Duke of Swabia
The Dukes of Swabia were the rulers of the Duchy of Swabia during the Middle Ages. Swabia was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German kingdom, its dukes were thus among the most powerful magnates of Germany; the most notable family to rule Swabia was the Hohenstaufen family, who held it, with a brief interruption, from 1079 until 1268. For much of this period, the Hohenstaufen were Holy Roman Emperors. With the death of Conradin, the last Hohenstaufen duke, the duchy itself disintegrated, although King Rudolf I attempted to revive it for his Habsburg family in the late-13th century. For Alamannic rulers prior to 900, see Alemanni#List_of_Alemannic_rulers. Burchard I Hunfriding, mentioned as marchio in 903 and dux in 909 Erchanger Ahalolfing, dominant count in Alemannia after the execution of Burchard I, declared duke in 915, exiled September 916, executed January 917. Burchard II, recognized Henry the Fowler as king of Germany in 919 and was recognized by Henry as Duke of Swabia in return.
Hermann I Liudolf Burchard III Otto I Conrad I Hermann II Hermann III Ernest I Ernest II Hermann IV Henry I, King of the Romans from 1039 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1046 Otto II Otto III Rudolf I Berthold I Berthold II Rudolf John In the 13th century, the Duchy of Swabia disintegrated into numerous smaller states. Some of the more important immediate successor states were: During the following century, several of these states were acquired by the County of Württemberg or the Duchy of Austria, as marked above. In 1803 Bavarian Swabia was annexed by Bavaria and shortly afterwards became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria. Duchess of Swabia
Clerval is a former commune in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France. On 1 January 2017, it was merged into the new commune Pays-de-Clerval. Communes of the Doubs department
Württemberg is a historical German territory corresponding to the cultural and linguistic region of Swabia. Together with Baden and Hohenzollern, two other historical territories, it now forms the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg. Württemberg was also spelled Würtemberg and Wirtemberg. Part of the old Duchy of Swabia, its history can be summarized in the following periods: County of Württemberg Duchy of Württemberg Electorate of Württemberg Kingdom of Württemberg Free People's State of Württemberg After World War II, it was split into Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern. In 1952, it was integrated into Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart, the historical capital city of Württemberg, became the capital of the present state. History of Württemberg Coat of arms of Württemberg List of states in the Holy Roman Empire Province of Hohenzollern Württemberg in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Montfaucon is an affluent commune in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France. Montfaucon lies 7 km southeast of Besançon in the valley of the Doubs River. Communes of the Doubs department INSEE Official website Montfaucon on the intercommunal Web site of the department
Early modern period
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era. Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the post-classical age, known as the Middle Ages, through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions and is variously demarcated by historians as beginning with the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, with the Renaissance period, with the Age of Discovery, ending around the French Revolution in 1789. Historians in recent decades have argued that from a worldwide standpoint, the most important feature of the early modern period was its globalizing character; the period witnessed the exploration and colonization of the Americas and the rise of sustained contacts between isolated parts of the globe. The historical powers became involved in global trade, as the exchange of goods, animals, food crops, slaves extended to the Old World and the New World; the Columbian Exchange affected the human environment.
New economies and institutions emerged, becoming more sophisticated and globally articulated over the course of the early modern period. This process began in the medieval North Italian city-states Genoa and Milan; the early modern period included the rise of the dominance of the economic theory of mercantilism. The European colonization of the Americas and Africa occurred during the 15th to 19th centuries, spread Christianity around the world; the early modern trends in various regions of the world represented a shift away from medieval modes of organization and economically. Feudalism declined in Europe, while the period included the Protestant Reformation, the disastrous Thirty Years' War, the Commercial Revolution, the European colonization of the Americas, the Golden Age of Piracy. By the 16th century the economy under the Ming dynasty was stimulated by trade with the Portuguese, the Spanish, the Dutch, while Japan engaged in the Nanban trade after the arrival of the first European Portuguese during the Azuchi–Momoyama period.
