itself merged with Nassau-Weilburg to form the Duchy of Nassau. By 1866 it was in Prussian hands, since 1945, it has been part of Hesse; the three constituent communities mentioned herein were amalgamated with Königstein as part of Hesse's municipal reforms in 1972. Königstein enjoyed an economic upswing from less wealthy times when the coldwater spa first opened in 1851, it reached its high point. The designation Heilklimatischer Kurort was granted in 1935, is still borne by the town, now independently by the constituent community of Falkenstein. Königstein was regarded as a "Jewish spa" - this was in the era of National Socialism a topic; the city became famous as "Jewish spa" due to the high proportions of Jewish guests, who stayed in the internationally famous sanitarium Dr. Kohnstamm and Hotel Cahn, which offered kosher food. For these reasons, Königstein was an attractive city to visit for a day trip for many Jews in Frankfurt.
Königstein became more accessible from Frankfurt am Main in 1906, when the railway between Königstein and Frankfurt was built. Königstein was the residence of prominent Jewish citizens, who in turn brought their friends and guests there; the poet Stefan George, e.g. often visited his school friend Oskar Kohnstamm, after Kohnstamm's death in 1917 and the sale of Kohnstamm's sanatorium, moved to Königstein to be near his sister, Anna George. In her apartment he received members of the George circle; these include for example the poet Ernst Morwitz. George's and Kohnstamm's honored school friend Karl Wolfskehl had contacts to the Sanatorium Dr. Amelung, whose director had been a friend of Oskar Kohnstamm. After Kohnstamm's death in 1917 until 1938 the owner of the renowned Kohnstamm sanatorium was Carl Frankl. Carl was a brother of the famous World War I fighter pilot Wilhelm Frankl. While in 1937, 24 hotels and guest houses still refused to do so and accepted Jewish guests, the following year, in 1938, all 54 hotels and guest houses in Königstein complied with Nazi law and added the following sentence to their advertisements: "All the guest houses are run Jew-free."
Königstein's mayor in 1938 commented on the reputation of Königstein as Jewish spa town in the context of public discussions of a suggested continued existence with the Jewish name kept of the Sanatorium Dr. Kohnstamm instead of the Aryanization preferred by the mayor himself, that "the reputation of Königstein as ‘Jews' resort' would yet again be cemented in an irreparable way". After the Holocaust famous people of Jewish descent settled in Königstein. Thus, e.g. Max Dessoir moved here for his retirement (he had lived there once before in the'Sanatorium Amelung
The Wetterau is a fertile undulating tract, watered by the Wetter, a tributary of the Nidda River, in the western German state of Hesse, between the hilly province Oberhessen and the north-western Taunus mountains. Bettina von Arnim writes of Wetterau in her text Diary of a Child in the chapter "Journey to the Wetterau"; the Wetterau is located north of Frankfurt am Main, on the eastern side of the Taunus and south-west of the Vogelsberg. The main part of the region is taken up by the political region Wetteraukreis; the region got its name form the small creek Wetter, but the region is crossed by several other creeks and rivers--for example, the Nidda, Nidder and Usa. The Wetterau is one of the oldest cultural landscapes in Germany, it was always a fertile region and was populous from as early as the Neolithic Age. Artifacts from successive civilizations that populated the area exist. Prominent discoveries are tombs from Stufe Wölfersheim or from the Celts, Glauberg. Many historical findings are exhibited in the Wetterau-Museum in Friedberg.
The Wetterau was of high strategic relevance for the Roman Empire during its advance into the free Germania. After the end of the Germanic and Gallic wars a number of Roman forts and roads were built in the Wetterau. A series of fortifications, part of the Limes, surrounded the fertile Wetterau region; the region was part of Germania. The first documented reference is from 779 in the Codex Aureus of Lorsch; the economic power of the Wetterau has increased continuously through specific promotion of its urban centres Frankfurt am Main, Wetzlar and Friedberg since Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor. The cities with their magnificent buildings were important bases for the royal travels and central places for exercising royal rights in the areas of economy and jurisdiction; the economic power was reflected in the right for coinage of the Lords of Hagen-Münzenberg and the urban right to hold markets. Since the 13th century the latter developed into a regular series of fairs in Frankfurt and Friedberg; the Frankfurt Trade Fair still continues this tradition nowadays.
