In the United Kingdom and Ireland, a county town is the most important town in a county. It is the location of administrative or judicial functions within a county and the place where the county's members of Parliament are elected. Following the establishment of the English county councils in 1889, the headquarters of the new councils were located in the county town of each county. However, the concept of a county town pre-dates the establishment of these councils; the concept of a county town is unofficial. Some counties have their administrative bodies located elsewhere. For example, Lancaster is the county town of Lancashire, but the county council is located in Preston; some county towns are no longer situated within the administrative county because of changes in the county's boundaries. For example, Nottingham is administered by a unitary authority separate from the rest of Nottinghamshire; this list shows county towns prior to the reforms of 1889. This list shows county towns prior to the reforms of 1889.
Note – Despite the fact that Belfast is the capital of Northern Ireland, it is not the county town of any county. Greater Belfast straddles two counties. With the creation of elected county councils in 1889 the location of administrative headquarters in some cases moved away from the traditional county town. Furthermore, in 1965 and 1974 there were major boundary changes in England and Wales and administrative counties were replaced with new metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties; the boundaries underwent further alterations between 1995 and 1998 to create unitary authorities and some of the ancient counties and county towns were restored. Before 1974 many of the county halls were located in towns and cities that had the status of a county borough i.e.: a borough outside of the county council's jurisdiction. Due to its better transport links and more central location, some administrative functions were moved to Llangefni. Cardigan was still referred to as'the county town' due to the name link.
However, assizes were held at Lampeter while Aberystwyth housed the administration of the county council. Aberystwyth was therefore the de facto county town. Due to its better transport links and more central location, some administrative functions were moved to Llandrindod Wells; the follow lists the location of the administration of each of the 31 local authorities in Ireland, with the 26 traditional counties. Jamaica's three counties were established in 1758 to facilitate the holding of courts along the lines of the British county court system, with each county having a county town; the counties have no current administrative relevance. Administrative centre County seat
RT is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government. It operates pay television channels directed to audiences outside of Russia, as well as providing Internet content in English, French, German and Russian. RT International, based in Moscow, presents around-the-clock news bulletins, talk shows, sports news, cultural programmes. RT describes itself as creating "news with an edge for viewers. RT covers stories overlooked by the mainstream media, provides alternative perspectives on current affairs, acquaints international audiences with a Russian viewpoint on major global events." RT operates as a multilingual service with conventional channels in five languages: the original English-language channel was launched in 2005, the Arabic-language channel in 2007, Spanish in 2009, German in 2014 and French in 2017. RT America, RT UK, other regional channels offer some locally based content. RT is a brand of "TV-Novosti", an "autonomous non-profit organization", founded by the Russian news agency, RIA Novosti, on 6 April 2005.
During the economic crisis in December 2008, the Russian government, headed by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, included ANO "TV-Novosti" on its list of core organizations of strategic importance of Russia. RT has been described as a propaganda outlet for its foreign policy. RT has been accused of spreading disinformation by news reporters, including some former RT reporters; the United Kingdom media regulator, has found RT to have breached its rules on impartiality and on one occasion found it had broadcast "materially misleading" content. RT's editor-in-chief compared it with the Russian Army and Defence Ministry, talked about it "waging the information war against the entire Western world." In September 2017, RT America was ordered to register as a "foreign agent" with the United States Department of Justice under the Foreign Agents Registration Act. Under the act, RT will be required to disclose financial information; the creation of RT was a part of a larger public relations effort by the Russian Government in 2005, intended to improve the image of Russia abroad.
RT was conceived by former media minister Mikhail Lesin, Russian president Vladimir Putin's press spokesperson Aleksei Gromov. At the time of RT's founding, RIA Novosti director Svetlana Mironyuk stated: "Unfortunately, at the level of mass consciousness in the West, Russia is associated with three words: communism and poverty," and added "we would like to present a more complete picture of life in our country." It is registered as an autonomous nonprofit organization funded by the federal budget of Russia through the Federal Agency on Press and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation. In 2005, RIA Novosti helped establish ANO TV-Novosti to serve as the parent organization for the planned channel. ANO TV-Novosti was registered on 6 April 2005. ANO TV-Novosti appointed Sergey Frolov as its CEO position. At its launch, the channel employed 300 journalists, including 70 from outside Russia. Russia Today appointed Margarita Simonyan as its editor-in-chief, who recruited foreign journalists as presenters and consultants.
Simonyan stated that the channel's intent was to have a "professional format" akin to the BBC and Euronews that would "reflect Russia's opinion of the world" and present a "more balanced picture" of Russia. Simonyan, only 25 years old at the time of her hiring by the channel, was a former Kremlin pool reporter and had worked in journalism since she was 18, she told The New York Times that after the fall of the Soviet Union, many new young journalists were hired, resulting in a much younger pool of staffers than other news organizations. Journalist Danny Schechter has stated that having been part of the launch staff at CNN, he saw RT as another "channel of young people who are inexperienced, but enthusiastic about what they are doing." Shortly after the channel was launched, James Painter wrote that RT and similar news channels such as France 24 and TeleSUR saw themselves as "counter-hegemonic", offering a differing vision and news content from that of Western media like CNN and the BBC. RT launched several new channels in ensuing years: the Arabic language channel Rusiya Al-Yaum in 2007, the Spanish language channel RT Actualidad in 2009, RT America – which focuses on the United States – in 2010, the RT Documentary channel in 2011.
In August 2007, Russia Today became the first television channel to report live from the North Pole. An RT crew participated in the Arktika 2007 Russian polar expedition, led by Artur Chilingarov on the Akademik Fyodorov icebreaker. On 31 December 2007, RT's broadcasts of New Year's Eve celebrations in Moscow and Saint Petersburg were broadcast in the hours prior to the New Year's Eve event at New York City's Times Square. RT drew particular attention worldwide for its coverage of the 2008 South Ossetia war. RT named Georgia as the aggressor against the separatist governments of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, which were protected by Russian troops. RT saw this as the incident. Margarita Simonyan stated, "we were the only ones among the English-language media who were giving the other side of the story – the South Ossetian side of the story."In 2009, Russia Today rebranded itself to the "RT" initials. Simonyan denied that the name change was an attempt to hide its Russian origins, stating the corporate logo was changed to attract more viewers and commen
Madera known as Ciudad Madera, is a town and seat of the municipality of Madera in the mountains of the northwestern Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2010, the city of Madera had a population of 15,447, up from 15,267 as of 2005, it is a logging town, located in the mountains and the lumber industry is still important. Madera is Spanish for "wood", there used to be a large U. S. company with large lumber mills, there is still a section of the city called "barrio americano" where some American-style wooden houses still survive. New manufacturing industries have created new employment for the residents, it is at 2112 metres above sea level and was founded in 1906. The town is located 276 kilometres northwest of the state capital, 536 km southwest of Ciudad Juárez on the U. S. border. Madera has been the starting point of the Cabalgata Binacional Villista. Madera is the place where on September 23, 1965, a guerrilla attack on the military took place. From 25 April 1966 it was the seat of the Territorial Prelature of Madera.
Madera is a beautiful city surrounded by the great Sierra Madre mountains. Madera’s high altitude gives it a unusual highland-influenced warm-summer mediterranean climate, characterised by somewhat warm, wet summers and cold, drier winters. Frost occurs most mornings from October to April. Snow falls on about 7 days per year on average