A coupé or coupe is a passenger car with a sloping or truncated rear roofline and two doors. Coupé was first applied to horse-drawn carriages for two passengers without rear-facing seats; the term coupé comes from the French translation of "cut". Coupé is a based on the past participle of the French verb couper and thus indicates a car, "cut" or made shorter than standard, it was first applied to horse-drawn carriages for two passengers without rear-facing seats. These berlines coupés or carosses coupés were clipped to coupés. There are two common pronunciations in English: — the anglicized version of the French pronunciation of coupé. — as a spelling pronunciation when the word is written without an accent. Used in the United States, this change occurred before World War II and features in the Beach Boys' hit 1963 song "Little Deuce Coupe". A coupé is fixed-roof car with one or two rows of seats. However, there is debate surrounding whether a coupe must have two doors or whether cars with four doors can be considered coupés.
This debate has arisen since the early 2000s, when four-door cars such as the Mazda RX-8 and Mercedes-Benz CLS-Class have been marketed as "four door coupés" or "quad coupés". In the 1940s and 1950s, coupes were distinguished from sedans by their shorter roof area and sportier profile. In more recent times, when a model is sold in both coupé and sedan body styles the coupe is sportier and more compact; the 1977 version of International Standard ISO 3833— Road vehicles - Types - Terms and definitions— defines a coupé as having two doors. On the other hand, the United States Society of Automotive Engineers publication J1100 does not specify the number of doors, instead defining a coupe as having a rear interior volume of less than 33 cu ft; the definition of coupé started to blur when manufacturers began to produce cars with a 2+2 body style. Some manufacturers blur the definition of a coupé by applying this description to models featuring a hatchback or a rear door that opens upwards. Most also featuring a fold-down back seat, the third door or hatchback layout of these cars improves their practicality and cargo room.
The origin of the coupé body style come from the berline horse-drawn carriage. In the 18th century, the coupé version of the berline was introduced, a shortened version with no rear-facing seat. A coupé had a fixed glass window in the front of the passenger compartment; the coupé was considered to be an ideal vehicle for women to use to go shopping or to make social visits. The early coupé automobile's passenger compartment followed in general conception the design of horse-drawn coupés, with the driver in the open at the front and an enclosure behind him for two passengers on one bench seat; the French variant for this word thus denoted a car with a small passenger compartment. By the 1910s, the term had evolved to denote a two-door car with the driver and up to two passengers in an enclosure with a single bench seat; the coupé de ville, or coupé chauffeur, was an exception, retaining the open driver's section at front. In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers suggested nomenclature for car bodies that included the following: Coupe: An enclosed car operated from the inside with seats for two or three and sometimes a backward-facing fourth seat.
Coupelet: A small car seating two or three with a folding top and full height doors with retractable windows. Convertible coupe: A roadster with a removable coupé roof. During the 20th century, the term coupé was applied to various close-coupled cars. Since the 1960s the term coupé has referred to a two-door car with a fixed roof. Since 2005, several models with four doors have been marketed as "four-door coupés", however reactions are mixed about whether these models are sedans instead of coupés. According to Edmunds, an American automotive guide, "the four-door coupe category doesn't exist." Manufacturers have used the term "coupé" with reference to several varieties, including: A berlinetta is a lightweight sporty two-door car with two-seats but including 2+2 cars. Popular in Europe, many cars are designed with coupé styling but a 3-door hatchback layout to improve practicality, including cars such as the Alfa Romeo Brera, Ford/Mercury Cougar and Volkswagen Scirocco. A two-door car with no rear seat or with a removable rear seat intended for travelling salespeople and other vendors carrying their wares with them.
American manufacturers developed this style of coupe in the late 1930s. A two-door car with a larger rear-seat passenger area, compared with the smaller rear-seat area in a 2+2 body style. Saab used the term combi coupé for a car body similar to the liftback. A four-door car with a coupé-like roofline at the rear; the low-roof design reduces headroom. The designation was first used for the low-roof model of the 1962–1973 Rover P5, followed by the 1992–1996 Nissan Leopard / Infiniti J30. Recent examples include the 2005 Mercedes-Benz CLS, 2010 Audi A7 and 2012 BMW 6 Series Gran Coupé. Several cars with one or two small rear doors and no B-pillar have been marketed as "quad coupés". A two-door designed for driving to the opera with easy access to the rear seats. Feature
Tony Kellow was an English professional footballer. He made over 400 Football League appearances in the 1970s and 1980s, he was born in Budock Water, a village near Falmouth, on leaving school he found employment in Falmouth Docks as an electrician turning out for the Falmouth Docks football side. At the age of seventeen he played in the South Western Football League for Penzance, helping them win the Cornwall Senior Cup in 1973, he moved to his home-town side Falmouth Town, before moving back to play for Penzance in 1974/75, winning a South Western League championship medal. In 1975, he returned to Falmouth Town. A centre-forward, his professional career began when he signed for Exeter City from Falmouth Town in 1976, for a fee of £12,000. Tony won the Football League's "Golden Boot" in 1980/81 for being the highest goal scorer in all four divisions, he was sold to Blackpool, in November 1978, for £125,000, Blackpool's record outlay at the time. He returned to Exeter for a second spell, joined Plymouth Argyle in 1983.
