France–Americas relations started in the 16th century, soon after the discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus, have developed over a period of several centuries. In order to counterbalance the power of the Habsburg Empire under Charles V, its control of large parts of the New World through the Crown of Spain, Francis I endeavoured to develop contacts with the New World and Asia. In 1524, Francis I assisted the citizens of Lyon in financing the expedition of Giovanni da Verrazzano to North America. Verrazzano was an Italian in the service of the French crown; the objective was to find a passage to Cathay. Verrazzano was the first European since the Norse colonization of the Americas around AD 1000 to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between South and North Carolina and Newfoundland, including New York Harbor and Narragansett Bay in 1524: in between, John Cabot had explored Labrador to the North, the Spanish had settled parts of Florida. On this expedition, Verrazzano claimed Newfoundland for the French crown.
In 1531, Bertrand d'Ornesan, Baron de Saint-Blancard tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco, Brazil. In 1534, Francis sent Jacques Cartier to explore the St. Lawrence River in Quebec to find "certain islands and lands where it is said he should find great quantities of gold and other rich things". In 1541, Francis sent Jean-François de la Roque de Roberval to settle Canada and to provide for the spread of "the Holy Catholic faith." Soon, the Huguenots, whose Reformist religions was in conflict with the French crown, attempted to colonize the New World to find a new ground for their religion and to contest the Catholic presence there. Huguenot pirates such as François le Clerc attacked Catholic shipping raiding New World harbours; the Huguenots raided Hispaniola in 1553, fighting against the Spanish Catholic presence there, followed by raid on Cuba. La Havana was seized by Jacques de Sores in 1555; the first attempts at colonization were made under Jean de Léry. After the short-lived establishment of France Antarctique in Brazil from 1555 to 1567, they had to abandon, resolved to make a stand back in France, centering on the city of La Rochelle for the organization of resistance.
The first French expedition to Florida occurred in 1562, composed of Protestants, was led by Jean Ribault and permitted the short-lived establishment of Fort Caroline, named after the French king Charles IX. These first attempts at Huguenot colonization would be taken over by Catholics, following the Huguenot repression in the French wars of religion. Towards the end of his reign Henry IV of France started to look at the possibility of ventures abroad, with both America and the Levant being among the possibilities. In 1604, the French explorer Samuel Champlain initiated the first important French involvement in Northern America, founding Port Royal as the first permanent European settlement in North America north of Florida in 1605, founding the first permanent French establishment at Quebec in 1608. In 1632, Isaac de Razilly became involved, at the request of Cardinal Richelieu, in the colonization of Acadia, by taking possession of the Habitation at Port-Royal and developing it into a French colony.
The King gave Razilly the official title of lieutenant-general for New France. He took on military tasks such as ordering the taking of control of Fort Pentagouet at Majabigwaduce on the Penobscot Bay, given to France in an earlier Treaty, to inform the English they were to vacate all lands North of Pemaquid; this resulted in all the French interests in Acadia being restored. Robert de La Salle departed from La Rochelle, France, on July 24, 1684, with the objective of setting up a colony at the mouth of the Mississippi establishing Fort Saint Louis in Texas; the French colonial drive increased in the 17th century, the "conquest of the souls" being an integral part of the constitution of Nouvelle-France, leading to the development of the Jesuit missions in North America. The efforts of the Jesuits in North America were paralleled by the Jesuit China missions on the other side of the world. In France, the Huguenots were defeated by Royal forces in the Siege of La Rochelle: Cardinal Richelieu blockaded the city for 14 months, until the city surrendered and lost its mayor and its privileges.
The growing persecution of the Huguenots culminated with the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV in 1685. Many Huguenots emigrated, founding such cities as New Rochelle in the vicinity of today's New York in 1689. A colonizing party of 500 and a mission of four Franciscans were sent under a 1611 patent letter from the Regent Marie de Médicis; the colonial enterprise to found "France Équinoxiale" was led by Daniel de la Tousche, Sieur de la Ravardière, François de Razilly. The outpost would become the city of São Luís do Maranhão; the French arrived in the island in August 1612. One of the objectives of the mission was to establish trade in tobacco; when France and Spain became allied through the marriage of Louis XIII with Anne of Austria in 1615, support for the colony was discontinued and the colonists abandoned. The Portuguese soon managed to expel the French from the colony. In 1624, settlement along the South American coast in what is today French Guiana began; the French started to establish smaller but more profitable colonies in the West Indies.
