The Court of Cassation is one of the four courts of last resort in France. It has jurisdiction over all civil and criminal matters triable in the judicial system, is the supreme court of appeal in these cases, it has jurisdiction to review the law, to certify questions of law, to determine miscarriages of justice. The Court is located in the Palace of Justice in Paris; the Court does not have jurisdiction over cases involving claims against administrators or public bodies, which fall within the jurisdiction of administrative courts, for which the Council of State acts as the supreme court of appeal. Collectively, these four courts form the topmost tier of the French court system; the Court was established in 1790 under the name Tribunal de cassation during the French Revolution, its original purpose was to act as a court of error with revisory jurisdiction over lower provincial prerogative courts. However, much about the Court continues the earlier Paris Parlement; the Court is the seat of the Network of the Presidents of the Supreme Judicial Courts of the European Union.
The Court is made up of justices, the Office of the Prosecutor, an Administrative Office of Courts. In addition, a separate bar of specially certified barristers exists for trying cases at the French Court. Overall, the Court consists of nearly 85 trial judges and about 40 deputy judges, each divided among six different divisions: First Civil Division deals with family law, child custody, professional discipline, individual rights, contractual liability Second Civil Division handles divorce and electoral matters Third Civil Division for immovable property, city planning, foreclosures Commercial Division handles companies, business and intellectual property Labor Division handles labor disputes, worker compensation, welfare Criminal Division deals with criminal casesEach division is headed by a presiding justice referred to in French as a président, or President of Division; the Chief Justice bears the title of the premier président, or President of the Court, who supervises the presiding justices of the various divisions.
The Chief Justice is the highest-ranking judicial officer in the country and is responsible for administration of the Court and the discipline of justices. The current Chief Justice is Bertrand Louvel; the Court includes 12 masters, the lowest rank of justice, who are concerned with administration. There is, in addition to the abovementioned six divisions, a separate organization known as the Divisional Court; the Divisional Court adjudicates where the subject matter of an appeal falls within the purview of multiple divisions. The Bench of the Divisional Court seats the Chief Justice and a number of other judges from at least three other divisions relevant to a given case. Any participating division is represented by two puisne judges. A Full Court is called, presided over by the Chief Justice or, if he is absent, by the most senior presiding justice, it seats all divisional presiding justices and senior justices, assisted by a puisne judge from each division. The Full Court is the highest level of the Court.
The prosecution, or parquet général, is headed by the Chief Prosecutor. The Chief Prosecutor does not prosecute cases. Duties include filing motions to bring cases before the Court "in the name of the law" and bringing cases before the French Court of Justice, which tries government officials for crimes committed while in office; the Chief Prosecutor is assisted by two Chief Deputy Prosecutors and a staff of about 22 deputy prosecutors, two assistant prosecutors. Barristers, though not technically officers of the Court, play an integral role in the justice system. Except for a few types of actions, advocate counsel in the form of a barrister is mandatory for any case heard at the Court or Council of State. Barristers with exclusive rights of audience and admitted to practice law in either senior court are titled avocat au Conseil d'État et à la Cour de Cassation, or avocats aux Conseils for short. Admission to the Supreme Court bar is difficult, requiring special training and passing a notoriously stringent examination.
Once admitted, bar members can advise litigants on whether their actions are justiciable, that is, issuable and exceeding de minimis requirements—an important service since the Court hears appeals only on points of law and not issues of fact. Membership is considered a public office; the Court's main purpose is to review lower court rulings on the grounds of legal or procedural error. As the highest court of law in France, it has other duties; the Court has inherent appellate jurisdiction for appeals from courts of appeal or, for certain types of small claims cases no
Leersia hexandra is a species of grass known by the common names southern cutgrass, clubhead cutgrass, swamp rice grass. It has a pantropical distribution, it is an introduced species in many regions, sometimes becoming invasive, it is an agricultural weed of various crops rice. It is cultivated as a forage for livestock; this species is a perennial grass growing from stolons. The hollow stems are decumbent and creeping and root where their nodes contact the substrate, they produce erect shoots. It is an aquatic or semi-aquatic grass, the erect stem parts may float in water; these stems can grow densely in aquatic habitat and become matted, forming what are referred to as "carpets". The leaf sheath has a fleshy base covered in white hairs and the ligule can be stiff and dry, becoming "papery"; the leaves have sharp-pointed blades up to 30 centimeters long which are flat or rolled, the edges sometimes rolling at night or when the blade dries. The blades are sometimes hairless, but are coated in rough hairs, making them so rough to the touch that they are "unpleasant to handle".
