Westminster tube station
Westminster is a London Underground station in the City of Westminster. It is served by the Circle and Jubilee lines, on the Circle and District lines, the station is between St. Jamess Park and Embankment, and on the Jubilee line it is between Green Park and Waterloo. It is in Travelcard Zone 1, close by are Downing Street, the Cenotaph, Westminster Millennium Pier, the Treasury, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, and the Supreme Court. The station was opened as Westminster Bridge on 24 December 1868 by the steam-operated District Railway when the railway opened the first section of its line from South Kensington. It was originally the terminus of the DR and the station cutting ended at a concrete wall buffered by timber sleepers. The approach to the station from the west runs in cut and cover tunnel under the roadway of Broad Sanctuary and diagonally under Parliament Square. In Broad Sanctuary the tunnel is close to Westminster Abbey and St Margarets church, access to the station was via a passageway from Bridge Street and a pedestrian subway under the road.
On 30 May 1870, the railway was extended to Blackfriars, on 1 February 1872, the DR opened a northbound branch from its station at Earls Court to connect to the West London Extension Joint Railway at Addison Road. From that date the Outer Circle service began running over the DRs tracks, the service was operated jointly by the H&CR and the DR. On 30 June 1900, the Middle Circle service was shortened to terminate at Earls Court, and, on 31 December 1908, as part of efforts to improve competitiveness, the DRs tracks were electrified during 1905 and new electric rolling stock was brought into use. In 1907, the station was given its present name, Westminster, by the mid-1890s the station entrance had been incorporated into a larger building. These were the first of many projects by the architect for the London Electric Railway, in 1949, the Metropolitan line-operated Inner Circle route was given its own identity on the tube map as the Circle line. Between late 1962 and early 1964 the east ends of the platforms were extended to allow longer 8-car trains to be operated and this involved carefully enlarging the tunnels under the Metropolitan Polices original headquarters at New Scotland Yard.
The station was rebuilt to incorporate new deep-level platforms for the Jubilee line when it was extended to the London Docklands in the 1990s. During the works, the level of the platforms was lowered to enable ground level access to Portcullis House. This was achieved in small increments which were carried out when the line was closed at night, both projects were designed by Michael Hopkins & Partners. The construction of the station involved the excavation of a 39-metre deep void around. Under Bridge Street, on the side of the station box
Hotel ratings are often used to classify hotels according to their quality. The development of the concept of rating and its associated definitions display strong parallels. From the initial purpose of informing travellers on basic facilities that can be expected, today the terms grading and classification are used to generally refer to the same concept, that is to categorize hotels. There is a variety of rating schemes used by different organizations around the world. Many have a system involving stars, with a number of stars indicating greater luxury. Forbes Travel Guide, formerly Mobil Travel Guide, launched its star rating system in 1958, the AAA and their affiliated bodies use diamonds instead of stars to express hotel and restaurant ratings levels. Food services, view, room variations such as size and additional amenities and fitness centers, ease of access, Hotels are independently assessed in traditional systems and rest heavily on the facilities provided. In recent years hotel rating systems have criticised by some who argue that the rating criteria for such systems are overly complex.
It has been suggested that the lack of a global system for rating hotels may undermine the usability of such schemes. The more common classification systems include star rating, letter grading, from A to F, systems using terms such as Deluxe/Luxury, First Class/Superior, Tourist Class/Standard, and Budget Class/Economy are more widely accepted as hotel types, rather than hotel standard. Some countries have rating by a single public standard—Belgium, Greece, Malta, Portugal, the Swiss hotel rating was the first non-government formal hotel classification beginning in 1979 It influenced the hotel classification in Austria and Germany. The formal hotel classification of the DEHOGA started on August 1,1996 and this implementation influenced the creation of a common European Hotelstars rating system that started in 2010. In France, the rating is defined by the public tourist board Atout France using a system which has changed to a five-star system from 2009 on. In South Africa, the Tourist Grading Council of South Africa has strict rules for a hotel types granting up to 5 stars, in India, the classification of hotels is based on two categories such as Star and Heritage.
