The Sutherland Shire is a local government area in the southern region of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The Sutherland Shire is colloquially known as "The Shire" and it has been featured in several reality television series. Geographically, it is the area to the south of the Georges River; the administrative centre of the local government is located in the suburb of Sutherland, with council chambers located in Eton Street. Within the Shire is the birthplace of modern Australia, as it was the first landing site of Captain James Cook, who went ashore onto what is now the suburb of Kurnell on 29 April 1770, it was intended to be the site of the first British Settlement, before Sydney Cove was chosen as the location during the First Fleet. The Sutherland Shire is 26 kilometres south of Sydney central business district, is bordered by Canterbury-Bankstown, Liverpool, Georges River and Campbelltown local government areas; the Sutherland Shire comprises an area of 370 square kilometres and as at the 2016 census had an estimated population of 218,464.
As of 28 September 2015 the Mayor of the Sutherland Shire is Cr. Carmello Pesce, a member of the Liberal Party. Suburbs in the Sutherland Shire are: Localities administered by the Sutherland Shire are: At the 2016 census, there were 217,880 people in the Sutherland local government area, of these 48.8% were male and 51.2% were female. Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people made up 1.1% of the population. The median age of people in Sydney - Sutherland was 40 years. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 19.1% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 16.9% of the population. Of people in Sydney - Sutherland aged 15 years and over, 53.7% were married and 10.4% were either divorced or separated. The median weekly income for residents within the Sutherland Shire area was higher than the national average; the most common ancestries in Sydney - Sutherland were English 27.6%, Australian 26.3%, Irish 9.5%, Scottish 6.9% and Italian 3.2%. In Sydney - Sutherland, of occupied private dwellings 4.6% had 1 bedroom, 21.1% had 2 bedrooms and 35.5% had 3 bedrooms.
The average number of bedrooms per occupied private dwelling was 3.2. The average household size was 2.7 people. The Shire has a reputation for insular localism that manifests itself in surf culture, it is Sydney's second largest bible belt. Sutherland Shire Council is composed of fifteen Councillors elected proportionally as five separate wards, each electing three Councillors. All Councillors are elected for a fixed four-year term of office; the Mayor is elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council. The most recent election was held on 10 September 2016,and the makeup of the Council is as follows: The current Council, elected in 2016, in order of election by ward, is: The original inhabitants of the Sutherland area were some clans of the Dharawal people. Archaeological work in the Sutherland Shire has revealed evidence for Aboriginal settlement dating back at least 8,500 years; the original coastline around Sydney has retreated about 20 km and that those flooded coastal plains may hold evidence showing occupation of this area going back well beyond the 8,500 years revealed in the 1966 Archaeological exploration.
Seashells became an important source of lime in the 1800s and so many middens in the Sutherland Shire area may have been mined for shells. Within the Royal National Park, field surveys have revealed many hundreds of Aboriginal rock shelters. In other locations there are thousands of camping areas and sacred places; these areas mentioned have not been affected by European occupation and building and may give a clearer example for the quality of life and abundance of resources in Sutherland/Liverpool areas. Since 1966 when there was an archaeological dig in Cabbage Tree Basin archaeologists have uncovered parts of an extensive open-air midden or cooking and camp sites. Successive layers of habitation show the diet of the native Aborigines: oysters, snapper and Sydney cockle. There is evidence of seal, dolphin, a range of marsupials and whale. Several edge-ground axes have found. There are many existing sites where paintings and engravings of great age show changes in art style over thousands of years.
Some of these changes can be linked to the extinction of some animals in the area and with the coming of Europeans to Sutherland. Some have interpreted these changes in style to changes in culture and people which would indicate that there have been a number of changes of communities over time. European discovery of what is now Sutherland Shire was made by Lieutenant James Cook, who entered Botany Bay on 29 April 1770. Cook and his party explored around Kurnell Peninsula, left the bay on 6 May. During their brief stay, a Scottish seaman named. In his honour, Cook named the northwest point of the peninsula Point Sutherland; the British government needed a new site for transported convicts as they had lost their American colonies following defeat in the American Revolutionary War. Botany Bay was chosen as the new penal settlement and the First Fleet under Governor Arthur Phillip anchored off Kurnell on 18 January 1788. After sending a party to clear land for settlement, Phillip soon realised. There was lack of shelter for inadequate water and poor soil.
