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County of Portugal

The County of Portugal refers to two successive medieval counties in the region around Braga and Porto, today corresponding to littoral northern Portugal, within which the identity of the Portuguese people formed. The first county existed from the mid-ninth to the mid-eleventh centuries as a vassalage of the Kingdom of Asturias and the Kingdoms of Galicia and León, before being abolished as a result of rebellion. A larger entity under the same name was reestablished in the late 11th century and subsequently elevated by its count in the mid-12th century into an independent Kingdom of Portugal; the history of the county of Portugal is traditionally dated from the reconquest of Portus Cale by Vímara Peres in 868. He was named a count and given control of the frontier region between the Limia and Douro rivers by Alfonso III of Asturias. South of the Douro, another border county would be formed decades when what would become the County of Coimbra was conquered from the Moors by Hermenegildo Guterres.

This moved the frontier away from the southern bounds of the county of Portugal, but it was still subject to repeated campaigns from the Caliphate of Córdoba. The recapture of Coimbra by Almanzor in 987 again placed the County of Portugal on the southern frontier of the Leonese state for most of the rest of the first county's existence; the regions to its south were only again conquered in the reign of Ferdinand I of León and Castile, with Lamego falling in 1057, Viseu in 1058 and Coimbra in 1064. The leaders of the first county of Portugal reached the height of their power in the late 10th century, when Count Gonzalo Menéndez may have used the title magnus dux portucalensium and his son Menendo used the title dux magnus, it could have been this Count Gonzalo who assassinated Sancho I of León after inviting the King to a banquet and offering him a poisoned apple. Not all historians, believe that Gonzalo Menéndez was responsible for the king's death and some attribute the regicide to a contemporary count named Gonzalo Muñoz.

In the late 960s Gonzalo's lands were ravaged by Vikings, in 968, he fell out with king Ramiro III over the latter's refusal to fight the raiders. His son Menendo had close relations with Ramiro's rival and successor, Bermudo II, being made the king's alférez and tutor of his son, the future king Alfonso V. Following Alfonso's succession, Menendo would serve as regent for the boy king and marry him to one of Menendo's daughters; the county continued with varying degrees of autonomy within the Kingdom of León and, during brief periods of division, the Kingdom of Galicia until 1071, when Count Nuno Mendes, desiring greater autonomy for Portugal, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Pedroso by King García II of Galicia, who proclaimed himself the King of Galicia and Portugal, the first time a royal title was used in reference to Portugal. The independent county was abolished, its territories remaining within the crown of Galicia, in turn subsumed within the larger kingdoms of García's brothers, Sancho II and Alfonso VI of León and Castile.

The former Kingdom of Galicia including modern Portugal as far south as Coimbra, was given by Alfonso VI as a county to his son-in-law Raymond of Burgundy. However, concern for Raymond's growing power led Alfonso in 1096 to separate Portugal and Coimbra from Galicia and grant them to another son-in-law, Henry of Burgundy, wed to Alfonso VI's illegitimate daughter Theresa. Henry chose Braga as the base for this newly formed county, the Condado Portucalense, known at the time as Terra Portucalense or Província Portucalense, which would last until Portugal achieved its independence, recognized by the Kingdom of León in 1143, its territory included much of the current Portuguese territory between the Minho River and the Tagus River. Count Henry expanded his county's dominions, he was involved in several intrigues inside the Leonese court together with his cousin Raymond and sister-in-law Urraca of Castile, in which he supported Raymond's ascension in return for promises of autonomy or independence for Portugal.

In 1111 the Muslims conquered Santarém. When Count Henry died in 1112, the population of the County of Portugal, including the powerful families, favored independence. Henry's widow, took the reins on behalf of her young son, allied herself with Galician nobility in order to challenge her sister queen Urraca's dominance and used the title Queen. However, she was defeated by Urraca in 1121 and forced to accept a position of feudal subservience to the Leonese state, her own son, Afonso Henriques, took the reins of the government in 1128 after routing his mother's forces in the Battle of São Mamede, near Guimarães. After this battle, he began to exhibit a seal with a cross and the word "Portugal", he continued to win battles, supported by the nobles of Entre-Douro-e-Minho triumphing in the Battle of Ourique in 1139, which led to his proclamation as King of Portugal by his troops. Nevertheless: Even between 1128 and 1139 he never used the title of king, but rather that of princeps or infante, which means, in fact, that he could not resolve on his own account, the issue of his political category.

