Kangaroo Island is Australia's third-largest island, after Tasmania and Melville Island. It lies in the state of South Australia 112 km southwest of Adelaide, its closest point to the mainland is Snapper Point in Backstairs Passage, 13.5 km from the Fleurieu Peninsula. Once occupied by Aboriginal Australians, the native population disappeared from the archaeological record when the land became an island following rising sea levels several thousand years ago, it was subsequently settled intermittently by sealers and whalers in the early 19th century, from 1836 on a permanent basis during the establishment of the colony of South Australia. Since the island's economy has been principally agricultural, with a southern rock lobster fishery and with tourism growing in importance; the largest town, the administrative centre, is Kingscote. The island has several nature reserves to protect the remnants of its natural vegetation and native animals, with the largest and best-known being Flinders Chase National Park at the western end.
The island is 145 kilometres long West/East and between 0.94 and 54 km from its narrowest to widest North/South points. Its area covers 4,405 km2, its coastline is 540 km long and highest point is Mount MacDonnell at 299 m above sea level. It is separated from Yorke Peninsula to the northwest by Investigator Strait and from Fleurieu Peninsula to the northeast by Backstairs Passage. A group of islets, the Pages, lie off the eastern end of the island. Kangaroo Island separated from mainland Australia around 10,000 years ago, due to rising sea level after the last glacial period. Known as Karta by the mainland Aboriginal tribes, the existence of stone tools and shell middens show that Aboriginal people once lived on Kangaroo Island, it is thought that they occupied it as long ago as 16,000 years before the present, may have only disappeared from the island as as 2000 years ago. A mainland Aboriginal dreaming story tells of the Backstairs Passage flooding: "Long ago, Ngurunderi's two wives ran away from him, he was forced to follow them.
He as he did so he crossed Lake Albert and went along the beach to Cape Jervis. When he arrived there he saw his wives wading half-way across the shallow channel which divided Naroongowie from the mainland, he was determined to punish his wives, angrily ordered the water to rise up and drown them. With a terrific rush the waters roared and the women were carried back towards the mainland. Although they tried frantically to swim against the tidal wave they were powerless to do so and were drowned." On 23 March 1802, British explorer Matthew Flinders, commanding HMS Investigator, named the land "Kanguroo Island", due to the endemic subspecies of the western grey kangaroo, Macropus fuliginosus fuliginosus, after landing near Kangaroo Head on the north coast of the Dudley Peninsula. He was followed by the French explorer Commander Nicolas Baudin, the first European to circumnavigate the Island and who mapped much of the island. Although the French and the British were at war at the time, the men met peacefully.
They both used the fresh water seeping at what is now known as Hog Bay near Frenchman's Rock and the site of present-day Penneshaw. Baudin named the Island Île Borda, in honour of Jean-Charles de Borda, although the French chart published by Louis de Freycinet after Baudin's death referred to the Island as Île Decres. A community of sealers and others existed on Kangaroo Island from 1802 to the time of South Australia's colonisation in 1836. A sealing gang led by Joseph Murrrell are reported landing at Harvey's Return in 1806–07 and they established a camp on the beach; the sealers were rough men and several kidnapped Aboriginal women from Tasmania and mainland South Australia. The women were kept prisoner as virtual slaves. At least two contemporary accounts report of reputed crossings of Backstairs Passage from Kangaroo Island to the mainland by kidnapped women seeking to escape from their captors.'A fine specimen of her race' was pointed out to J. W. Bull as having swum the passage in 1835, a woman and her baby were found dead on the beach after a presumed crossing in 1871.
