County Championship

The County Championship known as the Specsavers County Championship for sponsorship reasons, is the domestic first-class cricket competition in England and Wales and is organised by the England and Wales Cricket Board. It became an official title in 1890; the competition consists of eighteen clubs named after, representing, historic counties, seventeen from England and one from Wales. From 2016, the Championship has been sponsored by Specsavers, who replaced Liverpool Victoria after 14 years; the earliest known inter-county match was played in 1709. Until 1889, the concept of an unofficial county championship existed whereby various claims would be made by or on behalf of a particular club as the "Champion County", an archaic term which now has the specific meaning of a claimant for the unofficial title prior to 1890. In contrast, the term "County Champions" applies in common parlance to a team that has won the official title; the most usual means of claiming the unofficial title was by popular or press acclaim.

In the majority of cases, the claim or proclamation was retrospective by cricket writers using reverse analysis via a study of known results. The unofficial title was not proclaimed in every season up to 1889 because in many cases there were not enough matches or there was no clear candidate. Having been badly hit by the Seven Years' War, county cricket ceased altogether during the Napoleonic Wars and there was a period from 1797 to 1824 during which no inter-county matches took place; the concept of the unofficial title has been utilised ad hoc and relied on sufficient interest being shown. The official County Championship was constituted in a meeting at Lord's on 10 December 1889, called to enable club secretaries to determine the 1890 fixtures. While this was going on, representatives of the eight leading county clubs held a private meeting to discuss the method by which the county championship should in future be decided; the new competition began in the 1890 season and at first involved just the eight leading clubs: Gloucestershire, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire, Surrey and Yorkshire.

Subsequently, the championship has been expanded to 18 clubs by the additions at various times of Derbyshire, Essex, Hampshire, Northamptonshire, Somerset and Worcestershire. It is difficult to know. While early matches were between teams named after counties, they were not the club teams the usage would imply today. Rowland Bowen states in his history that the earliest usage of the term "County Championship" occurred in 1837 re a match between Kent and Nottingham Cricket Club which for the purposes of that match was called Nottinghamshire; that may be so re the actual terminology but closer examination of the sources does indicate a much earlier expression of the idea. The earliest known inter-county match was in 1709 between Kent and Surrey but match results are unknown until the 1720s; the first time a source refers to the superiority of one county is in respect of a match between Edwin Stead's XI from Kent and Sir William Gage's XI from Sussex at Penshurst Park in August 1728. Stead's side won by an unknown margin and the source states that "this was the third time this summer that the Kent men have been too expert for those of Sussex".

The following year, Gage's team "turned the scales" and defeated Stead's side, prompting a source to remark that " for some years past has been on the Kentish side". In 1730, a newspaper referred to the "Kentish champions"; these statements indicate that inter-county matches had been played for many years and that there was keen rivalry with each team seeking ascendancy. Inter-county cricket was popular throughout the 18th century although the best team, such as Kent in the 1740s or Hampshire in the days of the Hambledon Club, was acknowledged as such by being matched against an "All England" team. There were a number of contemporary allusions to the best county including some in verse, such as one by a Kent supporter celebrating a victory over Hampshire in terms of " bring down the pride of the Hambledon Club". Analysis of 18th century matches has identified a number of strong teams who or proclaimed their temporal superiority; the most successful county teams were Hampshire, Middlesex and Sussex.

But there was a crossover between town and county with some strong local clubs tending at times to represent a whole county. Examples are London, which played against county teams and was in some respects a county club in itself. Other good county teams in the 18th century were Berkshire and Middlesex. Using the same sort of reverse analysis, it is possible to compile a list of the most competitive teams from the recommencement of county cricket in 1825. Rowland Bowen published his ideas about this in the 1960s when he was the editor of the Cricket Quarterly periodical, he began by stating that Sussex was publicly acknowledged as the "best county" in the 1827 season when they played against All England in the roundarm trial matches, although the team's involvement in these matches had more to do with the fact that Sussex was the prime mover in the "roundarm revolution". Kent, which had a celebrated team at the time, has long been acknowledged as a champion county in most seasons of the 1840s but in other years there is no clear-cut contender.

The middle years of the 19th century are the period of county club formation. So, when titl

Clover Site

The Clover Site is a Fort Ancient culture archeological site located near Lesage in Cabell County, West Virginia, United States. It is significant for its well-preserved remains of a late prehistoric/protohistoric Native American village; the site's unique assemblage has made it the type site for the Clover Phase of the Madisonville horizon of the Fort Ancient culture. The site was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1992; the site is located 20 miles north of Huntington on a high flood terrace of the Ohio River, within the Green Bottom Wildlife Management Area. At 5 acres, it was a large village with a semi-circular layout, it had a centrally located plaza surrounded by habitation areas similar to other Fort Ancient sites, although a palisade such as ones found at other sites has yet to be found at Clover. The site once was described as having three raised mound like areas 5 feet high and 200 feet wide, but they can no longer be located. Investigations at the site have produced Native American produced shell-tempered ceramics, stone tools, bone tools, ornaments.

Items of European manufacture, including brass and copper ornaments and glass trade beads have definitively dated the upper levels of the site to the protohistoric period. The artifact assemblages found at the site by avocational archaeologists such as John J. Adams and S. F. Dunett in the 1920s and professional investigations in the 1940s by James B. Griffin, enabled Griffin to propose the Clover Phase of the Madisonville complex that spanned the years 1550 to 1600, a way of identifying this protohistoric time period at other contemporary sites in the region. Other investigations were undertaken at the site in the 1980s by Nicholas Freidin of Marshall University, who conducted an archaeological field school there from 1984 to 1988. Items excavated from the site are now part of the John Adams Collection of artifacts curated by the Huntington Museum of Art. Other sites with significant Clover Phase habitations include the Lower Shawneetown Site, the Buffalo Site, the Hardin Village Site, the Madisonville Site, the Rolfe Lee Site, Logan Site and Marmet Village Site.