A colony was founded on Saint Kitts in 1625, in sharing with the English until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, when it was occupied in its entirety. The Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique founded colonies in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 1635, a colony wa
Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron is a French politician serving as President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 2017. He was Minister of the Economy and Digital Affairs from 2014 to 2016. Macron was born in Amiens and studied philosophy at Paris Nanterre University, completed a Master's of Public Affairs at Sciences Po and graduated from the École nationale d'administration in 2004, he worked as a senior civil servant at the Inspectorate General of Finances and became an investment banker at Rothschild & Cie Banque. Macron was appointed Deputy Secretary General to the President by François Hollande in May 2012, he was appointed Minister of Economy and Digital Affairs in August 2014 under the Second Valls government, where he pushed through business-friendly reforms. He resigned in August 2016 to launch a bid in the 2017 presidential election. After being a member of the Socialist Party from 2006 to 2009, Macron ran in the election under the banner of a centrist political movement he founded in April 2016, En Marche!.
He won the election on 7 May 2017 with 66.1% of the vote in the second round. At age 39, Macron became the youngest President of France in history and appointed Édouard Philippe to be Prime Minister. In the June 2017 legislative elections, Macron's party, renamed "La République en marche", together with its ally the Democratic Movement, secured a majority in the National Assembly. Born in Amiens, Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron is the son of Françoise, a physician, Jean-Michel Macron, professor of neurology at the University of Picardy; the couple were divorced in 2010. Macron has two siblings, born in 1979 and Estelle, born in 1982. Françoise and Jean-Michel's first child was born stillborn. Raised in a non-religious family, he was baptized a Roman Catholic at his own request at age 12, although he is agnostic today; the Macron family legacy is traced back to the village of Authie in Hauts-de-France. One of Macron's paternal great-grandfathers, George William Robertson, was English, was born in Bristol, United Kingdom.
His maternal grandparents and Germaine Noguès, are from the Pyrenean town of Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Gascony. Macron visited Bagnères-de-Bigorre to visit his grandmother Germaine, whom he called "Manette". Macron associates his enjoyment of reading and his left-ward political leanings to Germaine, after coming from a modest upbringing of a stationmaster father and a housekeeping mother, became a teacher a principal, died in 2013. Macron was educated at the Jesuit Lycée la Providence in Amiens before his parents sent him to finish his last year of school at the elite Lycée Henri-IV in Paris, where he completed the high school curriculum and the undergraduate program with a "Bac S, Mention Très bien". At the same time he was nominated for the "Concours Général" in French literature and received his diploma for his piano studies at Amiens Conservatory, his parents sent him off to Paris due to their alarm at the bond he had formed with Brigitte Auzière, a married teacher with three children at Jésuites de la Providence, who became his wife.
In Paris, he failed to gain entry to the École normale supérieure twice. He instead studied Philosophy at the University of Paris-Ouest Nanterre La Défense, obtaining a DEA degree. Around 1999 Macron worked as an editorial assistant to Paul Ricoeur, the French Protestant philosopher, writing his last major work, La Mémoire, l'Histoire, l'Oubli. Macron worked on the notes and bibliography. Macron became a member of the editorial board of the literary magazine Esprit. Macron did not perform national service. Born in December 1977, he belonged to the last year. Macron obtained a master's degree in public affairs at the Sciences Po, majoring in "Public Guidance and Economy" before training for a senior civil service career at the selective École nationale d'administration, training at an embassy in Nigeria and in an office in Oise before graduating in 2004. After graduating from ENA in 2004, Macron became an Inspector in the Inspection générale des finances, a branch of the Finance Ministry. Macron was mentored by Jean-Pierre Jouyet, the then-head of the IGF.