Hotels in India are classified by Hotel and Restaurant Association Classification Committee, Ministry of Tourism, in New Zealand and other tourism services are graded by Qualmark, which is owned by Tourism New Zealand, a government organisation. In Australia the independent accommodation rating scheme and Star Rating trademarks are owned by the Australian Auto Clubs – the NRMA, RACV, RACQ, RAC, RAA and RACT. A Star Rating represents the quality and condition of guest facilities and is determined by more than 200 criteria that have been ranked by Australian travellers according to important to them. In 2015 Star Ratings Australia became one of the first independent accommodation classification systems in the world to incorporate a consumer voice
Waterloo tube station
Waterloo is a London Underground station located within the Waterloo station complex that incorporates both the tube station and the main line railway station. It is the busiest station in Great Britain, with in excess of 99 million passenger entries and it is served by four lines, the Bakerloo, Jubilee and Waterloo & City lines. The station is situated in fare zone 1 and is located near the South Bank of the River Thames and its within walking distance to the London Eye. The first Underground Line at Waterloo was opened on 8 August 1898 by the Waterloo & City Railway, a subsidiary of the owners of the line station. The W&CR, nicknamed The Drain, achieved in a way the L&SWRs original plan of taking its tracks the short distance north-east into the City of London. On 10 March 1906, the Baker Street & Waterloo Railway was opened, on 13 September 1926, the extension of the Hampstead & Highgate line was opened from Embankment to the existing City & South London Railway station Kennington with a new station at Waterloo.
As a subsidiary of the L&SWR and its successor, the Southern Railway, following nationalisation of the main line railway companies in 1948, it became part of British Railways. London Transport had already sought parliamentary approval to construct tunnels from Aldwych to Waterloo in November 1964, detailed planning took place, although public spending cuts led to postponement of the scheme in 1967 before tenders were invited. Due to an Easter shut-down, the first Underground service on the line was on 5 April 1994, on 24 September 1999, the Jubilee line station was opened as part of the Jubilee Line Extension. The Jubilee line platforms are at the end of the site from those of the Bakerloo and Northern lines. The station is served by London Buses routes 1,4,26,59,68,76,77,139,168,171,172,176,188,211,243,341,381,507,521, RV1 and X68 and night routes N1, N68, N76, N171, N20, N343 and N381
The London Dungeon is a tourist attraction in London, which recreates various gory and macabre historical events in a gallows humour style. It uses a mixture of actors, special effects and rides. Opening in 1974, the attraction was designed as a museum of macabre history. The Dungeon is operated by Merlin Entertainments, in 2013, the London Dungeon moved from its premises on Tooley Street to a new location in County Hall next to the London Eye. The London Dungeon features 18 shows,20 actors and 3 rides, visitors are taken on a journey through 1000 years of London’s history where they meet actors performing as some of London’s most infamous characters, including Jack the Ripper and Sweeney Todd. The Dungeon’s shows are staged on sets with special effects. The show incorporates events such as the Black Death and the Gunpowder Plot, and includes such as The Torturer, The Plague Doctor. Guests are encouraged to participate in the shows, the experience includes a drop ride to doom, a free-fall ride staged as a public hanging.
The London Dungeon was founded in 1974 by Annabel Geddes and it was initially designed as a museum of macabre history depicting gory scenes. Early characters included Boudicca, Mary Tudor and Thomas Beckett and had scenes from the Norman Conquest, over the years the Dungeon has changed into an actor-led, interactive experience with both humorous and light horror elements. London’s first ever indoor water ride was installed at the venue in 1997, kunick Leisure Group owned The Dungeons company during the 1980s, before it was bought by Vardon in 1992. In 1999 Vardon became the Merlin Entertainments Group following a management buyout led by Nick Varney, on 31 January 2013, the London Dungeon closed its doors after 39 years at Tooley Street, London Bridge. The attraction moved to London’s County Hall on the South Bank, the original London Dungeon opened in 1974 as a gory horror museum that showcased historical events. The museum was a free flow attraction and featured models and animatronics to showcase its scenes,1997 saw the arrival of Judgment Day, Sentenced to Death which saw visitors tried in a courtroom.
They would board boats and sail down the Thames, passing various scenes and exhibits. Following this, they would pass through Traitors gate, where they would be raised via a vertical lift system to meet a firing squad. This marked the audience interaction that the Dungeons became renowned for, remnants of old exhibits lined the walkways and added to the atmosphere of the attraction as it evolved. 2000 saw the introduction of the Great Fire of London segment that recreated burning streets of London in the 17th century, the original Dungeon featured a Blood and Guts cafè
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. It is currently the party, having won a majority of seats in the House of Commons at the 2015 general election. The partys leader, Theresa May, is serving as Prime Minister. It is the largest party in government with 8,702 councillors. The Conservative Party is one of the two major political parties in the United Kingdom, the other being its modern rival. The Conservative Partys platform involves support for market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism, a strong national defence, deregulation. In the 1920s, the Liberal vote greatly diminished and the Labour Party became the Conservatives main rivals, Conservative Prime Ministers led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century, including Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher. Thatchers tenure led to wide-ranging economic liberalisation, the Conservative Partys domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to them being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world.