Pottery excavated from many of these different sites, with types including Madisonville Plain, Cordmarked, or Smoothed Cordmarked wares, have a unique feature, found in pottery from sites to the west of the Clover Site and are common at sites to its east. This suggest that Clover site people maintained closer contact with sites such as Buffalo, Gue Farm and Rolfe Lee than with other sites that were to its west. Other exotic artifacts found at the site, such as shell gorgets associated with the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, pottery effigy bowls, figurines show a connection with Mississippian culture villages in what is now eastern Tennessee

Kyle Cassidy

Kyle Cassidy is an American photographer and videographer who lives in West Philadelphia. He holds a BA in English from Rowan University, holds an MCSE, he is the author of the book Armed America: Portraits of Gun Owners in Their Homes. In 1993 Cassidy wrote SATURN: A Beginners Guide to Using the Internet, followed by Stickman's Way Cool Guide to Network Wizardry. Cassidy published two additional technology books, The Concise Guide to Enterprise Internetworking and Security and Introduction to Windows 2000 Network Administration, he co-wrote the paper "Can You Trust Your Email?" in 1993, warning of a flaw in the protocol used to deliver email, which could allow information to be forged. Cassidy's "Photo-a-Week" project lets viewers into his life on a weekly basis starting on January 1, 2000, his photographic style involves a sense of humor. Laws of nature are applied inconsistently. "I think the world in my photographs is a lot darker in many ways than the real world that people insulate themselves in, but it's a lot funnier.

My world is malevolent but humorous, as opposed to the real world, malevolent and relentless, but is packaged in a friendly box and rabbit ears," he said in a 2004 interview with A. D. Amorosi in the October issue of Art Matters, his images explore themes of "truth" and "fiction". This culminated in his July 2006 show "Lies" at the Sol gallery in Philadelphia. "Photography," he says in the artist's statement for that show "is about lies just as much as it is about the truth."His work with cutters and homeless orphans presaged his 2004 fascination with American gun owners which led to the book, Armed America: Portraits of Gun Owners in Their Homes, which provided a view into the lives of a controversial culture, praised by advocates of both gun control and gun ownership. It was named by Amazon as both one of the ten best art books of 2007, as one of the 100 best books of 2007. Cassidy's approach to shooting portraits has resulted in album art, his portraits are shot in context, but in the early days of Occupy Wall Street he set up mini-portrait studios at both the NYC and Philly protests, to remove the context and focus on the individuality of the people attending.

The photos were published at the Huffington Post. He hung a show of the Occupy shots at the Bluestocking Gallery in Manhattan. In another project, he took photographs of the scientists responsible for the discoveries of the New Horizons probe. In 2012, Cassidy released War Paint: Tattoo Culture & the Armed Forces, a book of photographs and interviews with tattooed veteran soldiers. In 2013, he became involved with the North Dakota Man Camp Project, a project to document the lives of oil workers in the area around the Bakken formation. Photos from the project appeared in a photo essay and the open access edited collection The Bakken Goes Boom: Oil and the Changing Geographies of Western North Dakota, published by The Digital Press at the University of North Dakota. In October 2013, his poster and photo for the Curio Theatre Company's production of Romeo and Juliet led to an interview published in the New York Times. In 2014, Cassidy's photo essay, "This Is What a Librarian Looks Like", based on photographs taken at an American Library Association event, was published on

He continued to photograph librarians and libraries in the following years, culminating in the publication of a 2017 photobook, This Is What a Librarian Looks Like: A Celebration of Libraries and Access to Information. He has written books on information technology, as well as working as contributing editor for Videomaker Magazine, his work has appeared in the New York Times, Barron's Magazine, Photographers Forum, The Huffington Post, Asleep by Dawn, Gothic Beauty and numerous other publications. His works include: Cassidy, Kyle; this Is What a Librarian Looks Like: A Celebration of Libraries and Access to Information. New York: Hachette Book Group. ISBN 9780316393980 Cassidy, Kyle. War Paint: Tattoo Culture & the Armed Forces. Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 9780764340864. Amanda Palmer. Who Killed Amanda Palmer: A Collection of Photographic Evidence. New York: Eight Foot Books. ISBN 978-0-615-23439-7. Cassidy, Kyle. Armed America: Portraits of Gun Owners in Their Homes. Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-89689-543-0.

Cassidy, Kyle. Introduction to Windows 2000 Network Administration. Que Publishing. ISBN 0-7897-2419-7. Cassidy, Kyle; the Concise Guide to Enterprise Internetworking and Security. Que Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7897-2420-5. Cassidy, Kyle. Stickman's Way Cool Guide to Network Wizardry. Glassboro, NJ: Rowan College Academic Computing Press. Cassidy, Kyle. SATURN: A Beginners Guide To Using the Internet. Glassboro, NJ: Rowan College Academic Computing Press. Official website Eifling, Sam. "Moving Targets". ESPN Book Review. Retrieved May 25, 2008. Cassidy, Kyle. "Cassidy Blog". Archived from the original on October 12, 2009. Retrieved May 25, 2008. Bender, Ross. "The Fabulous Kyle Cassidy Tribute Page". Archived from the original on January 23, 2009. Retrieved May 25, 2008. Interstitiality within Photography: an interview with Kyle Cassidy, "Kyle Cassidy: The Unpredictable Eye: Part 1". The Leica Camera Blog. "Kyle Cassidy: The Unpredictable Eye: Part 2". The Leica Camera Blog