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County of Barcelona

The County of Barcelona was a frontier region under the rule of the Carolingian dynasty. By the end of the 10th century, the Counts of Barcelona were de facto independent, hereditary rulers in constant warfare with the Islamic Caliphate of Córdoba and its successor states; the counts, through marriage alliances and treaties, acquired the other Catalan counties and extended their influence along Occitania. In 1164, the County of Barcelona entered a personal union with the Kingdom of Aragon. Thenceforward, the history of the county is subsumed within that of the Crown of Aragon, but the city of Barcelona remained preeminent within it, its origins date back to the early 8th century, when Muslims took control of the northern territories of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania and modern-day northeastern Spain and southern France. After turning back deep Muslim incursions, the Frankish Empire under the Carolingian monarchs, created the Marches of Gothia and Hispania progressively; this was achieved by taking over the territories of Septimania that the Moors invaded in the 8th century and from these, those territories surrounding the Pyrenees and specially the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.

These eastern Iberian territories were repopulated with people from the March of Gothia. This resulted in the formation of an effective buffer zone between the Muslim Iberian peninsula and the Duchy of Aquitaine and Provence; the area was dominated by the Franks after the conquest of Girona and when, in 801, the city of Barcelona was conquered by King Louis the Pious of Aquitaine, was incorporated into the Frankish kingdom. The county of Barcelona was established reporting to the Frankish king; the first count of Barcelona was Bera. Authority for the county rested on the local aristocracy. However, the policies Bera adopted in an effort to maintain peace with Muslim ruled Al-Andalus, resulted in him being accused of treason before the king. After losing a duel, according to the Visigothic legislation, Bera was deposed and exiled, the government of the county went to Frankish nobles, such as Rampón or Bernardo of Septimania. However, the Visigothic nobility regained the king's confidence with the appointment of Sunifred I of Urgell-Cerdanya as count of Barcelona in 844.

The ties of the Catalan counties to the Frankish monarchy had weakened. Autonomy was strengthened; this move was accompanied by a unification process among counties to form larger political entities. Count Wilfred the Hairy, son of Sunifred and the last count appointed by the Frankish king, oversaw this movement, he united a number of counties under his command and passed them on as an inheritance to his children. Wilfred died at the hands of Muslims. Although he divided his counties among his children, the core formed by the counties of Barcelona and Osona remained undivided. During the 10th century, the counts of Barcelona strengthened their political authority and further distanced themselves from Frankish influence. In 985 Barcelona ruled by Borrell II, was attacked and burned by Muslims, led by Almanzor; the count took refuge in the Montserrat mountains, awaiting help from the Frankish king, which never arrived, resulting in resentment. In 988, the reign of the Carolingian dynasty was replaced by the Capetian dynasty.

Borrell II was required to swear allegiance to the new Frankish king, but there is no evidence that the count acceded to the call, as the Frankish king had to go north to resolve a conflict. This has been interpreted as the starting point of de facto independence of the county. Full independence was obtained by James I in the Treaty of Corbeil. Subsequently, the county of Barcelona grew in importance and expanded its territory with successive counts, it took over other Hispanic counties and expanded towards the south as a result of battles against al-Andalus and the repopulation of areas such as Tarragona and the surrounding countryside. Borrell II's reign was followed by that of his son Ramon Berenguer I, his mother was the forceful Ermesinde of Carcassonne. Ramón Berenguer I reinforced the county's power by subjecting the rebellious Penedes nobles, partnering with the counts of Urgell and Pallars, acquiring the counties of Carcassonne and Rasez, charging pariahs from the Zaragoza and Lleida kingdoms, renewing the legislative framework of the county to allow for the introduction of the Usages of Barcelona.

These were a set of customs that would increase in subsequent years. In his will he decided not to divide the territories again, but he transferred unified rule to his twin sons, Ramon Berenguer II and Berenguer Ramon II. After a crisis provoked by the murder of Ramón Berenguer II and accusations of fratricide against his brother, who died in the First Crusade, his son and heir, Ramón Berenguer III, was able to consolidate and expand the boundaries of the county, he conquered part of the County of Empúries and, leading a wide coalition attempted to conquer Mallorca, but had to abandon it because of the advance of the Almoravids troops on the peninsula. He received, by inheritance, the Besalú and Sardinia counties forming a territory similar to what was once Old Catalonia, he moved towards Lleida and repopulated border areas such as the city of Tarragona restoring it as the episcopal see. He extended his trans-Pyrenean reign by incorporating Provence county through his marriage to Countess Dolça i

Janakpur Road railway station

Janakpur Road railway station is a small railway station in Sitamarhi district, Bihar. Its code is JNR, it serves Janakpur Road town. The station consists of 2 platforms. It's B category railway station of Samastipur railway division; the Janakpur Road is well connected to most of the major cities in India like Patna, Mumbai, Bangalore, Jaipur, Guwahati, Surat and other cities by the railway network. New Jalpaiguri - Sitamarhi Weekly Express Kolkata - Sitamarhi Express Mithilanchal Express Raxaul - Lokmanya Tilak Terminus Karmabhoomi Express Howrah - Raxaul Express Lichchavi Express Sadbhavna Express Sadbhavna Express Kamakhya - Shri Mata Vaishno Devi Katra Express Samastipur - Muzaffarpur DEMU Samastipur - Raxaul DEMU Darbhanga - Raxaul DEMU Raxaul - Sitamarhi DEMU Darbhanga - Muzaffarpur DEMU

Marcus Pretzell

Marcus Pretzell is a German politician and was Member of the European Parliament from Germany from 2016-2019. He was a member of the Alternative for Germany, part of the Europe of Nations and Freedom and is now member of The Blue Party. In April 2016, Pretzell attracted controversy and criticism after stating that he supported "The defence of the German border with armed force" against asylum seekers; as a result, on 12 April 2016, he was expelled from the European Reformists group. Following this, he joined Marine Le Pen's Europe of Freedom faction. During a speech at an AfD party convention in Essen, 4–5 July 2015, he said, "We had the discussion about whether we were the Euro party or the Pegida party. We are both."Pretzell is involved in the AfD donation scandal. Beside of him the AfD Federal – and European – politicians Alice Weidel, Jörg Meuthen and Guido Reil profited from unnamed donaters. Public prosecutor's office Konstanz and the office of Bundestag determine since 2018; the acceptance of donations from non-EU countries is prohibited for German parties.

Personal profile of Marcus Pretzell in the European Parliament's database of members