In 1803 sealers from the American brig Union built the schooner Independence, the first ship constructed in South Australia, at what is now American River. In 1812 Richard Siddins reached Kangaroo Island with the ship Campbell Macquarie, engaged in salt harvesting on the island. Most ships of the "First Fleet of South Australia" that brought settlers for the new colony first stopped at Nepean Bay; the first was the Duke of York commanded by Captain Robert Clark Morgan on 27 or 28 July 1836. The arrival of the Africaine, under John Finlay Duff, in November that year, was notable for the deaths of E. W. Osborne and Dr. John Slater, who perished on an exploratory trek from Cape Borda to Kingscote. A number of shore-based bay whaling stations operated on the coast in the 1840s; these were located at D'Estrees Bay and Hog Bay. Numerous ships have been wrecked on the Kangaroo Island coastline, the largest being Portland Maru of 5,865 tons, which sank at Cape Torrens on 20 March 1935; the greatest loss of life occurred with the wreck of Loch Sloy on 24 April 1899 at Maupertuis Bay, when 31 people were drowned, one initial survivor subsequently perished.
Twenty-seven people drowned at West Bay in September 1905. The first lighthouse built was erected at Cape Willoughby in 1852.
Caernarfon is a royal town and port in Gwynedd, with a population of 9,615. It lies along the A487 road, on the eastern shore of the Menai Strait, opposite the Isle of Anglesey; the city of Bangor is 8.6 miles to the north-east, while Snowdonia fringes Caernarfon to the east and south-east. Carnarvon and Caernarvon are Anglicised spellings that were superseded in 1926 and 1974, respectively; the villages of Bontnewydd and Caeathro are close by. The town is noted for its high percentage of native Welsh speakers. Due to this, Welsh is the predominant language of the town. Abundant natural resources in and around the Menai Strait enabled human habitation in prehistoric Britain; the Ordovices, a Celtic tribe, lived in the region during the period known as Roman Britain. The Roman fort Segontium was established around AD 80 to subjugate the Ordovices during the Roman conquest of Britain; the Romans occupied the region until the end of Roman rule in Britain in 382, after which Caernarfon became part of the Kingdom of Gwynedd.
In the late 11th century, William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a motte-and-bailey castle at Caernarfon as part of the Norman invasion of Wales. He was unsuccessful, Wales remained independent until around 1283. In the 13th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, ruler of Gwynedd, refused to pay homage to Edward I of England, prompting the English conquest of Gwynedd; this was followed by the construction of Caernarfon Castle, one of the largest and most imposing fortifications built by the English in Wales. In 1284, the English-style county of Caernarfonshire was established by the Statute of Rhuddlan; the ascent of the House of Tudor to the throne of England eased hostilities between the English and resulted in Caernarfon Castle falling into a state of disrepair. The city has flourished, leading to its status as a major tourist centre and seat of Gwynedd Council, with a thriving harbour and marina. Caernarfon experienced heavy suburbanisation, its population includes the largest percentage of Welsh-speaking citizens anywhere in Wales.
The status of Royal Borough was granted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1963 and amended to Royal Town in 1974. The castle and town walls are part of a World Heritage Site described as the Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd; the present city of Caernarfon grew up around and owes its name to its Norman and late Medieval fortifications. The earlier British and Romano-British settlement at Segontium was named for the nearby Afon Seiont. After the end of Roman rule in Britain around 410, the settlement continued to be known as Cair Segeint and as Cair Custoient, of the History of the Britons, cited by James Ussher in Newman's life of Germanus of Auxerre, both of whose names appear among the 28 civitates of sub-Roman Britain in the Historia Brittonum traditionally ascribed to Nennius; the work states that the inscribed tomb of "Constantius the Emperor" was still present in the 9th century. The medieval romance about Maximus and Elen, Macsen's Dream, calls her home Caer Aber Sein and other pre-conquest poets such as Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd used the name Caer Gystennin.
The Norman motte was erected apart from the existing settlement and came to be known as y gaer yn Arfon, "the fortress in Arfon". A 1221 charter by Llywelyn the Great to the canons of Penmon priory on Anglesey mentions Kaerinarfon. In 1283, King Edward I completed his conquest of Wales which he secured by a chain of castles and walled towns; the construction of a new stone Caernarfon Castle seems to have started as soon as the campaign had finished. Edward's architect, James of St. George, may well have modelled the castle on the walls of Constantinople being aware of the town's legendary associations. Edward's fourth son, Edward of Caernarfon Edward II of England, was born at the castle in April 1284 and made Prince of Wales in 1301. A story recorded in the 16th century suggests that the new prince was offered to the native Welsh on the premise "that was borne in Wales and could speake never a word of English", however there is no contemporary evidence to support this. Caernarfon was constituted a borough in 1284 by charter of Edward I.