During his time as an Inspector of Finances, Macron gave lectures during the summer at the "prep'ENA" at IPESUP, an elite private school specializing in preparation for the entrance examinations of the Grandes écoles, such as HEC or Sciences Po. In 2006, Laurence Parisot offered him the job of managing director for Mouvement des Entreprises de France, the largest employer federation in France, but he declined. In August 2007, Macron was appointed deputy rapporteur for Jacques Attali's "Commission to Unleash French Growth". In 2008, Macron paid €50,000 to buy himself out of his government contract, he became an investment banker in a highly-paid position at Rothschild & Cie Banque. In March 2010, he was appointed to the Attali Commission as a member. In September 2008, Macron left his job as an Inspector of Finances and took a position at Rothschild & Cie Banque. Macron was inspired to leave the government due to the election of Nicolas Sarkozy to the presidency, he was offered the job by François Henrot.
His first responsibility at Rothschild & Cie Banque was assisting with the acquisition of Cofidis by Crédit Mutuel Nord Europe. Macron formed a relationship with a businessman on the supervisory board of Le Monde. In 2010, Macron
Laurent Fabius is a French Socialist politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 17 July 1984 to 20 March 1986. Fabius was 37 years old when he was appointed and is, so far, the youngest prime minister of the Fifth Republic. Fabius was President of the National Assembly from 1988 to 1992, again from 1997 to 2000. Fabius served in the government as Minister of Finance from 2000 to 2002, Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2012 to 2016. Fabius was born in the wealthy 16th arrondissement of the son of Louise and André Fabius, he is the younger brother of François Fabius. His parents were from Ashkenazi Jewish families. Fabius was raised a Catholic, he has three sons, David with his partner Ch d'Izarny Gargas and Victor with his spouse Francoise Castro. Fabius's secondary education was at the Lycée Lycée Louis-le-Grand. Fabius was a graduate of institutions that are training grounds for academics, senior civil servants and executives. After his studies, Fabius became an auditor for the Council of State.
A member of the Socialist Party since 1974, Fabius was first elected to the National Assembly in 1978 for the fourth constituency of Seine-Maritime. Fabius gained entry to the circle of François Mitterrand, the leader of the party; when Mitterrand was elected as President of France in 1981, Fabius was nominated as Minister of the Budget. Two years Fabius became Minister of Industry, pursued the policy of "industrial restructuring". In 1984, a government shake up by Mitterrand led Fabius to be appointed as Prime Minister at the age of 37. Fabius advocated a new kind of French socialism. In social policy, a law of December 1984 replaced allowance for orphans with a family support allowance, empowered family allowance funds to aid in recovery of child support when a parent fails to pay; the allowable income for recipients of the young child allowance was increased for families with three or more children. The Fabius Government sought to reduce penalties on families with working mothers by increasing the income ceiling for dual-income families receiving the young child allowance.
A parental education fund was created, which provided for payments to each person who stops work or reduces hours of work as a result of the birth of any child beyond the first two, for which the parent is/are responsible. In 1985, as a means of upholding the rights of homosexuals, the penal code was amended to prohibit discrimination on the grounds of "moral habits" which included sexual orientation. A decree of 17 July 1984 set up an Immigrants' Council, which could be consulted on questions of concern to the immigrant population regarding living conditions, work, employment and training, as well as social and cultural activities. In November 1984, an allowance was introduced if the parent concerned had been employed for two or more years. Known as the "allocation parentale d’education," this allowance provided 1,000 francs per month for parents who decided to take two years of parental leave after the birth of their first child; the "allocation au jeune enfant," introduced in January 1985, was paid to all families at a flat rate for each child from the third month of pregnancy for nine months, regardless of the parents’ income.
Payment was to continue after this period for 8 out of 10 families for a further 32 months on a means-tested basis. In effect, this created a benefit for the first child in lower income families; the government, reduced the daily maternity allowance from 90% to 84% of the basic wage, while the reimbursement rate of so-called "comfort" medicinal products was lowered. In June 1985, a law was passed allowing first offenders who had committed petty crimes to serve sentences of six months or less in public-service jobs. A July 1985 law tripled the amount of aid for victims of crimes. Legislation was introduced that year to restrict the use of preventive detention, ensure that the rights of suspects were better protected. A decree of September 1984 reconstituted the Supreme Council for the Prevention of Occupational Risks, a consultative body representing both sides of industry, to make its function more flexibly, was extended to include crafts. A law of January 1985 extended the scope for associations whose formal objectives include combating racism to institute a civil action where an offence has been committed against an individual by reason of his national or ethnic origin, race or religion.