They have sharp edges, the midrib has backward-facing, spiny hairs that give it a cutting edge. The "retrorsely spinulose midrib of the leaf can inflict most painful lacerations"; the panicle is narrow or spreading and erect or nodding, up to about 12 centimeters long. The branches are fully lined with overlapping spikelets each up to half a centimeter long; the spikelets may be purplish in color, or sometimes tinged with orange or brick red. They are surrounded by white or purplish bracts that have characteristic comb-like hairs along their greenish nerves; the flower has six stamens. After the spikelets fall, the panicle branches have a zig-zag shape. Fertile seed is produced and the grass reproduces vegetatively by sprouting from the rhizome or the nodes on the stem. Large stands of the grass are clones; this grass looks similar to rice and other species of the genus Oryza. It sometimes grows in rice paddies; this plant grows on wet and moist land. It can be found in marshes, ponds, irrigation ditches, flooded rice fields, on other moist agricultural land and floodplains.
It is tropical, but it can grow in some temperate climates. It can persist for a time in drier conditions during drought; the grass provides shelter for animals. Many water birds feed on it. In Tanzania it is a dominant plant in the swamps where the shoebill and wattled crane build their nests. On the Llanos of Colombia and Venezuela it is the second most important food of the resident herds of capybara, composing up to 29% of their diet, it is one of the two host plants of the other being cultivated rice. While it has been observed on many other plant species, it can only complete its life cycle on cutgrass or rice. There are two strains of the planthopper, one that only lays eggs on rice and one that favors cutgrass. While they can be crossed in laboratory tests, the two strains do not interbreed in the wild; the grass is a weed of several crops, including tea, rubber and sugarcane, but rice. It is a relative of the rice plant and it thrives in paddy fields, its vegetation "carpets" clog irrigation waterways, causing erosion.
It hosts many rice pests, including the brown planthopper, the green planthopper, the green rice leafhopper, the rice gall midge, the moth Helcystogramma arotraeum. It hosts, it is susceptibe to many plant viruses that infect rice plants, such as rice grassy stunt virus, rice transitory yellowing virus, rice tungro virus. It is susceptible to bacteria and fungi such as pathogenic Xanthomonas oryzae, which causes leaf blight of rice, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, which causes brown spot. Despite its sharp leaf edges, the grass is palatable to cattle and it is maintained as a pasture grass on swampy land and cut for hay; this species is a hyperaccumulator of heavy metals, with the ability to take up large amounts of chromium and nickel from water and soil. Its ability to absorb chromium in particular has been described as "extraordinary", it is considered to be a potential agent of phytoremediation in efforts to clean up metal-contaminated soils and water. Targets could include industrial wastewater, such as that discharged from electroplating factories, the contaminated soils around such facilities
Elektron was a series of particle physics satellites launched by the Soviet Union in 1964. Designed to be launched in pairs, they allowed simultaneous monitoring of the lower and upper Van Allen radiation belts. Two of the four launched. On June 23, 1960, Soviet spaceflight engineer Sergei Korolev's "big space plan" for the future of Soviet space endeavors was approved by the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Council of Soviet Ministers; the plan included provisions for two pairs of scientific spacecraft to map Earth's lower and upper Van Allen radiation belts at higher inclinations than those achieved by US satellites of the time, to be deployed in a single launch of a Vostok rocket. Korolev's design bureau, OKB-1, began design work in July. In addition to the charged particles of the Van Allen Belts, the spacecraft were designed to measure cosmic rays, galactic radio emissions, magnetic fields, radio propagation, micrometeoroid flux, they were meant to study artificial radiation belts created by high altitude nuclear tests, but the ratification of the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in August 1963 ended such tests before the launch of the Elektrons.