The charter, confirmed on a number of occasions, appointed the mayor of the borough Constable of the Castle ex officio. The former municipal borough was designated a royal borough in 1963; the borough was abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in 1974, the status of "royal town" was granted to the community which succeeded it. Caernarfon was the county town of the historic county of Caernarfonshire. In 1911, David Lloyd George Member of Parliament for Caernarfon boroughs, which included various towns from Llŷn to Conwy, agreed to the British Royal Family's idea of holding the investiture of the Prince of Wales at Caernarfon Castle; the ceremony took place on 13 July, with the royal family paying a rare visit to Wales, the future Edward VIII was duly invested. In 1955 Caernarfon was in the running for the title of Capital of Wales on historical grounds but the town's campaign was defeated in a ballot o
Governor of South Australia
The Governor of South Australia is the representative in the Australian state of South Australia of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. The Governor performs the same constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level as does the Governor-General of Australia at the national level. In accordance with the conventions of the Westminster system of parliamentary government, the Governor nearly always acts on the advice of the head of the elected government, the Premier of South Australia; the Governor retains the reserve powers of the Crown, has the right to dismiss the Premier. As from June 2014, the Queen, upon the recommendation of the Premier, accorded all current and living former Governors the title'The Honourable' for life; the first six Governors oversaw the colony from proclamation in 1836 until self-government and an elected Parliament of South Australia was enacted in the year prior to the inaugural 1857 election. The first Australian-born Governor of South Australia was Major-General Sir James Harrison, most subsequent governors have been Australian-born.
The first South Australian-born governor was Sir Mark Oliphant, the first Aboriginal governor was Sir Douglas Nicholls. The current governor is Hieu Van Le. who commenced when the term of the previous governor, Rear Admiral Kevin Scarce, expired on 7 August 2014. The Governor's official residence is Government House, in the state's capital. Prior to self-government, the Governor was responsible to the Government of the United Kingdom and was charged with implementing laws and policy; the Governor is responsible for safeguarding the South Australian Constitution and facilitating the work of the Parliament and state government. The Governor exercises power on the advice of Ministers, conveyed through the Executive Council. Constitutional powers bestowed upon the Governor and used with the consent and advice of the Executive Council include: to appoint and dismiss Ministers. Exercising the prerogative of mercy. Issuing regulations and proclamations under existing laws. Giving Royal Assent to bills passed by Parliament.
Appointing judges, royal commissioners and senior public servants. Dissolving Parliament and issuing writs for elections; the Governor additionally maintains'reserve powers' which can be used without the consent of the Executive Council. These powers relate to the dismissal of Ministers and Parliament; these people administered the government in the absence of the official governor. Three former governors are alive; the latest-serving former governor to die was Dame Roma Mitchell, on 5 March 2000. The most recent death of a former governor was that of Sir Keith Seaman, on 30 June 2013; the Official Website of the Governor of South Australia Previous governors on official website
Lands administrative divisions of South Australia
The lands administrative divisions of South Australia are the cadastral units of counties and hundreds in South Australia. They are located only in the south-eastern part of the state, do not cover the whole state. 49 counties have been proclaimed across the southern and southeastern areas of the state considered to be arable and thus in need of a cadastre. Within that area, a total of 540 hundreds have been proclaimed, although five were annulled in 1870, and, in some cases, the names reused elsewhere. All South Australian hundreds have unique names, making it unnecessary, when referring to a hundred, to name its county. With the exception of the historic Hundred of Murray, which occupied parts of five counties, all hundreds have been defined as a subset of a single county; the hundreds of South Australia formed the basis for the establishment boundaries of most of the earliest local government bodies. By the 1930s most of the settled hundreds in the state had formed its own district council.