The Conservatives are the joint-second largest British party in the European Parliament, with twenty MEPs, the party is a member of the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe Europarty and the International Democrat Union. The party is the second-largest in the Scottish Parliament and the second-largest in the Welsh Assembly, the party is organised in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. The Conservative Party traces its origins to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party and they were known as Independent Whigs, Friends of Mr Pitt, or Pittites. After Pitts death the term Tory came into use and this was an allusion to the Tories, a political grouping that had existed from 1678, but which had no organisational continuity with the Pittite party. From about 1812 on the name Tory was commonly used for the newer party, the term Conservative was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830. The name immediately caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834.
Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto, the term Conservative Party rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. In 1912, the Liberal Unionists merged with the Conservative Party, in Ireland, the Irish Unionist Alliance had been formed in 1891 which merged anti-Home Rule Unionists into one political movement. Its MPs took the Conservative whip at Westminster, and in essence formed the Irish wing of the party until 1922. The Conservatives served with the Liberals in an all-party coalition government during World War I, keohane finds that the Conservatives were bitterly divided before 1914, especially on the issue of Irish Unionism and the experience of three consecutive election losses
She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century, and the first woman to have held the office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her The Iron Lady, a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics, as Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism. A research chemist before becoming a barrister, Thatcher was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in 1959, Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his 1970 government. In 1975, Thatcher defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become Leader of the Opposition and she became Prime Minister after winning the 1979 general election. Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation, flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies and she narrowly escaped an assassination attempt in 1984. Thatcher was re-elected for a term in 1987. During this period her support for a Community Charge was widely unpopular and she resigned as Prime Minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership.
After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a peerage as Baroness Thatcher which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords. After a series of strokes in 2002, she was advised to withdraw from public speaking. Despite this, she managed to pre-record a eulogy to Ronald Reagan prior to his death, in 2013, she died of another stroke in London, at the age of 87. Always a controversial figure, she has described as one of the greatest and most influential politicians in British history. Thatcher was born Margaret Hilda Roberts on 13 October 1925, in Grantham and her father was Alfred Roberts, originally from Northamptonshire, and her mother was Beatrice Ethel from Lincolnshire. She spent her childhood in Grantham, where her father owned two grocery shops, Prior to the Second World War, in 1938 the Roberts family gave sanctuary to a teenage Jewish girl escaping Nazi Germany. Thatcher was to describe this in her memoirs as among the significant events of her formative years, Alfred Roberts was an alderman and a Methodist local preacher, and brought up his daughter as a strict Wesleyan Methodist attending the Finkin Street Methodist Church.
He came from a Liberal family but stood as an Independent and he was Mayor of Grantham in 1945–46 and lost his position as alderman in 1952 after the Labour Party won its first majority on Grantham Council in 1950. Margaret Roberts attended Huntingtower Road Primary School and won a scholarship to Kesteven and her school reports showed hard work and continual improvement, her extracurricular activities included the piano, field hockey, poetry recitals and walking. She was head girl in 1942–43, in her upper sixth year she applied for a scholarship to study chemistry at Somerville College, but she was initially rejected and was offered a place only after another candidate withdrew. Her dissertation was on the structure of the antibiotic gramicidin, even while working on chemistry, she was already thinking towards law and politics
Marriott International, Inc. is an American multinational diversified hospitality company that manages and franchises a broad portfolio of hotels and related lodging facilities. Founded by J. Willard Marriott, the company is now led by his son, Executive Chairman Bill Marriott and President and Chief Executive Officer Arne Sorenson. Marriott was founded by John Willard Marriott in 1927 when he and his wife, Alice Sheets Marriott, opened a beer stand in Washington. As a Mormon missionary in the summers in Washington, D. C. The Marriotts expanded their enterprise into a chain of restaurants and they opened their first hotel, the Twin Bridges Marriott Motor Hotel, in Arlington, Virginia, in 1957. Their son, J. W. Marriott, Jr. led the company to spectacular worldwide growth during his more than 50-year career, in March 2012, at age 80, he turned the CEO responsibilities over to Arne Sorenson, while he assumed the title of Executive Chairman. Marriott International was formed in 1993 when Marriott Corporation split into two companies, Marriott International and Host Marriott Corporation, in 1995, Marriott was the first hotel company worldwide to offer guests the option to book reservations online, via the companys implementation of MARSHA.