Other notable trends of the early modern period include the development of experimental science, accelerated travel due to improvements in mapping and ship design rapid technological progress, secularized civic politics, the emergence of nation states. Historians date the end of the early modern period when the French Revolution of the 1790s began the "late modern" period. Dates are approximate. Consult particular article for details. Early modern themes Other In Early Modern times, the major nations of East Asia attempted to pursue a course of Isolationism from the outside world but this policy was not always enforced uniformly or successfully. However, by the end of the Early Modern Period, China and Japan were closed and disinterested to Europeans while trading relationships grew in port cities such as Guangzhou and Dejima. Around the beginning of the Ming dynasty, China was leading the world in mathematics as well as science. However, Europe soon caught up to China's scientific and mathematical achievements and surpassed them.
Many scholars have speculated about the reason behind China's lag in advancement. A historian named Colin Ronan claims that though there is no one specific answer, there must be a connection between China's urgency for new discoveries being weaker than Europe's and China's inability to capitalize on its early advantages. Ronan believes that China's Confucian bureaucracy and traditions led to China not having a scientific revolution, which led China to have fewer scientists to break the existing orthodoxies, like Galileo Galilei. Despite inventing gunpowder in the 9th century, it was in Europe that the classic handheld firearms, were invented, with evidence of use around the 1480s. China was using the matchlocks by 1540, after the Portuguese brought their matchlocks to Japan in the early 1500s. China during the Ming Dynasty established a bureau to maintain its calendar; the bureau was necessary because the calendars were linked to celestial phenomena and that needs regular maintenance because twelve lunar months have 344 or 355 days, so occasional leap months have to be added in order to maintain 365 days per year.
In the 16th century the Ming dynasty flourished over maritime trade with the Portuguese and Dutch Empires. The trade brought in a massive amount of silver. Prior to China's global trade, its economy ran on a paper money. However, in the 14th century, China's paper money system suffered a crisis, by the mid-15th century, crashed; the silver imports helped fill the void left by the broken paper money system, which helps explain why the value of silver in China was twice as high as the value of silver in Spain during the end of the 16th century. The Ming dynasty suffered an economic collapse in the seventeenth-century because of heavy inflation of silver, the European trade depression of the 1620s; the economy sunk to the point where all of China's trading partner cut ties with them: Philip IV restricted shipments of exports from Acapulco, the Japanese cut off all trade with Macau, the Dutch severed connections between Gao and Macau. The damage to the economy was compounded by the effects on agriculture of the incipient Little Ice Age, natural calamities, crop failure and sudden epidemics.
The ensuing breakdown of authority and people's livelihoods allowed rebel leaders, such as Li Zicheng, to challenge Ming authority. The Ming dynasty fell around 1644 to the Qing dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of Chi
Étobon is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. On 27 September 1944, 39 men from Étobon were shot by German troops against the Protestant church and 27 others taken as prisoners in retaliation for the death of a German general killed on 9 September by the French resistance in the nearby forest between Belverne and Lyoffans; the town received the Croix de Guerre 1939-1945 after the Second World War and the Legion of Honour in 1949. Communes of the Haute-Saône department INSEE
Porrentruy is a Swiss municipality and seat of the district of the same name located in the canton of Jura. Porrentruy is home to HC Ajoie; the first trace of human presence in Porrentruy is a mesolithic tool, found in the back yard of the Hôtel-Dieu. Scattered, individual objects have been found from the neolithic, the late Bronze Age and the Iron Age; the first known settlement in what became. In 1983, the ruins of a Gallo-Roman temple were discovered in the cemetery on the north of town, Roman coins were found there. Near the town, a kilometer long section of the Augst-Epomanduodurum Roman road was discovered. In the back yard of the Hôtel-Dieu the charred remains of a building from the 10th or 11th century were discovered. However, the first historical mention of the name occurs in 1136 as Purrentru; the name comes from the Latin pons Ragentrudis. Ragentrud was the wife of the Frankish King Dagobert I; the German form of the name, Pruntrut may have a separate etymology from Bruntrutum, which means an abundant spring.