In the case of settled lands, like the hundreds of Adelaide and Yatala, multiple town and city councils shared the governance of a single hundred. In the case of sparsely populated rural lands, adjacent hundreds were represented by a single district council. In every case, the hundred boundaries shaped the initial boundaries of such district councils, as seen with the large-scale expansion of South Australian local government in the District Councils Act 1887. In the early days of European settlement in South Australia, land was released in the colony for farming in an orderly manner by the government. Initial land sales were made as a prerequisite to the founding of the colony, with "preliminary land orders" being made to a total value of £35,000 prior to the 1837 settlement. A preliminary land order entitled the buyer to a 1-acre town block and an 80-acre section of rural land, to be chosen by the individual following the earliest land survey after settlement; the initial town survey of Adelaide was completed in March 1837.
By February 1839 the surrounding country from coast to foothills up to present-day Grand Junction Road had been surveyed into country sections, with between a quarter and a half having been claimed by the early investors or purchased by early settlers. The country sections delineated in the early land surveys formed the hundred sections when the first hundreds were proclaimed in 1846. From this time, the government surveyor systematically established new areas to be released by creating the boundaries of a county, dividing that into hundreds of the same size. Outside the initial survey area centred on Adelaide, hundreds were surveyed into sections of varying sizes with the intention that the section would support a single viable farm; these sections proclaimed. Most hundreds had a town near the middle, smaller sections closer to the township. Contemporary definitions of rural real estate in South Australia still includes the section number and hundred name. A total of 540 hundreds were proclaimed in the state from 1846 to 1971, but only 535 exist today, following the discontinuation of the hundreds of Murray, Randell and Morphett alongside the Murray River in 1870.
A total of 561 names of hundreds are listed in the South Australian official gazetteer Placenames Online, with the 21 extra names unused today due to either renaming or failure to adopt proposed names. In 1916, during the First World War, ten hundreds with names of German origin were proposed for renaming with Aboriginal names, but this only occurred for the hundreds of Paech and Pflaum which became the hundreds of Cannawigara and Geegeela, respectively; the remaining eight hundreds were renamed in 1918 with names derived from Allied commanders or battles. The hundreds of Basedow, Krichauff, North Rhine, Schomburgk, South Rhine and Von Doussa became the hundreds of French, Beatty, Sturdee, Maude and Allenby
Sir Anthony Musgrave was a colonial administrator and governor. He died in office as Governor of Queensland in 1888, he was born at St John's, the third of 11 children of Anthony Musgrave and Mary Harris Sheriff. After education in Antigua and Great Britain, he was appointed private secretary to Robert James Mackintosh, governor-in-chief of the Leeward Islands in 1854, he was recognised for his "capacity and zeal", promoted, administering in turn the British West Indies territories of Nevis and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Musgrave was born to a slaveholding family, his father and uncles, were slaveholders who were compensated for their slaves upon the emancipation of slavery in the 1830s. After ten years of colonial service in the Caribbean, Musgrave was appointed governor of Newfoundland in September, 1864. Unlike his previous appointments, Newfoundland had responsible government and an active colonial assembly, he found a colony in dire economic straits, containing a destitute population.
During his tenure, Musgrave dedicated most of energies towards convincing Newfoundland to remedy this by joining the negotiations with other British North American colonies towards union in what would become the Canadian Confederation. In this project, he was allied with the goals of the colonial office. Despite his efforts, what seemed like imminent success, Musgrave failed to move the colonial assembly to accepting terms of union. Canada was proclaimed on 1 July 1867—and Newfoundland would not join Confederation for eighty years. In consultation with the colonial office and the Canadian Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, it was agreed that Musgrave should redirect his energies concerning the expansion of the Canadian confederation away from the easternmost colony of British North America, to the westernmost—the United Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. Following the death of Frederick Seymour, Musgrave took up his new responsibilities as colonial governor in August, 1869.
Musgrave found a colony in an administrative and financial mess, with a fractious assembly, long-simmering disputes between the two colonies and their capitals – Victoria and New Westminster—and general frustration with the slow pace of negotiations for the colony to enter confederation. Musgrave proved to be both a capable administrator, an able placater of the assembly's notoriously contentious members. In less than two years, in July, 1871, British Columbia joined Canada as its sixth province. Musgrave did a brief stint as governor of the South African colony of Natal. Musgrave's next posting was to South Australia; this proved to be a less taxing appointment. During his tenure, Musgrave supported the assembly in its plans to borrow a large sum for the purpose of extensive railway construction, the imposition of additional taxation, the introduction of a considerable number of immigrants into what was still a unsettled hinterland. After three and a half years in the antipodes, Musgrave returned to the Caribbean as governor of Jamaica.