After 13 appearances with Plymouth he moved to Swansea City in March 1984. He moved to Newport County, before a return for a third spell with Exeter. Kellow died on 20 February 2011, in Truro's Treliske Hospital of kidney failure after being found unconscious at his Budock Water home, he was 58 years old. His funeral service was held at St Budock Parish Church on 28 February 2011, his body was cremated at Truro's Penmount Crematorium. A memorial stone in honour of Kellow stands close to the Trelowarren Arms pub in Budock Water
Robert Adams was a British Guyanese actor of stage and screen. He was the founder and director of the Negro Repertory Arts Theatre, one of the first professional black theatre companies in Britain, became Britain's first black television actor when he appeared in Theatre Parade: Scenes From Hassan on BBC TV in 1937, he was the first Black actor to play a Shakespearian role on television, in 1947. Robert Adams, the son of a boat builder, was born in Georgetown, British Guiana. In 1920, he won a scholarship to Jamaica's Mico Teachers' College, from which he graduated with honours, he worked as a teacher in British Guiana, while acting in amateur stage productions. He went to England in the 1920s to try to make it as a professional actor. In London, he worked as a labourer and as a wrestler, known as "The Black Eagle", becoming heavyweight champion of the British Empire. In 1931, he was a founding member of Harold Moody's League of Coloured Peoples. Adams began appearing as a film extra in 1934, had roles in films including Midshipman Easy, Song of Freedom in 1936 – together with Paul Robeson – and King Solomon's Mines.
He featured in Old Bones of the River, worked as Robeson's stunt double in 1940's The Proud Valley, was in a 1941 Colonial Film Unit production entitled An African in London, played the role of a Nubian slave in Caesar and Cleopatra. The following year, when Adams starred in Men of Two Worlds, it was hailed by critics as a "ground-breaking film". On the stage, Adams' first role was in 1935 at the Embassy Theatre in Stevedore, in which Robeson played the hero and, enthusiastically reviewed by Nancy Cunard in The Crisis: "This production of Stevedore has brought to light a fine new personality, on the stage for the first time: Robert Adams, Negro of British Guiana, well known otherwise as "'Black Eagle,' wrestler, he plays'Blacksnake.' An extraordinarily fine, a natural-born actor, who should without fail find other good parts and work on the screen as well, for a intelligent producer – but I wish him the best, Sergei Eisenstein." Another early role was as Jean-Jacques Dessalines in the 1936 play Toussaint L'Ouverture by C. L. R. James, again alongside Robeson and other notable actors including Orlando Martins and Harry Andrews.
Adams went on to take the lead in a television adaptation of Eugene O'Neill's The Emperor Jones. The role of Brutus Jones, a Pullman porter who becomes the ruler of a Caribbean island, had been played by Robeson on stage and screen; the BBC's version was transmitted live from Alexandra Palace on 11 May 1938, Adams became the first black actor to play a leading dramatic role on British television. Yeats' Deirdre. Adams appeared in Geoffrey Trease's Colony, about the exploitation of sugar workers in a Caribbean island. After Robeson returned to the United States at the outbreak of the Second World War, Adams became Britain's leading black actor, would continue acting on television in the 1940s and 1950s. In the late 1940s, he founded the Negro Repertory Arts Theatre, whose productions included O'Neill's All God's Chillun Got Wings, at Colchester in 1944, he appeared in the Unity Theatre's 1946 production of the play and a BBC television production in 1946. In 1948 he played Bigger Thomas in the play based on Richard Wright's novel Native Son, staged at the Bolton's Theatre Club.