A special 1985 holiday programme was introduced, directed at young people outside the traditional circuits of organised leisure activities. Provisions were adopted that same year according new rights to families and users of child social assistance as regards information and the association of families and children in decision-making; the right to maternity leave was extended to the father, in the event of the death of the mother in child-birth. The father was entitled to post-natal leave and could claim an allowance under the maternity insurance scheme. In the field of education, much time and effort was spent on improving the system and educational outcomes. Vast sums were provided to improve technical education in schools, with closer ties established between education and industry, a programme was launched to train 25,000 teachers per annum in the use of computers, 100,000 computers were purchased for students to use, 1
Bernard Tapie is a French businessman and occasional actor, TV host. He was Minister of City Affairs in the government of Pierre Bérégovoy. Tapie was born in Paris, he is a businessman specializing in recovery for bankrupted companies, among which Adidas is the most famous. La Vie Claire, one of Tapie's former businesses, is a chain of health product stores, it sponsored one of the strongest cycling teams of all time, La Vie Claire, founded after the 1983 European cycling season, when multiple Tour de France winner Bernard Hinault had acrimoniously broken away from the Renault-Elf-Gitane team that featured Hinault's much younger and newly crowned French Tour de France winner, Laurent Fignon. La Vie Claire was formed by Hinault after Hinault had experienced a falling-out with his long-time and successful team manager from Renault-Elf, Cyrille Guimard, in respect to which of the two French riders would lead the team in 1984 after Fignon's 1983 victory, a race in which Hinault had been unable to participate, due to tendonitis of his knee that had flared up during the 1983 Vuelta a España, raced little over a month earlier and which Hinault had won.
Following Hinault from the all-powerful Renault-Elf team to the newly formed La Vie Claire squad was Greg LeMond, who would himself end up winning three Tours de France with three different teams. Hinault and LeMond would soon win successive Tours with the La Vie Claire team after leaving Renault-Elf-Gitane, while both Fignon and Guimard would never win another Tour de France, as a cyclist and directeur sportif after 1984. Hinault had formed a strong collective of French riders immediately after his breakaway from Renault-Elf and Guimard, before he had secured the much-needed financial backing for his team from someone like Bernard Tapie. From 1986 to 1994, he was the president of the Olympique de Marseille football club, which became Champion of France four times in a row and won the 1992–93 UEFA Champions League. On 30 September 2011, it was disclosed Tapie had agreed to buy Full Tilt Poker and its assets despite its legal troubles in the United States and the revocation of its gambling license.
That deal fell through in April 2012. In 1993, the same year that Olympique de Marseille won the Champions League, he was accused of fixing the match between his club and minor club Valenciennes, his club was stripped of its French league championship, though not of the Champions League title, suffered a forced relegation to the second division because of financial irregularities blamed on Tapie. In 1994, Tapie was put under criminal investigation for complicity of corruption and witness tampering. After a high-profile case against public prosecutor Éric de Montgolfier, he was sentenced in 1995 by the Court of Appeals of Douai to 2 years in prison, including 8 months non-suspended and 3 years of deprivation of his civic rights. From 1993 to 2008 there was a long legal battle between the Crédit Lyonnais bank. Crédit Lyonnais had defrauded Tapie in 1993 and 1994 when it sold Adidas on his behalf to Robert Louis-Dreyfus by arranging a larger sale with Dreyfus without Tapie's knowledge. In 2008 a special judicial panel ruled that Tapie should receive compensation of €404 million from the French Ministry of Finance, headed by Christine Lagarde.
She decided not to challenge the ruling. On December 3, 2015, a French court ruled. A few days the Court of Justice of the Republic ordered that Lagarde should stand trial for negligence. On December 19, 2016, Lagarde was convicted of negligence. In the 2007 presidential election, he supported the Union for a Popular Movement candidate Nicolas Sarkozy, despite having been a minister in a socialist government, being a member of the Radical Party of the Left. According to Le Canard enchaîné, the reason for Tapie's ideological inconsistency was portrayed as being about'tax issues' which Sarkozy promised to resolve following his election. Tapie made his fortune acquiring companies; the first company that he purchased was Leclanché Wonder – a large producer of batteries. He sold this company to Energizer. In 1990 Tapie purchased Adidas for nearly 1.6 billion francs. He took up a loan unionized with a banking pool with a majority of foreign banks, in minority from French backers, in particular with the SdBO, the subsidiary of Crédit Lyonnais group hidden for several years.