He would govern the colony for the next six years, focussing much of his attention on improving its cultural life. Under his administration, the government extended the line. Musgrave initiated the Jamaica Scholarship, was instrumental in establishing the Institute of Jamaica, dedicated to fostering and encouraging the development of arts and literature; the Musgrave Medal, awarded by the institute for excellence in these fields, was named in his honour in 1897. Musgrave's last appointment was back in Australia, as governor of the colony of Queensland, where he arrived on 7 November 1883 in the Ranelagh. Like South Australia, Queensland enjoyed full responsible government, Musgrave was more of a spectator of the political scene, he travelled with premier Samuel Griffith to visit the northern parts of the colony including Cooktown, Port Douglas, Townsville, Charters Towers, Mourilyan Harbour and Bowen. During this period, he was faced with responding to the action of the colony's premier, Sir Thomas McIlwraith, in "annexing" New Guinea as part of Queensland — an action repudiated by the colonial office.
Governor Anthony Musgrave was at the point of retiring from the colonial service when he died at his desk in Brisbane on 9 October 1888 from strangulation of the bowel. His funeral was held on 10 October 1888 at St John's Cathedral, after which he was interred in Brisbane's Toowong General Cemetery on the principal slope near to the grave of Governor Blackall, the location being selected by premier Thomas McIlwraith. In May 1939, his grave was reported as overgrown with weeds, he married in 1854 to Christiana Elizabeth, daughter of the Hon. Sir William Byam of Antigua. During his tenure in British Columbia, Musgrave married his second wife, Jeanie Lucinda Field, the daughter of David Dudley Field, their daughter, died in South Australia during 1874. According to article in "Air Clues" May 1995, he had three sons: Arthur David Musgrave b.1874 d.1931, Herbert Musgrave DSO RFC and RE, b.11th May 1876 in Adelaide, S. Australia, d.2nd June 1918 in German territory and Dudley Field Musgrave b.1873 d.1895 of Typhoid Fever in Bombay.
According to www.biographi.ca Sir. Anthony was 3rd of 11 children. QueenslandPort Musgrave, an embayment located on the northwestern tip of the Cape York Peninsula. Musgrave, a locality in east-central Queensland Musgrave Hill, a locality in Southport, Gold Coast The Queensland Government's steam yacht of 1884 was named Lucinda after Lady Musgrave Lucinda, Queensland, i
David Dudley Field II
David Dudley Field II was an American lawyer and law reformer who made major contributions to the development of American civil procedure. His greatest accomplishment was engineering the move away from common law pleading towards code pleading, which culminated in the enactment of the Field Code in 1850 by the state of New York. Field was born in Connecticut, he was the oldest of the eight sons and two daughters of the Rev. David Dudley Field I, a Congregational minister and local historian, Submit Dickenson Field, his brothers included Stephen Johnson Field, a U. S. Supreme Court Justice, Cyrus Field, a prominent businessman and creator of the Atlantic Cable, Rev. Henry Martyn Field, a prominent clergyman and travel writer, he graduated from Williams College in 1825, studied law with Harmanus Bleecker in Albany, settled in New York City. After his admission to the bar in 1828, he won a high position in his profession. In 1829, Field married Jane Lucinda Hopkins, with whom he had three children: Dudley and Isabella.
After his wife's death in 1836, Field remarried twice, first to Harriet Davidson and second to Mary E. Carr; the eldest child, Dudley Field, studied law. He was made a partner in his father's practice in 1854. After having practiced law for several years, Field became convinced that the common law in America, in New York state, needed radical changes to unify and simplify its procedure. In 1836, he went to Europe to investigate the courts and codes of England and other countries, he returned to the United States and labored to bring about a codification of its common law procedure. For more than 40 years, Field devoted his spare time to this codification project, he began by outlining his proposed reforms in pamphlets, professional journal articles, legislative testimony, but met with a discouraging lack of interest. In 1846, Field's ideas gained wider notice with publication of a pamphlet, "The Reorganization of the Judiciary", which influenced that year's New York State Constitutional Convention to report in favor of a codification of the laws.