At the end of the Staufer period and with the extinction of the Münzenberg family in 1255 the different political powers of the Wetterau became more obvious, in particular the powerful families in Hanau and Isenburg-Büdingen. The regional unity of the Wetterau was not a political concept, but rather its result. Since 1422 the late medieval policy led to establishment of the estates of the realm, the alliance of knights, lords and counts of the Wetterau; these supported the development of a regional identity that survived increasing urban differentiation. Four stabilizing elements characterize the transition from medieval to modern times in the Wetterau: Four imperial cities, of which only Frankfurt had significance. Kümmerly+Frey: The New International Atlas. Rand McNally
Ministerialis were people raised up from serfdom to be placed in positions of power and responsibility. In the Holy Roman Empire, in the High Middle Ages, the word and its German translations and Dienstmann, came to describe those unfree nobles who made up a large majority of what could be described as the German knighthood during that time. What began as an irregular arrangement of workers with a wide variety of duties and restrictions rose in status and wealth to become the power brokers of an empire; the ministeriales were not free people, but held social rank. Their liege lord determined whom they could or could not marry, they were not able to transfer their lords' properties to heirs or spouses, they were, considered members of the nobility since, a social designation, not a legal one. Ministeriales were trained knights, held military responsibilities and surrounded themselves with the trappings of knighthood, so were accepted as noblemen. Both women and men held the ministerial status, the laws on ministeriales made no distinction between the sexes in how they were treated.
The origin of the ministerial pedigree is obscure. A mediaeval chronicler reported that Julius Caesar defeated the Gauls and rewarded his Germanic allies with Roman rank. Princes were awarded senatorial status and their lesser knights received Roman citizenship, he assigned these'knights' to princes but urged the princes "to treat the knights not as slaves and servants but rather to receive their services as the knights' lords and defenders. "Hence it is," the chronicler explained, "that German knights, unlike their counterparts in other nations, are called servants of the royal fisc and princely ministerials." In England there was no group of knights referred to as ministeriales, for the tight grip that English lords held upon their knights gave them less freedom than their German counterparts who had codified rights. Abbot Adalard of Corbie was Emperor Charlemagne's chief adviser, described the running of the government in his work De ordine palatii. There he praises the great merits of his imperial staff, made up of household servii proprii who were the first ministerials authoritatively recorded.
His letters specify that not only were they considered exceptional by their superiors, but the ministerials mentored their successors in a form of administrative apprenticeship program. This may be the origin of ministerials as individuals in a set position, it was Emperor Conrad II. He had them organized into a staff of administrators. In documents they are referred to ministerial men. Ministeriales of the post-Classical period who were not in the royal household were at first bondsmen or serfs taken from the servi proprii, or household servants These servants were entrusted with special responsibilities by their overlords, such as the management of a farm, administration of finances or of various possessions. Free nobles disliked entering into servile relationships with other nobles, so lords of a necessity recruited bailiffs and officials from among their unfree servants who could fulfill a household warrior role. From the 11th century the term came to denote functionaries living as members of the knightly class with either a lordship of their own or one delegated from a higher lord as well as some political influence.
Kings placed military requirements upon their princes, who in turn, placed requirements upon their vassals. The free nobles under a prince may have a bond of vassalage that let them get out of serving, so kings, princes and archbishops were able to recruit unfree persons into military service; such a body made up the group called ministeriales. There were two sorts of ministerials: casati, who administered lands and estates for a liege and were paid from the proceeds of the land and non-casati, who held administrative and military positions but were paid in either a fixed amount of coin or by a portion of the proceeds of mills, road or bridge tolls, or ferry fees or port taxes; as the need for such service functions became more acute, their duties and privileges, at first nebulous, became more defined, the ministeriales developed in the Salian period into a new and much differentiated class. They received fiefs, which to begin with were not heritable, in return for which they provided knightly services.