On 24 January, two French ships were sighted off the coast, causing Phillip to raise English colours near Sutherland Point. Governor Phillip sailed north to explore Port Jackson, settled at
Ku-ring-gai Council is a local government area on the Upper North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The region is named after the Kuringgai tribe. Major transport routes through the area include the Pacific North Shore railway line; because of its good soils and elevated position as part of the Hornsby Plateau, Ku-ring-gai was covered by a large area of dry sclerophyll forest, parts of which still remain and form a component of the Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. There are many domestic gardens in the residential parts of Ku-ring-gai; the Mayor of Ku-ring-gai Council is Cr. Jennifer Anderson, an independent politician. Anderson was elected to her fifth term as mayor on 21 September 2017, alongside Deputy Mayor Callum Clarke. Ku-ring-gai is the most advantaged area in Australia to live in, at the top of the Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage. Suburbs and localities serviced by Ku-ring-gai Council are: At the 2016 census, there were 118,053 people in the Ku-ring-gai Council local government area, of these 48 per cent were male and 52 per cent were female.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 0.2 per cent of the population below the national average of 2.8 per cent. The median age of people in the Ku-ring-gai Council area was 41 years. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 20.2 per cent of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 18.2 per cent of the population. Of people in the area aged 15 years and over, 61.3 per cent were married and 4.3 per cent were either divorced or separated. Population growth in the Ku-ring-gai Council area between the 2001 census and the 2006 census was 0.93 per cent and in the subsequent five years to the 2011 census, population growth was 8.13 per cent. At the 2016 census, the population in the Ku-ring-gai Council area increased by 8.1 per cent. When compared with total population growth of Australia for the same period, being 8.8 per cent, population growth in the Ku-ring-gai local government area on par with the national average. The median weekly income for residents within the Ku-ring-gai Council area was higher than the national average.
At the 2016 census, the area was linguistically diverse, with Asian languages spoken in more than 18 per cent of households. Whilst the rate of all residents in the Ku-ring-gai Council area who nominated a religious affiliation with the Anglican Church has been declining over a number of census periods, the proportion during the 2016 census was 40% greater than the national average of 13.3 per cent. Ku-ring-gai Council is composed of ten Councillors elected proportionally as five separate wards, each electing two Councillors. All Councillors are elected for a fixed four-year term of office, but due to delays as a result of amalgamation processes, the current term will only run for three years; the Mayor and Deputy Mayor are elected annually by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council. The most recent election was held on 9 September 2017, the makeup of the Council is as follows: The current Council, elected in 2017, in order of election by ward, is: Ku-ring-gai was first incorporated on 6 March 1906 as the "Shire of Ku-ring-gai" and the first Shire Council was elected on 24 November 1906.
The first leader of the council was elected at the first meeting on 8 December 1906, when Councillor William Cowan was elected as Shire President. There would not be a Deputy President until the council election on 1 March 1920. On 22 September 1928, the Shire of Ku-ring-gai was proclaimed as the "Municipality of Ku-ring-gai" and the titles of'Shire President' and'Councillor' were retitled to be'Mayor' and'Alderman' respectively. In 1993, with the passing of a new Local Government Act, council was retitled as "Ku-ring-gai Council" and Aldermen were retitled as Councillors. A 2015 review of local government boundaries by the NSW Government Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal recommended that Ku-ring-gai Council and parts of the Hornsby Shire north of the M2 merge to form a new council with an area of 540 square kilometres and support a population of 270,000; the Ku-ring-gai Council took the NSW Government to court and, on appeal, the NSW Court of Appeal found that the Council had been denied procedural fairness.
The proposed merger was stood aside indefinitely. In July 2017, the Berejiklian government decided to abandon the forced merger of the Hornsby and Ku-ring-gai local government areas, along with several other proposed forced mergers. During the term of former Planning Minister, Frank Sartor, planning law reforms were passed that gave development approval to a panel and away from local government; these new laws were controversially implemented in Ku-ring-gai, with immense opposition from the local population who claim that their suburbs, with nationally recognised heritage values in both housing and original native forest, are being trashed by slab-sided apartment developments with no effective protection provided by either the Ku-ring-gai Council or the State Government. This has been termed "The Rape of Ku-ring-gai"; the laws are intended to take development approval power away from local councils and to the Planning NSW, via the development panels. Planning panels are about to be introduced across New South Wales under passed planning reforms.