In April 1995, Marriott International acquired a 49% interest in Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company LLC, the cost to Marriott was estimated to have be about $200 million in cash and assumed debt. There were other benefits for Ritz-Carlton flowing from its relationship with Marriott, such as being able to take advantage of the parent companys reservation system, the partnership was solidified in 1998 when Marriott acquired a majority ownership of The Ritz-Carlton. Today, there are 81 Ritz-Carlton properties around the world, the Marriott World Trade Center was destroyed during the September 11,2001 attacks. The changes were completed in 2003, Marriott International owned Ramada International Hotels & Resorts until its sale on September 15,2004 to Cendant. On July 19,2006, Marriott announced that all lodging buildings it operated in the United States, the new policy includes all guest rooms, lounges, meeting rooms, public space and employee work areas. There were bombings at the Islamabad Marriott in 2008 and at the Jakarta Marriott in 2009, on November 11,2010, Marriott announced plans to add over 600 hotel properties by 2015.
The bulk of the additions will be in emerging markets, where it plans to have 100 hotel properties and Southeast Asia. On January 21,2011, Marriott said that pornography would not be included in the entertainment offered at new hotels, which will use an internet-based video on demand system. On December 13,2011, J. W. Marriott, Jr. announced he would be stepping down as CEO of the company and it was announced that Arne Sorenson would be taking over as CEO as of March 2012. His had released 2010 tax returns showed earnings in 2010 of $113,881 in directors fees from Marriott. S, in December 2012, Guinness World Records recognized the five-star JW Marriott Marquis Hotel Dubai as the worlds tallest hotel. The scheme disrupted operation of mobile telephone hotspots by sending fraudulent Wi-fi de-authentication packets
Holland, Hannen & Cubitts
Holland, Hannen & Cubitts was a major building firm responsible for many of the great buildings of London. During the Second World War the company was one of the contractors engaged in building the Mulberry harbour units. In the 1960s, when Lord Ashcombe was the Chairman of the company, it held a stake in ACI Property Corporation. The company was acquired by Drake & Gorham Scull in 1969 and by Tarmac in 1976, code Name Mulberry, The Planning Building and Operation of the Normandy Harbours
Sea Life London Aquarium
The Sea Life London Aquarium is located on the ground floor of County Hall on the South Bank of the River Thames in central London, near the London Eye. It opened in March 1997 as the London Aquarium and hosts about one million visitors each year, in 2005, the aquarium displayed three robotic fish created by the computer science department at the University of Essex. The fish were designed to be autonomous, swimming around and avoiding obstacles like real fish and their creator claimed that he was trying to combine the speed of tuna, acceleration of a pike, and the navigating skills of an eel. In April 2008, the aquarium was purchased by Merlin Entertainments for an undisclosed sum, the facility was closed for a £5 million refurbishment, which was completed in April 2009. The attraction officially became a Sea Life Centre when it reopened in April 2009, in May 2011, the aquarium opened a new penguin exhibit, with 10 gentoo penguins transferred from the Edinburgh Zoo. In 2015, the aquarium was moved to a different location in County Hall due to the opening of Shreks Adventure, media related to Sea Life London Aquarium at Wikimedia Commons Official website
He served as the Member of Parliament for Brent East from 1987 to 2001. A suspended member of the Labour Party, he was on the hard left. Livingstone was heavily criticised in the media for supporting controversial issues like republicanism, LGBT rights, and a United Ireland. Livingstone was an opponent of the Conservative Party government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Elected as MP for Brent East in 1987, he closely associated with anti-racist campaigns. He unsuccessfully stood for Labour Party leader on a leftist platform in 1992 and 1994, after failing to become Labours candidate in the 2000 London mayoral election, Livingstone successfully contested the election as an independent candidate. In his first term as Mayor of London, he introduced the congestion charge, Oyster card, and articulated buses and he stood unsuccessfully as Labour candidate in Londons mayoral elections of 2008 and 2012, losing both to the Conservative candidate Boris Johnson. Characterised as the truly successful Left-wing British politician of modern times.
Livingstone was born in his grandmothers house in Lambeth, south London, on 17 June 1945. His family was working class, his mother, Ethel Ada, had born in Southwark before training as an acrobatic dancer. Kens Scottish father, Robert Bob Moffat Livingstone, had born in Dunoon before joining the Merchant Navy in 1932. Having first met in April 1940 at a hall in Workington. After the war the couple moved in with Ethels aggressive mother, Zona Ann, Livingstones sister Lin was born 2 1⁄2 years later. Livingstones parents were working class Tories, and unlike many Conservative voters at the time did not hold to socially conservative views on race and sexuality, opposing racism, the family was nominally Anglican, although Livingstone abandoned Christianity when he was 11, becoming an atheist. In 1957, his family purchased their own property at 66 Wolfington Road, rather shy at school, he was bullied, and got into trouble for truancy. One year, his master was Philip Hobsbaum, who encouraged his pupils to debate current events.
