Provinces of France
The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department system superseded provinces. The provinces of France were equivalent to the historic counties of England, they came into their final form over the course of many hundreds of years, as many dozens of semi-independent fiefs and former independent countries came to be incorporated into the French royal domain. Because of the haphazard manner in which the provinces evolved, each had its own sets of feudal traditions, taxation systems, etc. and the system represented an impediment to effective administration of the entire country from Paris. During the early years of the French Revolution, in an attempt to centralize the administration of the whole country, to remove the influence of the French nobility over the country, the entirety of the province system was abolished and replaced by the system of departments in use today. In some cases, several modern regions or departments share names with the historic provinces, their borders may cover the same territory.
The list below shows the major provinces of France at the time of their dissolution during the French Revolution. Capital cities are shown in parentheses. Bold indicates a city, the seat of a judicial and quasi-legislative body called either a parlement or a conseil souverain. In some cases, this body met in a different city from the capital. Île-de-France Berry Orléanais Normandy Languedoc Lyonnais Dauphiné Champagne Aunis Saintonge Poitou Guyenne and Gascony Burgundy Picardy Anjou Provence Angoumois Bourbonnais Marche Brittany Maine Touraine Limousin Foix Auvergne Béarn Alsace Artois Roussillon Flanders and Hainaut Franche-Comté Lorraine.
The Orléanists were a French political faction supporting a constitutional monarchy for France led by the House of Orléans as opposed to Legitimists who supported the main line of the House of Bourbon. The Orléanist faction governed France from 1830 to 1848 in the July Monarchy of King Louis Philippe I; the faction took its name from the Orléans branch of the House of Bourbon. The faction comprised many liberals and intellectuals who wanted to restore the monarchy as a constitutional monarchy with limited powers for the king and most power in the hands of parliament, their base of support came from liberal monarchists. Over time, the July Monarchy alienated the population with its increasing conservatism and repression as represented in the figure of Prime Minister François Guizot. Many Orléanists went into exile during the reign of Emperor Napoleon III. Following the Third Republic in 1870, they were a sizable force on the right wing, but they failed to secure a resumption of the Orléanist succession and their support dwindled over time as republicanism became more accepted.
During the early period of the French Revolution, Louis Philippe Joseph, Duke of Orléans, who disliked King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette assumed the position of a spokesman of the liberal royalists. It was a short step from this position to the attitude of liberal candidates for the throne, which Philippe's son Louis Philippe would achieve; the Orléanists aimed politically to find a common measure for the monarchical principle and the rights of man as set forth by the revolutionary leaders in 1789 and the princes of the branch of Orléans became the advocates of this attempted compromise. The elder Bourbon branch was prepared to grant a charter of liberties or constitution, but he insisted that they ruled by divine right and conferred these liberties on their subjects of their own free will; the Bourbons' feudal language offended many Frenchmen, who concluded that rights granted as a favour were always subject to revocation as a punishment. Therefore, those of them who considered a monarchical government as more beneficial to France than a republic, but who were not disposed to hold their freedom subject to the pleasure of one man became either Bonapartists, who professed to rule by the choice of the nation, or supporters of the Orléans princes, who were ready to reign by an original compact and by the will of the people.
The difference between the supporters of the elder line and the Orléanists became profound, for it went down to the foundations of government. The first generation of Orléanists were swamped in the turmoil of the French Revolution. Philippe himself, who under the Republic had assumed the name Philippe Égalité and voted for the king's execution, was nonetheless guillotined himself in 1793. Despite this setback, according to Albert Sorel the Orléanists subsisted under the First French Empire and resurfaced when the revival of liberalism overthrew the restored legitimate monarchy of Louis XVIII and Charles X. After the restoration of the Bourbons in 1815, the liberals were identified with the Orléanists, who rejected the Legitimism of the elder branch as well as Bonapartism, which in their view was democratic Caesarism, i.e. an equal submission of all men to one despotic ruler. As equality before the law and in social life, far dearer to Frenchmen of the revolutionary epoch than political freedom, seemed secured, the next step was aiming as political freedom.
This happened under the guidance of men who were Orléanists because the Orléans princes seemed to them to offer the best guarantee for such a government. The liberals who were Orléanists found their leaders in men eminent in letters and in practical affairs—François Guizot, Adolphe Thiers, Victor de Broglie and his son Albert, Duke of Broglie, the banker Jacques Laffitte and many others; when the July Revolution of 1830 resulted in the downfall of the elder Bourbon branch, the Orléanists stepped in. Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who became king, marked a profound change by assuming the title of a King of the French instead of the traditional King of France and Navarre; that king appeared as the chief of the people by compact with the people and not by divine right. In their dislike of divine right on the one hand and their fear of democracy, which they were convinced would result in Caesarism or a return to Bonapartism, the Orléanists turned for examples of a free government to Britain, a monarchy governing constitutionally based on parliamentary representation of the middle classes.