He never used the title of "count" which would place him in a clear position of dependence vis-à-vis the king of León and Castile. It was in 1143 when his nominal overlord Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognized the de facto independence of Portugal in the Treaty of Z

Summer Rae

Danielle Louise Moinet is an American professional wrestler, model and former American football player. She is best known for her time in WWE under the ring name Summer Rae, she was a main cast member on the reality show Total Divas during its third seasons. Before joining WWE, Moinet played with the Chicago Bliss of the Lingerie Football League. Moinet was born in the New York City suburb of New York, she grew up in Raleigh, North Carolina, attended Enloe High School and East Carolina University in Greenville, North Carolina, where she was a member of the Alpha Delta Pi sorority. Moinet played with the Chicago Bliss of the Lingerie Football League from 2008 to 2011, she was the team's captain. On June 30, 2011, Moinet played in the LFL All-Star Game at Copps Coliseum in Hamilton, Canada, her final game in the LFL, she was one of two players in the game from the Chicago Bliss. In November 2011, it was reported that Moinet had signed a contract with WWE and was assigned to their developmental territory Florida Championship Wrestling.

Moinet made her televised debut on the December 18 episode of FCW TV, appearing in an in-ring promo with Abraham Washington. She served as the ring announcer for FCW TV for several months. Changing her ring name to Summer Rae, she was prevented from interfering in a match between Seth Rollins and Rae's new client Brad Maddox by the debuting Paige on the March 5 episode of FCW TV. On the March 11 episode of FCW TV, Rae became the FCW General Manager. On the March 15 episode of FCW TV, Rae decided to deactivate the Queen of FCW crown, leaving Raquel Diaz as the last champion. Rae made her in-ring debut on April 6 at an FCW live event, where she lost to Sofia Cortez in an elimination triple threat match, which involved Paige. After the dissolution of FCW, Rae went on to become a ring announcer for the rebooted NXT in 2012. Rae transitioned into an in-ring competitor on the January 30, 2013, episode of NXT when she attacked Paige due to her jealousy of Paige's popularity and success. After Paige continued to confront Rae, Rae was defeated against Paige on the May 1 episode of NXT.

Rae competed in the NXT Women's Championship tournament on the June 19 episode of NXT to crown the inaugural champion and defeated Sasha Banks in the first round, but lost to Emma in the semi-finals on July 10. Rae's post-match attack on Emma started a feud between them. Emma defeated Rae in a dance-off to become the number one contender, but Rae retaliated by injuring Emma in the storyline issued a title challenge to the new NXT Women's Champion Paige, which she accepted. On the August 14 episode NXT, Paige defeated Rae to retain the title. For weeks, Rae began to influence Sasha Banks to make herself relevant, leading to Banks turning heel on the September 11 episode of NXT, by attacking NXT Women's Champion Paige. Banks and Rae, collectively known as the Beautiful Fierce Females, faced Paige and Emma on the October 16 episode of NXT, where they won. Rae and Banks continued to face Paige and Emma in singles matches, including aligning themselves with Charlotte. After a four-month absence from the brand, Rae returned on the June 6 episode of NXT distracting Charlotte during her match.

After the match, Rae led an attack on Bayley, only to be chased off by Emma. On the June 26 episode of NXT, during a match with the debuting Becky Lynch and Sasha Banks backed away from Rae when reaching out for help, hinting at Rae's removal from the stable; the following week, Banks disbanded the BFFs in a backstage segment. The following week, Rae defeated Bayley in a number one contender's match, earning a NXT Women's Championship match against Charlotte. On the July 24 episode of NXT, Rae received her title shot against Charlotte, however she failed to capture the championship. Rae made her official debut on WWE's main roster on the April 22, 2013, episode of Raw, as Fandango's dance partner and valet. On the May 13 episode of Raw, along with Fandango, faced Chris Jericho and Dancing with the Stars competitor Edyta Sliwinska in a dance-off, but Fandango's dance was cut short by an apparent injury to Rae's ankle. However, Rae revealed that her injury was a distraction to trap Jericho into Fandango's attack.