Elektrons 1 and 3 had design masses of 350 kg, were 325 mm in diameter, were to be placed in an eccentric 425 km × 6,000 km orbit. They were cylindrical with six solar panels for power generation. Elektrons 2 and 4 had design masses of 460 kg, were 400 mm in diameter and 850 mm long cylindrical, but without extended solar panels, they were to be boosted into a eccentric 450 × 60,000 km orbit to map the outer Van Allen belt, simultaneous with Elektron 1/3's study of the inner radiation belt. To attain this orbit, they used a solid-propellant perigee kick motor of 3350 kgf and 12 to 15 seconds duration. All of the Elektrons were launched in pairs into orbit via Vostok 8K72K rocket. Elektron 1, with a mass of 329 kg, was launched on January 30, 1964, at 09:45 UTC. Per the Soviet news agency, TASS, the spacecraft was still operating as of February 6, 1964, having completed 53 orbits, it is still in orbit. Elektron 2, with a mass of 444 kg, was launched on January 30, 1964 at 09:45 UTC. Per the Soviet news agency, TASS, the spacecraft was still operating as of February 6, 1964, having completed 6 orbits.
Its orbit decayed on 20 July 1997. Elektron 3, with a mass of 350 kg, was launched on July 11, 1964 at 21:51 UTC with an identical mission to that of Elektron 1, it is still in orbit. Elektron 4, with a mass of 444 kg, was launched on July 11, 1964 at 21:51 UTC with an identical mission to that of Elektron 2, its orbit decayed on 12 October 1983. Data obtained from the Elektron satellites resulted in many technical papers on a variety of subjects and allowed the assessment of risk to cosmonauts and satellites from radiation in outer space, they and the Kosmos satellites bolstered the impression that the Soviets, like the Americans, were committed to civilian as well as military application of satellites. Soviet space program Elektron-series satellites postal items NASA Technical Reports related to Elektron
National Chengchi University is a Taiwan-based national research university. The university is considered as the earliest public service training facility of the Republic of China. First established in Nanjing in 1927, the university was subsequently relocated to Taipei in 1954, it is considered to be one of the most prominent universities in Taiwan. The university, abbreviated as NCCU, specializes in arts and humanities, mass media and literature, social sciences, management and international affairs programs, it is the only publicly funded university in Taiwan which provides courses in journalism, advertising and television, several languages which are not taught at other institutions in Taiwan. The name Chengchi means governance or politics, refers to its founding in 1927 as a training institution for senior civil service for the Nanjing Nationalist government of China; the university has strong ties with academic institutions like Academia Sinica, National Yangming University, National Taiwan University and National Palace Museum.
The school was established in 1927 in Nanjing, the capital city of China, as the Nationalist Party of China's Central School of Party Affairs. In 1929, it was renamed to Central School of Governance, after the Kuomintang reunified China in the Northern Expedition campaign; the school was built on the basis of National Central University in Nanjing, the highest academic institution of Republic of China. In 1946, it merged with the Central School of Cadre, founded in 1944 by the Youth Corps of Three People's Principles in Chongqing; the merged school was named the National Central University of Governance, based in Nanjing. When the Nationalist government lost control of mainland China in 1949, the university's activities were suspended; the university was reopened in 1954 as National Chengchi University in Taipei by the Executive Yuan, in order to meet the needs of civil service and the growing demands of higher education in Taiwan. Only graduates students were admitted in 1955, the school started to offer places to undergraduate students.
In 1960, the university awarded the first Doctor of Juridical Science degree in the Republic of China. In 1964, the school initiated the first-ever Mandarin-based Chinese Master of Business Administration program in the world. Traditionally, as a modern institution training for public servants, NCCU is considered one of the leading institutions of the Republic of China. Today, the school is one of the top universities in Taiwan, it has been elected as the "Aim for the Top University Project" sponsored school of the Ministry of Education. NCCU has ten colleges, including colleges of Commerce, Foreign Languages and Literature, International Affairs, Liberal Arts, Social Sciences and International Innovation, encompassing 34 departments and 48 graduate institutes; the College of Commerce is ranked as a top business school by Eduniversal and is accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and the European Quality Improvement System. In addition, the college is a member of The Partnership in International Management.
The College of Foreign Languages and Literature offers distinctive academic programs on Slavic languages and literature, Arabic languages and literature and Turkish language and culture. Dual degrees in Korean language with Sungkyunkwan University and Hanyang University have been offered since 2013; the college is awarded by the Academy of Korean Studies for the "Core University Program for Korean Studies" and receive support from the government of the Republic of Korea. The College of International Affairs is affiliated with the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs, with specializations in international relations, East Asian studies and Russian studies; the Institute of International Relations is one of the top. Founded together with University of Michigan, the Center for Public and Business Administration Education provides training for managers in public and private institutions; the Department of Diplomacy is the only one of its kind in a university in Taiwan. NCCU has engaged in the fields of information technology and natural science cooperating with Academia Sinica, National Tsinghua University, the Ministry of Finance.