They endeavoured to establish the like in France under the name of a juste-milieu, a via media between absolutism and democracy. The French equivalent for the English middle-class constituencies was to be a pays legal of about a quarter of a million of voters by whom all the rest of the country was to be represented. Guizot carried out this doctrine with uncompromising rigour; the Orléanist monarchy became so middle-class that the nation outside of the pays legal ended by regarding the government as a privileged class less offensive, but a great deal less brilliant than the aristocracy of the old monarchy. The Revolution of 1848 due to errors of conduct in individual princes and politicians but to the resentment of those excluded from the pays legal, swept the Orléanist party from power after eighteen years; the Orléanists indeed continued throughout the Second Republic and the Empire to enjoy a marked social and literary prestige, on the strength of the wealth and capacity of some of their members, their influence in the Académie française and
House of Lusignan
The House of Lusignan was a royal house of French origin, which at various times ruled several principalities in Europe and the Levant, including the kingdoms of Jerusalem and Armenia, from the 12th through the 15th centuries during the Middle Ages. It had great influence in England and France; the family originated in Poitou, near Lusignan in western France, in the early 10th century. By the end of the 11th century, the family had risen to become the most prominent petty lords in the region from their castle at Lusignan. In the late 12th century, through marriages and inheritance, a cadet branch of the family came to control the kingdoms of Jerusalem and Cyprus. In the early 13th century, the main branch succeded in the Counties of La Angoulême; as Crusader kings in the Latin East, they soon had connections with the Hethumid rulers of the Kingdom of Cilicia, which they inherited through marriage in the mid-14th century. The Armenian branch fled to France, Russia, after the Mamluk conquest of their kingdom.
The claim was taken by the Cypriot branch. This kingdom was annexed by the Republic of Venice in the late 15th century; the Château de Lusignan, near Poitiers, was the principal seat of the Lusignans. It was destroyed during the Wars of Religion, only its foundations remain in Lusignan. According to legend, the earliest castle was built by the folklore water-spirit Melusine; the lords of the castle at Lusignan were counts of La Marche, over which they fought with the counts of Angoulême. Hugh I Hugh II Hugh III Hugh IV Hugh V Hugh VI inherited by collateral succession the County of La Marche as a descendant of Almodis. Hugh VI Hugh VII Hugh VIII Hugh IX Raoul I Raoul II Marie Hugh IX's son, Hugh X, married Isabelle of Angoulême, thus securing Angoulême. Hugh X Hugh XI Hugh XII Hugh XIII Guy Yolande Yolande sold the fiefs of Lusignan, La Marche, Angoulême, Fougères to Philip IV of France in 1308, they became a common appanage of the crown. In the 1170s, Amalric de Lusignan arrived in Jerusalem, having been expelled by Richard Lionheart from his realm, which included the family lands of Lusignan near Poitiers.
Amalric married Eschiva, the daughter of Baldwin of Ibelin, entered court circles. He had obtained the patronage of Agnes of Courtenay, the divorced mother of King Baldwin IV, who held the county of Jaffa and Ascalon and was married to Reginald of Sidon, he was appointed Agnes' constable in Jaffa, as constable of the kingdom. Hostile rumours alleged he was Agnes' lover, it is that his promotions were aimed at weaning him away from the political orbit of the Ibelin family, who were associated with Raymond III of Tripoli, Amalric I's cousin and the former bailli or regent. Amalric's younger brother, Guy de Lusignan, arrived at some date before Easter 1180; when he arrived is quite unknown, although Ernoul said that he arrived at that time on Amalric's advice. Many modern historians believe that Guy was well established in Jerusalem by 1180, but there is no supporting contemporary evidence. But, Amalric of Lusignan's success facilitated the social and political advancement of his brother Guy. Older accounts claim that Agnes was concerned that her political rivals, headed by Raymond of Tripoli, intended to exercise more control by forcing Agnes' daughter, the widowed princess Sibylla, to marry someone of their choosing.