In this opportunity, the AGF, the UAP and Crédit Lyonnais entered the capital of the sporting brand. He subsequently had a number of legal difficulties associated with this company; the Tapie group tried to dabble in the online poker world
Constitution of France
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958. It is called the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, replaced that of the Fourth Republic dating from 1946. Charles de Gaulle was the main driving force in introducing the new constitution and inaugurating the Fifth Republic, while the text was drafted by Michel Debré. Since the constitution has been amended twenty-four times, through 2008; the preamble of the constitution recalls the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 and establishes France as a secular and democratic country, deriving its sovereignty from the people. It provides for the election of the President and the Parliament, the selection of the Government, the powers of each and the relations between them, it ensures judicial authority and creates a High Court, a Constitutional Council, an Economic and Social Council. It was designed to create a politically strong President, it enables those associated with the European Union. It is unclear; the Constitution sets out methods for its own amendment either by referendum or through a Parliamentary process with Presidential consent.
The normal procedure of constitutional amendment is as follows: the amendment must be adopted in identical terms by both houses of Parliament must be either adopted by a simple majority in a referendum, or by 3/5 of a joint session of both houses of Parliament. However, president Charles de Gaulle bypassed the legislative procedure in 1962 and directly sent a constitutional amendment to a referendum, adopted; this was controversial at the time. Prior to 1971, though executive and judicial decisions had to comply with the general principles of law, there were no such restrictions on legislation, it was assumed that unelected judges and other appointees should not be able to overrule laws voted for by the directly elected French parliament. In 1971, a landmark decision by the Constitutional Council cited the preamble of the Constitution and its references to the principles laid in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen as a reason for rejecting a law that, according to the Council, violated one of these principles.
Since it is assumed that the "constitutional block" includes not only the Constitution, but the other texts referred to in its preamble: The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789 The preamble of the Constitution of 1946 The Charter for the Environment of 2004Since the possibility of sending laws before the Council has been extended. In practice, the political opposition sends all controversial laws before it. In the Constitution, are written the principles of the French Republic: Social welfare, which means that everybody must be able to access free public services and be helped when needed. Laïcité, which means that the churches are separated from the State and the freedom of religion is protected. Democracy, which means that the Parliament and the Government are elected by the people. Indivisibility, which means that the French people are united in a single Unitary sovereign State with one language, the French language, all people are equal; the Constitution defines in Article 89 the rules for amending itself.
First, a constitutional bill must be approved by both houses of Parliament. The bill must be approved by the Congress, a special joint session of both houses. In 1962, president Charles de Gaulle controversially submitted a bill to a referendum through another procedure defined at article 11 of the Constitution, a procedure which allows the President to hold a referendum without the consent of Parliament – see French presidential election referendum, 1962; this permitted the establishment of a popularly elected presidency, that would otherwise have been vetoed by the Parliament. Article 11 was used for constitutional changes for the second and last time in 1969, but the "No" prevailed, causing Charles de Gaulle to resign from the presidency. On 21 July 2008, Parliament passed constitutional reforms championed by President Nicolas Sarkozy by a margin of two votes; these changes, when finalized, introduced a consecutive two-term limit for the presidency, gave parliament a veto over some presidential appointments, ended government control over parliament's committee system, allowed parliament to set its own agenda, allowed the president to address parliament in-session, ended the president's right of collective pardon.
France has had numerous past constitutions. The Kingdom of France, under the Ancien Régime, was an absolute monarchy and lacked a formal constitution. Albeit, some rules were above the king: les lois fondamentales du Royaume; these rules were about the inheritance of the Crown. The king shall be the first born male catholic heir. In any case, women weren't allowed to inherite the Crown since the Treaty of Troyes. Parlement of Paris was the body. For instance Louis XIV tried by his testament to change the inheritance order; the Parlement of Paris annulled it. The Revolution
Brice Hortefeux is a conservative French politician. He was Minister of Overseas Territories and Territorial collectivities, he was Minister for Labour, Labour Relations, the Family and Urban Affairs and Minister-Delegate for Local Government at the Ministry of the Interior and was a Member of the European Parliament. Hortefeux was raised in Auvergne, he is one of the most loyal political allies, personal friend, of French president Nicolas Sarkozy. He is the godfather of one of Nicolas Sarkozy's sons. On 18 May 2007, he was appointed as the first Minister of Immigration, National Identity and Cooperative Development in the government of Prime Minister François Fillon; as such he has boosted the numbers of illegal immigrants forcibly repatriated from France, extended the network of detention centres and modified the rights of individuals and organizations which visit them. He is in favor of controls on immigration, he was the promoter of a law. He believes that France has a right to expel or welcome immigrants on a discretionary basis, citing as evidence the high unemployment and criminality rates of foreigners.