On the October 25 episode of SmackDown, Rae got into a brawl with Natalya during a match between Fandango and The Great Khali, which set up a mixed tag team match for Hell in a Cell in which she made both her pay-per-view and in-ring debut on the main roster, teaming with Fandango to defeat Natalya and Khali, after Rae pinned Natalya. The following night, Rae made her singles debut in a rematch against Natalya, where she was defeated. At Survivor Series on November 23, Rae participated in a seven-on-seven elimination tag team match, as her team took on the cast of Total Divas, where she was eliminated by Nikki Bella, before her team lost the match. A rematch took place the following night on Raw, where her team was once again defeated, with Rae being the last to be eliminated. On the December 19 episode of Superstars, Rae defeated Kaitlyn, garnering her first singles match victory on the main roster. In the beginning of 2014, Rae began a rivalry with Emma, the two competed in several dance-off and wrestling competitions on both Raw and SmackDown, which Emma won.

On April 6, Rae made her WrestleMania debut, competing at WrestleMania XXX in the 14-Diva "Vickie Guerrero Invitational match" for the Divas Championship, won by the defending champion AJ Lee. On April 8, Fandango announced the end of his association with Rae on his Twitter account and introduced Layla as his new dance partner on the April 11 episode of SmackDown, which in storyline was put in place to allow Rae time off television to film Th

BBC Arabic Television

BBC Arabic Television is a television news channel broadcast to the Arab World by the BBC. It was launched on 11 March 2008, it is funded from the British television licence fee. In 1994, BBC Arabic Television was launched by Rome-based Orbit Communications Company and a subsidiary of the Saudi Arabian Mawarid Holding. On 21 April 1996, it was "pulled off the air" following an episode of Panorama, critical of the Saudi Arabian government. Ian Richardson, who set up the news department during that time blamed the short life of the channel on a clash with the owners over content. During the short life of BBC Arabic Television, there were several angry ‘liaison meetings’ with Orbit and the guarantees of editorial independence proved to be a sour joke, only obscured by a thin smokescreen about the BBC's alleged failure to observe "cultural sensitivities" – Saudi code for anything not to the Royal Family's liking; when it became clear to Orbit and Mawarid that it had, in their terms, created a monster not prepared to toe the Saudi line, it was only a matter of time before there would be a final parting of the ways.

Many of the staff who worked for the original BBC Arabic Television service went on to work for Al Jazeera television, now one of BBC Arabic Television's main competitors. Plans to relaunch the channel were announced in October 2005 and broadcasting was to start in Autumn 2007, but was delayed until 2008; the channel relaunched at 0956 GMT on 11 March 2008, with the first news bulletin airing at the top of the hour at 1000. Broadcasting for 12 hours a day, 24-hour programming began on 19 January 2009. BBC Arabic Television is run by the BBC World Service, it was funded from a grant-in-aid from the British Foreign Office but in 2014 funding was switched to come from the television licence, used to fund the BBC's domestic broadcasting. The service is based in the Peel Wing of Broadcasting House in London. In 2011, as the British government cut funding to the BBC, forcing the BBC World Service to close down its services in five languages, the government increased funding to the BBC Arabic service, in the words of Foreign Secretary William Hague, to "assist the BBC Arabic Service to continue their valuable work in the region".

BBC Arabic can be seen via bbc.co.uk/Arabic/. The website includes a 16:9 live stream of the channel; the channel broadcasts 24 hours a day, showing live news programmes mixed with current affairs programmes and occasional light entertainment. Newshour, an hour-long news bulletin is broadcast every evening at 18:00 GMT. Other daily programmes are Nuqtat Hewar, BBC Trending. BBC news bulletins of either 30 or 60 minutes in duration are broadcast throughout the day, covering stories by journalists and correspondents around the world. Official website Live video stream BBC Press Release The Failed Dream That Lead To Al Jazeera Faisal Abbas: "BBC Arabic TV'should try to be different, " BBC 12 March 2008 Eric Pfanner: "BBC Set to Open Its New Arab World TV Channel in New York Times 4 March 2008 "BBC launches Arabic TV channel," BBC 11 March 2008