Agnes was said to have foiled these plans by advising her son to have Sibylla married to Guy. But, the King, now believed to have been less malleable than earlier historians have portrayed, was considering the international implications: Sibylla had to marry someone who could rally external help to the kingdom, not a local noble; as the new King of France, Philip II, was still a minor, Baldwin's first cousin Henry II of England seemed the best prospect. He owed the Pope a penitential pilgrimage on account of the Thomas Becket affair. Guy was a vassal of Richard of Poitou and Henry II, had been rebellious, so they wanted to keep him overseas. Guy and Sibylla were hastily married at Eastertide 1180 preventing a coup by Raymond's faction to marry her to Baldwin of Ibelin, the father-in-law of Almaric. By his marriage Guy became bailli of Jerusalem, he and Sibylla had two daughters and Maria. Sibylla had a son from her first marriage to William of Montferrat. An ambitious man, Guy convinced Baldwin IV to name him regent in early 1182.
But he and Raynald of Châtillon provoked Saladin during a two-year period of truce. More important to Baldwin IV's disillusionment with him was Guy's military hesitation during the siege of Kerak. Throughout late 1183 and 1184 Baldwin IV tried to have his sister's marriage to Guy annulled, showing that Baldwin still held his sister with some favour. Baldwin IV had wanted a loyal brother-in-law, was frustrated in Guy's hardheadedness and disobedience. Sibylla remained at Ascalon, though not against her will. Unsuccessful in prying his sister and close heir away from Guy, the king and the Haute Cour altered the succession, they placed Sibylla's son from her first marriage, in precedence over Sibylla. They established a process to choose the monarch afterwards between Sibylla and Isabella, though Sibylla was not herself
Count of Périgord
Count of Périgord is a noble title in the peerage of France, first created for Emenon, Count of Poitiers and Count of Angoulême. Most the title was bestowed on Emenon in 845 by Pepin I of Aquitaine as a reward for Emenon fighting with Pepin against Louis the Pious; the title takes its name from the Périgord region of France, the historic seat of the Counts of Périgord was Périgueux. In 1399, Charles VI of France deprived the last Count of Périgord of his lands. In 1400, the king granted the title to Louis I, Duke of Orléans. In 1437, Duke of Orléans sold the title of "Count of Périgord" to John I, Count of Penthièvre. Frances married Alain I of Albret and the title of "Count of Périgord" was inherited by their son, John III of Navarre. Catherine de Bourbon was the last individual to hold the title of Countess of Périgord; this page is based on this page on French Wikipedia
Hugh X of Lusignan
Hugh X de Lusignan, Hugh V of La Marche or Hugh I of Angoulême succeeded his father Hugh IX as Seigneur de Lusignan and Count of La Marche in November 1219 and was Count of Angoulême by marriage. His father, Hugh IX de Lusignan was betrothed to marry 12-year-old Isabel of Angoulême in 1200, when King John of England took her for his Queen, an action which resulted in the entire de Lusignan family rebelling against the English king. Following John's death, Queen Isabella returned to her native France, where she married Hugh X de Lusignan on 10 May 1220 By Hugh's marriage to Isabella, he became Count of Angoulême until her death in 1246. Together they founded the abbey of Valence, they had nine children: Hugh XI de Lusignan, seigneur of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulême Aymer de Lusignan, Bishop of Winchester c. 1250 Agatha de Lusignan, married Guillaume II de Chauvigny, seigneur of Châteauroux Alice de Lusignan, married 1247 John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey Guy de Lusignan, seigneur of Couhé, Archiac in 1249, killed at the Battle of Lewes.
Geoffrey de Lusignan, seigneur of Jarnac, married in 1259 Jeanne de Châtellerault, Vicomtess of Châtellerault and had issue: Eustachie de Lusignan, married 1257 Dreux III de Mello Guillaume de Lusignan. Hugh X was succeeded by Hugh XI of Lusignan. According to explanations in the manuscripts of Gaucelm Faidit's poems, this troubadour was a rival of Hugh X of Lusignan for the love of Marguerite d'Aubusson, he was buried at Angoulême. Fonteneau, Tables des Manuscrits 1: 195, 197, 202–205, 208, 211–213, 215, 217, 221, 224, 229, 230. Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes 4th Ser. 2: 537–545. Douet d’Arcq, Collection de Sceaux des Archives de l’Empire 1: 397–398. Docs. Hist. sur l’Angoumois, 1: 131–133. Teulet, Layettes du Trésor des Chartes, 2: 38–39, 68, 121, 140, 175–176, 182–183, 241, 313, 453, 457, 476–477, 498–499, 513, 571–572, 574–576, 622–624. Delisle Chronologie Hist. des Comtes de la Marche 4th Ser. 4: 3–16. Duval, Cartulaire de l’Abbaye royale de Notre-Dame des Châtelliers: 56, 80–81, 82–85.