In 2005-06, Ku-ring-gai had the second highest reported total development value in the state - A$1.7 billion, more than Parramatta, second only to the City of Sydney. Ku-ring-gai Council has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Gordon, 17 McIntosh Street: Eryldene, Gordon Gordon, Middlemiss S
Lands administrative divisions of Australia
Lands administrative divisions of Australia are the cadastral divisions of Australia for the purposes of identification of land to ensure security of land ownership. Most states term these divisions as counties, parishes and other terms; the eastern states of Queensland, New South Wales and Tasmania were divided into counties and parishes in the 19th century, although the Tasmanian counties were renamed land districts in the 20th century. Parts of South Australia and Western Australia were divided into counties, there were five counties in a small part of the Northern Territory; however South Australia has subdivisions of hundreds instead of parishes, along with the Northern Territory, part of South Australia when the hundreds were proclaimed. There were formerly hundreds in Tasmania. There have been at least 600 counties, 544 hundreds and at least 15,692 parishes in Australia, but there are none of these units for most of the sparsely inhabited central and western parts of the country. Counties in Australia have no administrative or political function, unlike those in England, the United States or Canada.
Australia instead uses local government areas, including shires, districts and municipalities according to the state, as the second-level subdivision. Some other states were divided into land divisions and land districts. Below these are groups of land parcels known as registered plans or title plans. Queensland has registered plans. Land can be identified using the number of this plan of subdivision held with the lands department, rather than with a named unit such as a parish. Within these are individual land parcels such as lots; the various cadastral units appear on certificates of title, which are given volume and folio numbers. Detailed maps of these divisions have been required since the introduction of the Torrens title system of a central register of land holdings in South Australia in 1858, which spread to the other colonies. While cadastral data since the 1980s has been digitalised, there remain many old maps showing these divisions held in collections of Australian libraries such as the National Library of Australia, as well as in state libraries.
Counties were used since the earliest British settlement in Australia, with the County of Cumberland proclaimed by Captain Phillip on 4 June 1788. In 1804 Governor King divided Van Diemen's Land into two counties; the parishes date to the surveys conducted after 1825, with the instructions given to Governor Brisbane on 23 Jun 1825 to divide the colony into counties and parishes. At this time there were five counties proclaimed in New South Wales: Cumberland, Camden and Northumberland; the Nineteen Counties in south-eastern New South Wales were the limits of location of the colony in a period after 1829, with the area outside them divided into districts, also into counties and parishes. Counties were established soon after the foundation of other Australian colonies. Many of the counties have English names the names of counties in England, such as Devon, Dorset and Kent Counties in Tasmania. Less some have Aboriginal names such as the County of Yungnulgra in New South Wales, County of Croajingolong in Victoria.
The use of counties and parishes was popular in Australia in the 19th century, with many maps of Australian colonies showing these divisions, towns and cities listed in their county. Legal cases referenced counties, many genealogical records for Australia in the 19th century list the county and parish for location of birth and marriages; the 1911 Britannica describes Australian towns and cities as being in their respective county, including most of the capital cities: Melbourne, County of Bourke. However it is not mentioned that Perth was located in the County of Perth, as by this time county names were infrequently used in Western Australia, where they did not cover all of the settled areas, unlike the other states. Instead the system of land divisions and land districts was used, with most of Perth located in the land districts of Swan and Cockburn Sound, all in the South West Land Division of Western Australia. Counties and parishes are still referenced in property law, in industrial relations instruments, for example in a New South Wales award, which excludes people from the County of Yancowinna.
Similar award examples exist in the other states and territories that have been subdivided into counties. The County of Yancowinna is the only part of New South Wales, in a different time zone to the rest of the state, as mentioned in the Australian Standard Time Act of 1987. Counties are used on paperwork for mortgage securities in banks. Parishes and counties are mentioned in definitions of electoral districts. Counties have since gone out of use in Australia, are used or known by most of the population today. Part of the reason is that counties are based on the size of land, rather than population, so in a large country
The Cumberland Plain is a flat region lying to the west of Sydney CBD in New South Wales, Australia. Cumberland Basin is the preferred physiographic and geological term for the low-lying plain of the Permian-Triassic Sydney Basin found between Sydney and the Blue Mountains, it is a structural sub-basin of the Sydney Basin; the Cumberland Plain has an area of 2,750 square kilometres. Shaping the geography of Sydney, it extends from 10 kilometres north of Windsor in the north, to Picton in the south. Much of the Sydney metropolitan area is located on the Plain; the Hornsby Plateau is dissected by steep valleys. The area lies on Triassic sandstones; the region consists of low rolling hills and wide valleys in a rain shadow area near the Blue Mountains. The annual rainfall of the plain is around 700–900 mm, is lower than the elevated terrain that surrounds it. Common vegetation in the Cumberland Plain is eucalyptus trees. Soils in the plain are red and yellow in texture; the plain takes its name from Cumberland County, in which it is situated, one of the cadastral land divisions of New South Wales.