The first settlement was established in 1140 in the vicinity of Church of Saint-Germain, built in the Early Middle Ages. The Counts of Pfirt, who owned the region around Porrentruy, built a castle on a defensible hill and made it the capital of the Ajoie territory. A settlement was founded with another south on the opposite hill; the city wall was built before 1283 and surrounded the two settlements, but not the parish church of Saint-Germain. In 1236 the Counts of Pfirt pledged the town to the Counts of Montbéliard, they retained their rights to the Ajoie until 1281 when they sold the territory to the Bishop of Basel; the Counts of Montbéliard refused to hand over Porrentruy, which led Bishop Henry of Isny to request support from King Rudolph I of Habsburg. After six weeks under siege, the Count handed it over to the Bishop. On 20 April 1283, the king asked the Bishop of Basel to grant Porrentruy a town charter and make it a free Imperial city. While the Counts of Montbéliard retained some power in the town, their influence waned during the 13th century.
Financial difficulties forced the Bishop to sell the Ajoie back to the lords of Montbéliard in 1386. But in 1461, the town once again became; because of the Reformation in Basel, the Bishopric moved its official headquarters to Porrentruy in 1527. Under Bishop Jakob Christoph Blarer von Wartensee, who reigned from 1575 to 1608, the town reached the apogee of its importance. In his time, many architectural projects, including expansion of the castle and the building of a Jesuit college, were undertaken; this period of prosperity ended in 1618 with the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War. Porrentruy was occupied and plundered; the first parish church of Saint-Germain was replaced in the 13th century by a new building, which underwent several renovations. The Church of Saint-Pierre was completed in 1349 and became the parish church in 1475; the cathedral chapter was established in 1377. Several religious orders were active in the city, including the Jesuits who built their college in 1591. In addition to the Jesuits other orders included the Ursulines, the Sisters of the Annonciade and the Capuchins.
The first uprising against the Bishop's power was under the Comité de la Commune de Porrentruy on 20 August 1790, but they were unable to expel the Bishop. However, on 27 April 1792, French Revolutionary troops drove the Bishop out. Porrentruy became the capital of a dependent republic, incorporated into France in 1793 as the Département du Mont-Terrible. In 1800, this department was incorporated into the Département du Haut-Rhin as a sub-département. During the War of the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon, Allied troops entered Porrentruy on 24 December 1813. Following their liberation, the future of this former episcopal seat was uncertain; the government divided into two parties, the Episcopal party that sought the return of the prince bishop as the head of a Swiss canton, while the French party wanted to retain the current secular government. However, soon after the fall of Napoleon, the municipality was given to the Canton of Bern to compensate for the loss of the Canton of Vaud, which had become a separate canton in 1803.
Both factions, the religious and the secular, retained power in the town in the following years. The political life in the 19th century was characterized by the severe conflict between Liberal-Radicals and the Catholic Conservatives; the secular side gained power in 1860, when Joseph Trouillat, was forced out of office. The Radicals retained the mayor's office and a majority of the town council from 1860 until 1972; until World War I, Porrentruy was the cultural center of the region and had a larger population than Delémont. However, with the increase in automobile traffic, its situation on the edge of the country became a liability and caused economic stagnation. In the second half of the 20th century, tensions between the French-speaking minority in the Canton of Bern and the German-speaking majority led to the creation of the new Canton of Jura on 1 January 1979. To the chagrin of the inhabitants of Ajoie, Delémont was chosen as the cantonal capital. Porrentruy is the site of many important institutions of the canton of Jura, including the cantonal courts, of the archives of the former Episcopal See of Basel.
It is the location of the Université P