Pertz, Chronica ævi Suevici: 874. Inventaire Sommaire des Archives départmentales antérieures à 1790: Haute Vienne, Série H. Supp.: 58. La Porta, Les Gens de Qualité en Basse-Marche 1: 1–60. Richard, Chartes et Docs. Pour servir a l’Hist. de l’Abbaye de Saint-Maixent: 38–39, 45–46, 46–47, 59–60, 65–66, 79–80. Biographies des troubadours ed. J. Boutière, A.-H. Schutz: 180–184. Cuttino, Gascon Reg. A 2: 499, 509, 510. Debord, Cartulaire de Saint-Amand-de-Boixe: 271–272, 300. Recueil des Documents de l’Abbaye de Fontaine-le-Comte: 82, 87. Sayers, Papal Government & England during the Pontificate of Honorius III: 232. Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln n.s. 3: 816. Sayers, Original Papal Docs. in England & Wales: 44
Louis I, Duke of Bourbon
Louis I, called the Lame was Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and La Marche and the first Duke of Bourbon. Louis was born in Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, the son of Robert, Count of Clermont, a grandson of King Louis IX of France. Louis' mother was Beatrix of Burgundy, heiress of Bourbon and a granddaughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, he fought on the losing side in the Battle of the Golden Spurs and in the Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle, but managed to escape unharmed. In 1310, he was made Grand Chambrier of France. In 1327, Charles IV of France persuaded him to exchange the County of Clermont for that of La Marche, elevated Bourbon to a duchy-peerage. However, Clermont was restored to him by Philip VI of France in 1331, he belonged to Philip VI's small circle of trusted advisors. Duke Louis is reported to have been somewhat mentally unstable, in particular suffering from nervous breakdowns; the trait is believed to have been hereditary, with his granddaughter Joanna of Bourbon, her son, King Charles VI of France, Charles' grandson, King Henry VI of England, all displaying similar symptoms.
He was buried in the now-demolished church of the Couvent des Jacobins in Paris. In 1310, Louis married Mary of Avesnes, daughter of John II of Avesnes, Count of Hainaut and Holland by Philippa of Luxembourg, they had eight children: Peter I, Duke of Bourbon, married Isabella of Valois, had issue. Peter was killed at the Battle of Poitiers Joanna, married in 1324 Guigues VII, Count of Forez Margaret, married on 6 July 1320 Jean II de Sully, married in 1346 Hutin de Vermeilles Marie of Bourbon, Latin Empress, married first in Nicosia in January 1330 Guy of Lusignan, titular Prince of Galilee, married second on 9 September 1347 Robert of Taranto, the titular Latin Emperor. Philip James James I, Count of La Marche, killed at the Battle of Brignais, from whom the royal Bourbons descend. Beatrice of Bourbon, married first at Vincennes in 1334 John of Luxembourg, King of Bohemia as his second wife, married secondly c. 1347 Eudes II of Grancey From a relation to Jeanne de Bourbon-Lancy, dame de Clessy, he had several illegitimate children: Jean, "bastard de Bourbon"", seigneur of Rochefort, Ébreuil, Beçay le Guérant, Jenzat, Serrant and la Bure, advisor to the dukes of Berry and of Bourbon, lieutenant du Forez, married Agnès Chaleu for his third wife.
Married in 1315 Agnès of Chastellus between 1330 and 1333 Isabelle of Chastelperron. Louis is a supporting character in Les Rois maudits, a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon, he was portrayed by Robert Nogaret in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, by M. Radecu in the 2005 adaptation. Boehm, Barbara Drake. Prague: The Crown of Bohemia, 1347-1437. Yale University Press. Henneman, Jr. John Bell. "Bourbon/Bourbonnais". In Kibler, William W.. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing Inc. Nicolle, David. Poitiers 1356: The capture of a king. Osprey publishing. Topping, Peter. "The Morea, 1311–1364". In Hazard, Harry W. A History of the Crusades, Vol. III: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. University of Wisconsin Press. Verbruggen, J. F.. DeVries, Kelly, ed; the Battle of the Golden Spurs: A Contribution to. Translated by Ferguson, David Richard; the Boydell Press. Viard, J.. Grande Chroniques de France. IX. Librairie Ancienne Honore Champion. Warner, Kathryn. Isabella of France: The Rebel Queen.