In 1847 he had a chance to put his ideas into official form when he was appointed head of a state commission to revise court procedure and practice. The first part of the commission's work, a portion of the code of civil procedure, was reported and enacted by the legislature in 1848. By January 1, 1850, the New York state legislature had enacted the complete Code of Civil Procedure, subsequently known as the Field Code since it was entirely Field's work; the new system abolished the distinction in forms of procedure between an action at law and a suit in equity. Under the new procedure, rather than having to file separate actions, a plaintiff needed to file only one civil action. Field's civil procedure code was, with some changes, adopted in 24 states, it influenced procedural reforms in England and several of her colonies. In 1857, Field became chair of another state commission, this time for the systematic codification of all of New York state law except for those portions reported upon by the Commissioner of Practice and Pleadings.
In this work he prepared the whole of the political and civil codes. The commission's penal code is misattributed to Field but it was drafted by William Curtis Noyes, another member of the code commission, a former prosecutor; the codification, completed in February 1865, was adopted only in small part by the state of New York, but it served as a model upon which many statutory codes throughout the United States were constructed. For example, although Field's civil code was rejected by his home state of New York, it was adopted in large part by California, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, as well as the territory of Guam many years later. 18 states enacted part or all of what was called Field's penal code, including his home state of New York in 1881. Thanks to Field's brother, California bought into Field's codification project more than any other state. California first enacted a Practice Act in 1851 influenced by the Field Code in 1872 enacted Field's civil procedure, criminal procedure, civil and political codes as the first four California Codes.
One consequence of this adoption is California's prohibition on Non-compete clauses - something, credited with the success of Silicon Valley. Meanwhile, in 1866, Field proposed to the British National Association for the Promotion of Social Science a revision and codification of the laws of all nations. For an international commission of lawyers he prepared Draft Outlines of an International Code, the submission of which resulted in the organization of the international Association for the Reform and Codification of the Laws of Nations, of which he became president. Field was an anti-slavery Democrat, he supported Martin Van Buren in the Free Soil campaign of 1848, he gave his support to the Republican Party in 1856 and to the Lincoln Administration throughout the American Civil War. Field was part of the defense counsel that William M. Tweed created to defend himself during Tweed's first court case in
Baudin Beach, South Australia
Baudin Beach is a locality in the Australian state of South Australia located on Dudley Peninsula on the north coast of Kangaroo Island about 115 kilometres south of the capital city of Adelaide and about 12 kilometres west of Penneshaw. It is named in 2002 after the French navigator Nicolas Baudin in honor of his exploration of Kangaroo Island in 1802. Prior to 2002, Baudin Beach was known as American Beach, being the name given to the land subdivision of the area in 1966; the name was changed in 2002 to avoid confusion with the named American Beach, located a short distance north of the subdivision. The area was once known as Deep Creek Farm, owned by Bruce Bates of Penneshaw. Bates sold the land to Clem Bessell in 1966, who in conjunction with real estate agent Cliff Hawkins subdivided the area, still referred to as "Bessell's"; the name Baudin Beach was gazetted in March 2002. Baudin Beach comprises 207 allotments, each in excess of 800 square metres; some 30% of the allotments are a mix of permanent and holiday homes, the remaining allotments being undeveloped.
There are no shopping facilities in Baudin Beach and there is no reticulated water supply. Boat launching is possible from a improved boat ramp. Next to the boat ramp is a copper sculpture, unveiled in 2002, of Mary Beckwith, reputedly the first recorded European woman to set foot on South Australian soil; the waters of Eastern Cove adjoining Baudin Beach are renowned for King George whiting. Baudin Beach is located within the federal division of Mayo, the state electoral district of Mawson and the local government area of the Kangaroo Island Council. Notes Citations