Adams subsequently studied law and took a break from acting, returning to London's West End stage in 1958 in Eugene O'Neill's The Iceman Cometh, appearing on television in Green Pastures and Errol John's Moon on a Rainbow Shawl in a 1960 ITV production. He returned to British Guiana, where he died in 1965. Robert Adams on IMDb Picture of Adams in All God's Chillun Got Wings 4TRi Timeline 1936 – 2008
Martha J. B. Thomas, MBA was analytical chemist, she is known for her work on phosphorus. Thomas was born in Boston in 1926, she graduated cum laude from Radcliffe College in 1945, after which she obtained a PhD in chemistry from Boston University in 1952, while working at Sylvania Electric Products. In life, she received an MBA at Boston's Northeastern University in 1981. Thomas was married to George Thomas, a government scientist, they had four daughters. Thomas began her professional career in 1945 at Sylvania Electric Products, where she became the head of the Phosphor Research and Development Section in 1970. During her time at Sylvania she established their first phosphor pilot plants, she taught chemistry in Boston University's evening division between 1952 and 1970. She was a director of technical services at GTE Electrical Products Group in Danvers, Massachusetts, US. Thomas held over 20 patents for improving lighting technology and manufacturing, for example, fluorescent lamps and phosphor chemistry.
One of her most important contributions was the development of a white phosphorus powder coating for fluorescent tubes creating a much more daylight-like light. She developed a phosphor-based treatment that increase the brightness of mercury lamps by 10%. Thomas was awarded the Achievement Award of the Society of Women Engineers 1965; the award was given "in recognition of her significant contributions to the science of chemistry as an engineer and administrator, while fulfilling her duties as a wife and mother."In 1991 she was named the New England Inventor by the Museum of Science in Boston, an award given to individuals "whose application of science and technology and independent thought has positively impacted society". She was the recipient of a Distinguished Alumni Award from Boston University
All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, F16C, BMI1, BMI2, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology, Intel 64, XD bit, TXT, Intel vPro, Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost 2.0, AES-NI, Smart Cache, TSX, ECC, Intel x8 SDDC All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, F16C, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology, Intel 64, XD bit, TXT, Intel VT-x, Intel EPT, Intel VT-d, Intel VT-c, Intel x8 SDDC, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost, AES-NI, Smart Cache. Support for up to six DIMMs of DDR3 memory per CPU socket. All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, F16C, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology, Intel 64, XD bit, Intel VT-x, Intel EPT, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost 2.0, AES-NI, Smart Cache. Transistors: Up to 8 cores: 2.60 billion, Up to 12 cores: 3.84 billion, Up to 18 cores: 5.69 billion Die size: Up to 8 cores: 354 mm², Up to 12 cores: 492 mm², Up to 18 cores: 662 mm² Support for up to 12 DIMMs of DDR4 memory per CPU socket.
All models support: MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, F16C, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology, Intel 64, XD bit, Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-threading, Turbo Boost 2.0, AES-NI, Smart Cache. Transistors: Up to 18 cores: 5.69 billion Die size: Up to 18 cores: 662 mm² Support for up to 24 DIMMs of DDR3 or DDR4 memory per CPU socket
Ulam-Buriaš, contemporarily inscribed as Ú-la-Bu-ra-ra-ia-aš or mÚ-lam-Bur-áš in a chronicle and meaning “son of Buriaš”, was a Kassite king of Sealand, which he conquered during the second half of 16th century BC and may have become king of Babylon preceding or succeeding his brother, Kaštiliašu III. His reign marks the point at which the Kassite kingdom extended to the whole of southern Mesopotamia. Confirmation of his provenance comes from an onyx weight, in the shape of a frog, with a cuneiform inscription, “1 shekel, Ulam Buriaš, son of Burna Buriaš”, found in a large burial, during excavations of the site of the ancient city of Metsamor; the burial for two, was accompanied by fifty sacrificial victims, nineteen horses, bulls and dogs. Situated in Armenia, in the middle of the Ararat valley, Metsamor was an important Hurrian center for metal forging; the Chronicle of Early Kings, a neo-Babylonian historiographical text preserved on two tablets, describes how Ea-gamil, the last king of the Sealand Dynasty, fled to Elam ahead of an invasion force led by Ulam-Buriaš, the “brother of Kaštiliašu”, who became “master of the land”, i.e. Sealand, a region of southern Mesopotamia synonymous with or at the southern end of Sumer.
A serpentine or diorite mace head or door knob found in Babylon, is engraved with the epithet of Ulaburariaš, “King of Sealand”. The object was excavated at Tell Amran ibn-Ali, during the German excavations of Babylon, conducted from 1899 to 1912, is now housed in the Pergamon Museum