The name Cumberland was conferred on the County by Governor Phillip in honour of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. Being the most populous region in Australia, the Cumberland Plain is one of the fastest growing areas of the country in terms of population and it is home to a variety of Australian animal species, which are observable in the urban environments. Formed about 80 million years ago, the Cumberland Plain consists of not flat plains. Relative to the surrounding higher sandstone lands and Blue Mountains Plateaux, it was an early matter of debate in Sydney physiographic circles as to whether the Cumberland Plain had gone down, or the surrounding plateaux had been raised up. Despite much study along the western side at the Lapstone monocline, this complex matter is still not understood. There are volcanic rocks from low hills in the shale landscapes. Swamps and lagoons are existent on the floodplain of the Nepean River; the Wianamatta Plain, with many undulating hills of Wianamatta Group shales and sandstones, bounded by the Woronora and Illawarra Plateaus to the south, the Blue Mountains Plateau to the west and the Hornsby Plateau to the north/northeast.
At the front of the Blue Mountains Plateau runs the Lapstone Structural Complex, which forms the western edge of the Cumberland Basin and Cumberland Plain. This is a north-south trending collection of reverse faults and monoclinal folds which extends north south for over 100 kilometres. At the opposite side of the Cumberland Plain the Hornsby Plateau is fronted by the Hornsby Warp; that warp is topographically subtle in comparison to the Lapstone Structural Complex, it is a feature, poorly defined and inadequately defined in literature. Prospect Hill in western Sydney is the largest assemblage of igneous rock in the Plain; the oval-shaped ridge was made many millions of years ago when volcanic material from the Earth's core actuated upwards and sideways. Slow erosion of the overlying layers of sedimentary rock by the flow of rainwater have laid bare the edges of the volcanic and metamorphic rocks of the intrusion; the western suburbs lie on the flat, lowly elevated parts of the Cumberland Plain.
Though there are a few hilly or elevated regions on the plain. Western Sydney Parklands and the surrounding suburbs, for instance, lies on a prominent ridge, between 130 to 140 metres high. Bringelly Shale and Minchinbury Sandstone are seen in the Plain's west. Ashfield Shale is observed in the inner western suburbs; these components are part of the Wianamatta Shale group. Rivers in the Cumberland Plain are salient; the Nepean River rises to the south in the Woronora Plateau, wraps around the western edge of the city. Parramatta River's headwaters are several local creeks including Toongabbie Creek and Hunts Creek, part of the upper Parramatta river catchment area. Hunt's creek flows from a few kilometres North of Parramatta. Warragamba River flows 3.5 kilometres north-east from the Warragamba Dam spillway to its confluence with the Nepean River. The south and southwest of Sydney is drained by the Georges River, flowing north from its source near Appin, towards Liverpool and turning east towards Botany Bay.
The other major tributary of Botany Bay is the Cooks River, running through the inner-south western suburbs of Canterbury and Tempe. The Georges River estuary separates the main part of Sydney's urban area from the Sutherland Shire; the Woronora River, on the southern edge of the Sydney Plain, flows in a steep-sided valley from the Woronora Dam to the eastern estuary of the Georges River. Minor waterways draining Sydney's western suburbs include South Creek and Eastern Creek, flowing into the Hawkesbury, Prospect Creek draining into the Georges River; the plant communities in the Sydney region are sclerophyll forests. Dry sclerophyll forests are the most predominant plants in the Cumberland Plain. Wet sclerophyll forests lie on the Hornsby plateau, an elevated region north of the Plain. Dry sclerophyll forests contain eucalyptus trees which are in open woodlands that have dry shrubs and sparse grass in the understory. In 1820s, Peter Cunningham described the country west of Parramatta and Liverpool as "a fin
City of Blacktown
Blacktown City Council is a local government area in Western Sydney, situated on the Cumberland Plain 35 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Established in 1906 as the Blacktown Shire and becoming the Municipality of Blacktown in 1961 before gaining city status in 1979, the City occupies an area of 246.9 square kilometres and had a population of 336,962 as at the 2016 census, making it the second most populous LGA in Sydney. The Mayor of the Blacktown City Council is Cr. Stephen Bali, a member of the Australian Labor Party, the state Member of Parliament for Blacktown; the first road from Prospect to Richmond became known as the "Black Town Road" and in 1860 the Railway Department gave the name of "Black Town Road Station" to the railway station at the junction of the railway and the Black Town Road, with the name shortening to "Blacktown" by 1862. The Blacktown area was first incorporated on 6 March 1906 as the "Shire of Blacktown" alongside 132 other new shires across the state as a result of the passing of the Local Government Act, 1905.