He related that he became an argumentative cocky little brat at home and his interest in politics was furthered by the 1958 Papal election of Pope John XXIII – a man who had a strong impact on Livingstone – and the United States presidential election,1960. At school he attained four O-levels in English Literature, English Language and Art and he started work rather than stay on for the non-compulsory sixth form, which required six O-levels
City of Westminster
The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough which holds city status. It occupies much of the area of Greater London including most of the West End. It is to the west of and adjoining the ancient City of London, directly to the east of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and it was created with the 1965 establishment of Greater London. Upon creation, Westminster was awarded city status, which had previously held by the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster. Aside from a number of parks and open spaces, the population density of the district is high. Many sites commonly associated with London are in the borough, including St. Jamess Palace, Buckingham Palace, the Houses of Parliament, much of the borough is residential, and in 2008 it was estimated to have a population of 236,000. The local authority is Westminster City Council, the current Westminster coat of arms were given to the city by an official grant on September 2,1964. Westminster had other arms before, which had an identical to the chief in the present arms.
The symbols in the two thirds of the shield stand for former municipalities now merged with the city, Paddington. The original arms had a portcullis as the charge, which now forms the crest. The origins of the City of Westminster pre-date the Norman Conquest of England, in the mid-11th Century king Edward the Confessor began the construction of an abbey at Westminster, only the foundations of which survive today. For centuries Westminster and the City of London were geographically quite distinct, Westminster briefly became a city in 1540 when Henry VIII created the short-lived Diocese of Westminster. Following the dissolution of Westminster Abbey, a court of burgesses was formed in 1585 to govern the Westminster area, Strand, Pimlico and Hyde Park. The Westminster Metropolitan Borough was itself the result of an amalgamation which took place in 1900. Sir John Hunt O. B. E was the First Town Clerk of the City of Westminster, the boundaries of the City of Westminster today, as well as those of the other London boroughs, have remained more or less unchanged since the Act of 1963.
On 22 March 2017, a terrorist attack took place on Westminster Bridge, Bridge Street and Old Palace Yard, five people - three pedestrians, one police officer, and the attacker - died as a result of the incident. More than 50 people were injured, an investigation is ongoing by the Metropolitan Police. The city is divided into 20 wards, each electing three councillors, Westminster City Council is currently composed of 44 Conservative Party members and 16 Labour Party members
Palace of Westminster
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Commonly known as the Houses of Parliament after its occupants, the Palace lies on the bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster. The palace is owned by the monarch in right of the Crown and for ceremonial purposes, the building is managed by committees appointed by both houses, which report to the Speaker of the House of Commons and the Lord Speaker. The first royal palace was built on the site in the 11th century, part of the New Palaces area of 3.24 hectares was reclaimed from the Thames, which is the setting of its nearly 300-metre long façade, called the River Front. Barry was assisted by Augustus Pugin, an authority on Gothic architecture and style. The Palace is one of the centres of political life in the United Kingdom, Westminster has become a metonym for the UK Parliament, the Palace of Westminster has been a Grade I listed building since 1970 and part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987.
The Palace of Westminster site was important during the Middle Ages. Known in medieval times as Thorney Island, the site may have been first-used for a residence by Canute the Great during his reign from 1016 to 1035. St Edward the Confessor, the penultimate Anglo-Saxon monarch of England, Thorney Island and the surrounding area soon became known as Westminster. Neither the buildings used by the Anglo-Saxons nor those used by William I survive, the oldest existing part of the Palace dates from the reign of William Is successor, King William II. The Palace of Westminster was the principal residence in the late Medieval period. The predecessor of Parliament, the Curia Regis, met in Westminster Hall, simon de Montforts parliament, the first to include representatives of the major towns, met at the Palace in 1265. The Model Parliament, the first official Parliament of England, met there in 1295, in 1512, during the early years of the reign of King Henry VIII, fire destroyed the royal residential area of the palace.
In 1534, Henry VIII acquired York Place from Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, renaming it the Palace of Whitehall, Henry used it as his principal residence. Although Westminster officially remained a royal palace, it was used by the two Houses of Parliament and by the various law courts. Because it was originally a residence, the Palace included no purpose-built chambers for the two Houses. Important state ceremonies were held in the Painted Chamber which had originally built in the 13th century as the main bedchamber for King Henry III. The House of Commons, which did not have a chamber of its own, the Commons acquired a permanent home at the Palace in St Stephens Chapel, the former chapel of the royal palace, during the reign of Edward VI