Louis XI of France
Louis XI, called "Louis the Prudent", was King of France from 1461 to 1483, the sixth from the House of Valois. He succeeded his father Charles VII. Louis entered into open rebellion against his father in a short-lived revolt known as the Praguerie in 1440; the king forgave his rebellious vassals, including Louis, to whom he entrusted the management of the Dauphiné a province in southeastern France. Louis's ceaseless intrigues, led his father to banish him from court. From the Dauphiné, Louis led his own political establishment and married Charlotte of Savoy, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy, against the will of his father. Charles VII sent an army to compel his son to his will, but Louis fled to Burgundy, where he was hosted by Philip the Good, the Duke of Burgundy, Charles' greatest enemy; when Charles VII died in 1461, Louis left the Burgundian court to take possession of his kingdom. His taste for intrigue and his intense diplomatic activity earned him the nicknames "the Cunning" and "the Universal Spider", as his enemies accused him of spinning webs of plots and conspiracies.
In 1472, the subsequent Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, took up arms against his rival Louis. However, Louis was able to isolate Charles from his English allies by signing the Treaty of Picquigny with Edward IV of England; the treaty formally ended the Hundred Years' War. With the death of Charles the Bold at the Battle of Nancy in 1477, the dynasty of the dukes of Burgundy died out. Louis took advantage of the situation to seize numerous Burgundian territories, including Burgundy proper and Picardy. Without direct foreign threats, Louis was able to eliminate his rebellious vassals, expand royal power, strengthen the economic development of his country, he died on 30 August 1483, was succeeded by his minor son Charles VIII. Louis was born in the son of King Charles VII of France. At the time of the Hundred Years War, the English held northern France, including the city of Paris, Charles VII was restricted to the centre and south of the country. Louis was the grandson of Yolande of Aragon, a force in the royal family for driving the English out of France, at a low point in its struggles.
Just a few weeks after Louis's christening at the Cathedral of St. Étienne on 4 July 1423, the French army suffered a crushing defeat by the English at Cravant. Shortly thereafter, a combined Anglo-Burgundian army threatened Bourges itself. During the reign of Louis's grandfather Charles VI, the Duchy of Burgundy was much connected with the French throne, but because the central government lacked any real power, all the duchies of France tended to act independently. Duke Philip II was the reigning Duke of Burgundy. Philip was an uncle of King Charles VI, he served on a council of regents for King Charles; the Dukes of Anjou and Bourbon, all uncles of Charles VI served on this council of regents. All effective power in France lay with this council of dukes. In its position of independence from the French throne, Burgundy had grown in power. By the reign of Louis's father Charles VII, Philip III was reigning as Duke of Burgundy, the duchy had expanded its borders to include all the territory in France from the North Sea in the north to the Jura Mountains in the south and from the Somme River in the west to the Moselle River in the east.
During the Hundred Years War, the Burgundians allied themselves with England against the French crown. Indeed, the Burgundians were responsible for the capture of Joan of Arc and her execution on 31 May 1431. In 1429, young Louis found himself at Loches in the presence of Joan of Arc, fresh from her first victory over the English at the Siege of Orléans, which initiated a turning point for the French in the Hundred Years War. Joan led troops in other victories at the Battle of Jargeau and the Battle of Patay. Although Joan was unable to liberate Paris during her lifetime, the city was liberated after her death, Louis and his father Charles VII were able to ride in triumph into the city on 12 November 1437. Louis grew up aware of the continuing weakness of the French nation, he regarded his father as a weakling, despised him for this. On 24 June 1436, Louis met Margaret of Scotland, daughter of King James I of Scotland, the bride his father had chosen for diplomatic reasons. There are no direct accounts from Louis or his young bride of their first impressions of each other, it is mere speculation whether they had negative feelings for each other.
Several historians think. But it is universally agreed that Louis entered the ceremony and the marriage itself dutifully, as evidenced by his formal embrace of Margaret upon their first meeting. Louis's marriage with Margaret resulted from the nature of medieval royal diplomacy and the precarious position of the French monarchy at the time; the wedding ceremony—very plain by the standards of the time—took place in the chapel of the castle of Tours on the afternoon of 25 June 1436, was presided over by Renaud of Chartres, the Archbishop of Reims. The 13-year-old Louis looked more mature than his 11-year-old bride, said to resemble a beautiful doll, was treated as such by her in-laws. Charles wore "grey riding pants" and "did not bother to remove his spurs"; the Scottish guests were hustled out after the wedding reception, as the French royal court was quite impoverished at this time. They could not afford an extravagant ceremony or to host their Scottish guests for any longer than they did; the Scots, saw this b