They were allowed to possess, did hold, allods: ownership of real property, independent of any superior landlord, but it should not be confused with anarchy as the owner of allodial land is not independent of his sovereign. Ministerials were found holding the four great offices necessary to run a great household: seneschal, butler and chamberlain, they were castellans, having both military and administrative responsibilities. Conrad II of Kuchl was the financial adviser to four archbishops over the course of 40 years. From the reign of Archbishop Conrad II they were employed as stewards and judges in the administration of the imperial territories, in the lay principalities; as Imperial ministerials they upheld the Salian, the Hohenst
Frankfurt is a metropolis and the largest city of the German federal state of Hesse, its 746,878 inhabitants make it the fifth-largest city of Germany after Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne. On the River Main, it forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring city of Offenbach am Main, its urban area has a population of 2.3 million. The city is at the centre of the larger Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.5 million and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr Region. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the geographic centre of the EU is about 40 km to the east of Frankfurt's central business district. Like France and Franconia, the city is named after the Franks. Frankfurt is the largest city in the Rhine Franconian dialect area. Frankfurt was a city state, the Free City of Frankfurt, for nearly five centuries, was one of the most important cities of the Holy Roman Empire, as a site of imperial coronations, it has been part of the federal state of Hesse since 1945.
A quarter of the population are foreign nationals, including many expatriates. Frankfurt is an alpha world city and a global hub for commerce, education and transportation, it is the site of many European corporate headquarters. Frankfurt Airport is among the world's busiest. Frankfurt is the major financial centre of the European continent, with the headquarters of the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW, several cloud and fintech startups and other institutes. Automotive and research, consulting and creative industries complement the economic base. Frankfurt's DE-CIX is the world's largest internet exchange point. Messe Frankfurt is one of the world's largest trade fairs. Major fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show, the world's largest motor show, the Music Fair, the Frankfurt Book Fair, the world's largest book fair. Frankfurt is home to influential educational institutions, including the Goethe University, the UAS, the FUMPA, graduate schools like the Frankfurt School of Finance & Management.
Its renowned cultural venues include the concert hall Alte Oper, Europe's largest English theatre and many museums. Frankfurt's skyline is shaped by some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers; the city is characterised by various green areas and parks, including the central Wallanlagen, the City Forest and two major botanical gardens, the Palmengarten and the University's Botanical Garden. Important is the Frankfurt Zoo. In electronic music, Frankfurt has been a pioneering city since the 1980s, with renowned DJs including Sven Väth, Marc Trauner, Scot Project, Kai Tracid, the clubs Dorian Gray, U60311, Omen and Cocoon. In sports, the city is known as the home of the top tier football club Eintracht Frankfurt, the Löwen Frankfurt ice hockey team, the basketball club Frankfurt Skyliners, the Frankfurt Marathon and the venue of Ironman Germany. Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe, it is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange and several large commercial banks.
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the world's largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market. In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had their registered offices in Frankfurt, including Germany's major banks, notably Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW and Commerzbank, as well as 41 representative offices of international banks. Frankfurt is considered a global city. Among global cities it was ranked 10th by the Global Power City Index 2011 and 11th by the Global City Competitiveness Index 2012. Among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2013 and 9th by the Global Financial Centres Index 2013, its central location within Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air and road transport hub. Frankfurt Airport is one of the world's busiest international airports by passenger traffic and the main hub for Germany's flag carrier Lufthansa. Frankfurt Central Station is one of the largest rail stations in Europe and the busiest junction operated by Deutsche Bahn, the German national railway company, with 342 trains a day to domestic and European destinations.
Frankfurter Kreuz, the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most used interchange in the EU, used by 320,000 cars daily. In 2011 human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual'Quality of Living' survey of cities around the world. According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germany's most expensive city and the world's 10th most expensive. Frankfurt has many high-rise buildings in the city centre, forming the Frankfurt skyline, it is one of the few cities in the European Union to have such a skyline and because of it Germans sometimes refer to Frankfurt as Mainhattan, a portmanteau of the local Main River and Manhattan. The other well known and obvious nickname is Bankfurt. Before World War II the city was globally noted for its unique old town with timber-framed buildings, the largest timber-framed old town in Europe; the Römer area was rebuilt and is popular with visitors and for eve