The first five-member temporary council was appointed on 15 May 1906 and first met on 20 June in the Rooty Hill School of Arts. The Blacktown Shire became the "Municipality of Blacktown" on 17 June 1961 and was granted city status on 9 March 1979, becoming the "City of Blacktown"; the City of Blacktown has a number of heritage-listed sites, including those on the New South Wales State Heritage Register: Prospect, Upper Canal System Prospect, Great Western Highway: Veteran Hall Remains Prospect, Ponds Road: St Bartholomew's Anglican Church and Cemetery Prospect, Reservoir Road: Former Great Western Road Alignment, Prospect Prospect, Reservoir Road: Prospect Reservoir Prospect, East of Reservoir: Prospect Reservoir Valve House Prospect, 385 Reservoir Road: Royal Cricketers Arms Inn Prospect, 23 Tarlington Place: Prospect Post Office These are the suburbs and localities in the local government area: At the 2016 census, there were 336,962 people resident in the Blacktown local government area, of these 49.7 per cent were male and 50.3 per cent were female.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 2.8 per cent of the population, higher than the NSW and Australian averages of 2.9 and 2.8 per cent respectively. The median age of people in the City of Blacktown was 33 years, lower than the national median of 38 years. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 22.8 per cent of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 9.0%10.3 per cent of the population. Of people in the area aged 15 years and over, 52.3 per cent were married and 9.9 per cent were either divorced or separated. Population growth in the City of Blacktown between the 2001 census and the 2006 census was 6.47 per cent. At the 2016 census, the population in the local government area increased by 11.91 per cent. When compared with total population growth of Australia for the same period, being 8.8 per cent, population growth in Blacktown local government area was in excess of 35% more than the national average. The median weekly income for residents within the City of Blacktown was on par with the national average.
At the 2016 census, the proportion of residents in the Blacktown local government area who stated their ancestry as Filipino, was in excess of six times the national average. The proportion of residents who stated a religious affiliation with Hinduism was in excess of three times the national average. Meanwhile, as at the census date, the area was linguistically diverse, with Tagalog, Punjabi, or Filipino languages spoken in households, ranged from five times to eight times the national averages. Pacific Island languages such as Samoan and Tongan were noticeable in the area. Blacktown City Council is composed of fifteen Councillors elected proportionally as five separate wards, each electing three Councillors. All Councillors are elected for a fixed four-year term of office; the Mayor is elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council and since 2016 has served a two-year term. Mayor Bali was most elected in September 2018 for a two-year term but must stand down from Council by November 2019, due to the Local Government Amendment Act, 2012 which requires state members of parliament to relinquish local government offices no more than two years after their election.
The most recent election was held on 10 September 2016, the makeup of the Council is as follows: The current Council, elected in 2016, in order of election by ward, is: After becoming a city in 1979, the Council resolved to investigate and if possible obtain a coat of arms, making a request to the Chester Herald of Arms, Hubert Chesshyre. With the design completed by March 1981, Council resolved to adopt the Coat of Arms at its meeting on 1 April 1981. Blacktown City Council has sister city relations with the following cities: Porirua, New Zealand, since 1984 Suseong-gu, South Korea, since 1994 Liaocheng, since 2003 Liverpool Plains, New South Wales, since 2005 City of Blacktown's website
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The harbour is an inlet of the Tasman Sea, it is the location of the Sydney Opera Sydney Harbour Bridge. The location of the first European settlement and colony on the Australian mainland, Port Jackson has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney. Many recreational events are based on or around the harbour itself the Sydney New Year's Eve celebrations and the starting point of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race; the waterways of Port Jackson are managed by the Maritime Services. Sydney Harbour National Park protects a number of islands and foreshore areas, swimming spots, bushwalking tracks and picnic areas; the land around Port Jackson was occupied at the time of the European arrival and colonisation by the Eora clans, including the Gadigal and Wangal. The Gadigal occupied the land stretching along the south side of Port Jackson from what is now South Head, in an arc west to the present Darling Harbour.