He points to the geographical concentration of foreigners in a small number of towns as evidence that they are not integrated in the country. As he declared in the newspaper Le Parisien on the 8 November 2007: "France has the right to choose which immigrants it can accommodate... Let's muster the courage to face our problems! Do you find it normal that 60% of immigrants are concentrated in only 3 of our 22 regions? That the unemployment rate of these people is 22% and that their children are dropping out of school? No, we will not accept this.". On M6's TV show Capital, when asked if there were illegal immigrants in France, he replied: "If you dream of a country where there are only honest and clean citizens... In reality, it's a constant struggle."The 4 June 2010 a French court has fined him 750 euros for making racist comments about a young party activist of Algerian origin. But the court did not issue a criminal conviction, judging that Hortefeux had not intended the comments to be heard in public.
In August 2010 following an earlier fatal incident involving travellers and gendarmerie at Thésée, near St. Aignan, Loir et Cher, Hortefeux has vigorously pursued a policy of destroying illegal travellers' camps and imposing conditions for voluntary repatriations of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria, a considerable number of which are in progress. A circular emanating from his office on 5 August 2010 mentioning an ethnic criterion for these deportations provoked the ire of ministerial colleagues such as Eric Besson and the European commissioner, Viviane Reding. An eirenic exchange with Cardinal André Vingt-Trois, the President of the French Bishops' Conference, representing contrasting reactions within the Catholic community ensued. Degree in private law Master's degree in public law Studied in Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris Local authority administrator Prefect, given responsibility for a government public service mission Special adviser in the office of the President of the Senate Head of office of the Minister for the Budget and Communications and government spokesman Governmental functions Minister of the Interior, Local Authorities and Immigration: 2010–2011.
Minister of the Interior and Local authorities: 2009–2010. Minister of Labor and Social Affairs and the City: January–June 2009. Minister for Immigration, National Identity and Development Solidarity: 2007–2009. Minister of Territorial collectivities: 2005–2007. Electoral mandates European Parliament Member of European Parliament: 1999–2005 / Reelected in 2009, but he remains minister in 2009 / And since 2011. Elected in 1999, reelected in 2004, 2009. Regional Council Regional councillor of Auvergne: Since 1992. Reelected in 1998, 2004, 2010, he is a member of the Union for a Popular Movement, part of the European People's Party. During his time at the European Parliament, he sat on the European Parliament's Committee on International Trade, was a substitute for the Committee on Budgets and was a member of the delegation for relations with the Maghreb countries and the Arab Maghreb Union. Hortefeux is a supporter of immigrant repatriation from France, he has supported and incentivised voluntary return, in his role as Immigration Minister of France, for immigrant families.
In 2007, enhancing the offer to €6,000 per family to leave the country, he claimed that the French government "must increase this measure to help voluntary return". On 10 September 2009, Le Monde disclosed a video showing Hortefeux at the UMP Summer School in Seignosse, France, on Saturday, 5 September 2009; as he posed for a photograph with a young man of Arabic origin, the following conversation can be heard: Female voice – He is Catholic, he eats pork and drinks beer! Hortefeux – Oh really? Well, he does not match the prototype at all! Female voice – He is one of us... he is our little Arab. Hortefeux – We always need one! When there is only one, it's okay. It's. In June 2010, a French court found Hortefeux guilty of a racial insult, fined him 750 euros with an order to donate 2,000 euros to an anti-racism group. Hortefeux' lawyer said. On 4 November 2010, Hortefeux said that one of the two bombs in the 2010 cargo
Marie-Ségolène Royal, known as Ségolène Royal, is a French politician and former Socialist Party candidate for President of France. She was President of the Poitou-Charentes Regional Council from 2004 to 2014, she won the 2006 Socialist Party primary, becoming the first woman in France to be nominated as a presidential candidate by a major party. In the subsequent 2007 presidential election, she earned further distinction as the first woman to qualify for the second round of a presidential election, but lost to Nicolas Sarkozy. In 2008, Royal narrowly lost to Martine Aubry in the Socialist Party's election for First Secretary at the Party's twenty-second national congress, she lost the Socialist Party presidential primary in 2011, failed in an attempt to win a seat in the National Assembly in the June 2012 parliamentary elections. François Hollande, the former President, is the father of her four children, she was appointed by him to the vice-Chair directorship of the Banque Publique d'Investissement in 2013.