The Cammeraygal lived on the northern side of the harbour. The area along the southern banks of the Parramatta River to Rose Hill belonged to the Wangal; the Eora occupied west to Parramatta. The first recorded European discovery of Sydney Harbour was by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook named the inlet after Sir George Jackson, one of the Lord Commissioners of the British Admiralty, Judge Advocate of the Fleet; as the Endeavour sailed past the entrance at Sydney Heads, Cook wrote in his journal "at noon we were...about 2 or 3 miles from the land and abrest of a bay or harbour within there appeared to be a safe anchorage which I called Port Jackson." No-one on the ship recorded seeing any of the Harbour's many islands. This would have been because their line of sight was blocked by the high promontories of South Head and Bradleys Head that shape its dog-leg entrance. However, these islands were known to Captain Arthur Phillip, the First Fleet commander, before he departed England in 1787. Cook had seen the main body of the Harbour in 1770 and, on returning home, he had reported his important discovery to the Admiralty.
An explanation of Cook's discovery was first proposed in the book Lying for the Admiralty. While the Endeavour was anchored in Botany Bay, Cook may have followed one of the ancient Aboriginal tracks that connect Botany Bay to Port Jackson, a distance of some ten kilometres; the Admiralty had ordered Cook to conceal strategically valuable discoveries, so he omitted the main Harbour from his journal and chart. Eighteen years on 21 January 1788, after arriving at Botany Bay, Governor Arthur Phillip took a longboat and two cutters up the coast to sound the entrance and examine Cook's Port Jackson. Phillip first stayed over night at Camp Cove moved down the harbour, landing at Sydney Cove and Manly Cove before returning to Botany Bay on the afternoon of 24 January. Phillip returned to Sydney Cove in HM Armed Tender Supply on 26 January 1788, where he established the first colony in Australia to become the city of Sydney. In his first dispatch from the colony back to England, Governor Phillip noted that:...we had the satisfaction of finding the finest harbour in the world, in which a thousand sail of the line may ride in the most perfect security...
The Great White Fleet, the United States Navy battle fleet, arrived in Port Jackson in August 1908 by order of U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt. From 1938, seaplanes landed in Sydney Harbour on Rose Bay, making this Sydney's first international airport. In 1942, to protect Sydney Harbour from a submarine attack, the Sydney Harbour anti-submarine boom net was constructed, it spanned the harbour from Green Point, Watsons Bay to the battery at Georges Head, on the other side of the harbour. On the night of 31 May 1942, three Japanese midget submarines entered the harbour, one of which became entangled in the western end of the boom net's central section. Unable to free their submarine, the crew detonated charges. A second midget submarine came to grief in the two crew committing suicide; the third submarine fired two torpedoes at USS Chicago before leaving the harbour. In November 2006, this submarine was found off Sydney's Northern Beaches; the anti-submarine boom net was demolished soon after World War II, all that remains are the foundations of the old boom net winch house, which can be viewed on Green Point, Watsons Bay.
Today, the Australian War Memorial has on display a composite of the two midget submarines salvaged from Sydney Harbour. The conning tower of one of the midget submarines is on display at the RAN Heritage Centre, Garden Island, Sydney. Fort Denison is a former penal site and defensive facility occupying a small island located north-east of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney Harbour. There are fortifications at elsewhere, some of which are now heritage listed; the earliest date from the 1830s, were designed to defend Sydney from seaborn attack or convict uprisings. There are four historical fortifications located between Taronga Zoo and Middle Head, they are: the Middle Head Fortifications, the Georges Head Battery, the Lower Georges Heights Commanding Position and a small fort located on Bradleys Head, known as the Bradleys Head Fortification Complex; the forts were built from sandstone quarried on site and consist of various tunnels, underground rooms, open batteries and casemated batteries, shell rooms, gunpowder magazines and trenches.
Geologically, Port Jackson is a drowned river v