She served as Minister for Ecology from 2014 to 2017, in the Valls Cazeneuve cabinets. Ségolène Royal was born on 22 September 1953 in the military base of Ouakam, French West Africa, the daughter of Hélène Dehaye and Jacques Royal, a former artillery officer and aide to the mayor of Chamagne, her parents had eight children in nine years: Marie-Odette, Marie-Nicole, Gérard, Marie-Ségolène, Paul and Sigisbert. After secondary school in the small town of Melle, Deux-Sèvres, Marie-Ségolène attended a local university where she graduated 2nd in her class with a degree in Economics, her eldest sister suggested she prepare the entrance exam to the elite Institut d'études politiques de Paris popularly called Sciences Po, which she attended on scholarship. There she discovered politics of feminism. In 1972, at the age of 19, Royal sued her father because he refused to divorce her mother and pay alimony and child support to finance the children's education, she won the case after many years in court, shortly before Jacques Royal died of lung cancer in 1981.
Six of the eight children had refused to see him again, Ségolène included. Royal, like the majority of France's political elite, is a graduate of the École nationale d'administration, she was in the same class as her former partner of 30 years, François Hollande, as well as Dominique de Villepin. Each class year at the ENA receives a nickname to distinguish it: Royal tried to get her peers to name their class after Louise Michel, a revolutionary from the 1870s, but they chose the name "Voltaire" instead. During her time at the ENA, Royal dropped "Marie" from her hyphenated first name because she thought it had been chosen by her father for his daughters out of a degrading and archaic view of the role of women. After graduating in 1980, she elected to serve as a judge of an administrative court before she was noticed by President François Mitterrand's special adviser Jacques Attali and recruited to his staff in 1982, she held the junior rank of chargée de mission from 1982 to 1988. She decided to become a candidate for the 1988 legislative election.
Her candidacy was an example of the French political tradition of parachutage, appointing promising "Parisian" political staffers as candidates in provincial districts to test their mettle. She was up against an entrenched UDF incumbent, Mitterrand is said to have told her: "You will not win, but you will next time." Straddling Catholic and Protestant areas, that district had been held by conservatives since World War II. She did win against the odds, remarked: "Pour un parachutage, l'atterrissage est réussi.". After this election, she served as representative in the National Assembly for the Deux-Sèvres' 2nd constituency. Minister of Environment: 1992–1993. Minister of School Education: 1997–2000. Minister of Family and Children: 2000–2001. Minister of Family and Disabled persons: 2001–2002. On 28 March 2004, she obtained 55% in the second round in the regional election in Poitou-Charentes, notably defeating Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin's protégée, Élisabeth Morin, in his home region, she was elected president of the region the next week.
She kept her National Assembly seat until June 2007, when she chose not to run in the legislative election, in agreement with one of her presidential campaign's promises. She organised a run-off between two contenders. On 22 September 2005 Paris Match published an interview in which she declared that she was considering running for the presidency in 2007. In 2006 the CPE laws were proposed with large protests as a result. Rather than going to the organised protest, she voted a law in her "région" whereby no company using that type of contract would receive the Région's subsidies; the government backed down and stated that the law would be put on the statute book, but that it would not be applied. After this event Royal was tipped as the lead contender in what is dubbed the "Sarko-Ségo" race against Nicolas Sarkozy; until that time, she had not been thought a candidate as she had stayed out of the Socialist Party's power struggles. On 7 April 2006, Royal launched an Internet-led electoral campaign at Désirs d'avenir, publishing the first of ten chapters of her political manifesto.
By the beginning of September, her intentions had become quite c