In addition to accredited educational partnerships, NCCU students have access to multiple industry partnerships for internships and on-the-job learning. NCCU's main campus is in the southern part of Taipei. NCCU was awarded the first prize in the Taipei Urban Landscape Award for its campus planning by the city government of Taipei. Apart from the main campus, there are two branch campuses: The Public & Business Administration Education Center on Jinhua Street in Daan District; the Institute of International Relations on Wanshou Road. The affiliated schools are: Preschool on Zhinan Road. Experimental Elementary School on Section 3, Zhinan Road; the Affiliated High School on Zhengda First Street. One campus under construction: Zhinan Village, a former Ministry of Defense campus. There are six Libraries on the main campus and one library in the Center for Public and Business Affairs Education. Chiang Kai-shek Library College of Commerce Library College of Social Science Library College of Communication Library Institute of International Relation Library Dah Hsian Seetoo Library Social Science Information Canter and Sun Yat-sen Memorial Library Center for Public and Business Affairs Education Library Siwei Tang Auditorium 四維堂 Museum of Ethnology NCCU Arts Center Exhibition
Peter Clark Kump was a prominent American figure in the culinary arts. The founder of Peter Kump’s New York Cooking School, he co-founded the James Beard Foundation with Julia Child. Kump was born in Fresno, California in 1937. In 1953, his family relocated to Switzerland, he received a bachelor's degree in speech and drama from Stanford University and a master's degree in fine arts from Carnegie Mellon University. His career was based in education, teaching speed reading at Evelyn Wood Reading Dynamics Institute in Pittsburgh and to members of President Richard M. Nixon's staff in the mid-1960s, he moved to New York City in 1967. His involvement in the culinary world began with cooking classes at James Beard's culinary school, taking classes from Beard, Diana Kennedy, Simone Beck, Marcella Hazan; the classes prompted him to open his own cooking school, Peter Kump's New York Cooking School, in 1974. In 1979, the school was relocated from his apartment to 307 East 92nd Street. A few days before his death, Kump sold the school to Rick Smilow who moved it to 23rd Street, opening a few months later.
In 2001, Smilow renamed the school The Institute of Culinary Education. In the mid-1980s, Kump was president of the International Association of Culinary Professionals and the New York Association of Cooking Teachers. In 1985, he co-founded the James Beard Foundation with Julia Child. After Beard's death and Child arranged the purchase of Beard’s Greenwich Village brownstone, converting it to the headquarters of the culinary arts organization. In 1991, he worked with the Foundation to establish the James Beard Awards, he was the president of the foundation until his death in 1995. He died June 8, 1995 at his weekend home in East Hampton, Long Island of liver cancer
Ali'yah is the second studio album by American rapper D. Black, released on September 15, 2009 through Sportn' Life Records, it was produced by Black, B. Brown, Vitamin D, Jake One; the album was influenced by Black's Messianic Jewish faith at the time, displaying a more spiritual and conscious outlook than the gangsta rap stylings of his previous work. The album's title is a Hebrew word meaning "ascent"; this would be Black's last album before his temporary retirement. Following the release of his previous album, The Cause and Effect, now a father, began studying religion and questioning his own faith, converted to Orthodox Judaism. Subsequently, his music began to take on a more spiritual and conscious feel influenced by artists like Common and Lauryn Hill, first evidenced in his song "God Like" that appeared on Jake One's 2008 album White Van Music; the album was produced by Jake One, Vitamin D, B. Brown. Ali'yah was released on September 15, 2009; the album spent five weeks at number 4 on CMJ's hip hop charts.
Six months after the album's release, Black renounced his belief in Jesus and Christianity. No longer supporting the album's message but unable to quit his contract, he agreed to promote it, but refused to accept money outside of touring expenses or perform on Shabbat, he subsequently retired to focus on converting to Orthodox Judaism, during which time he cut off all connections to his previous career, including abandoning his position at Sportn' Life and getting rid of his own music collection. The album received mixed to positive reviews, with many critics praising his newfound lyrical maturity and the production work. Andrew Martin of PopMatters wrote, "Aside from the aforementioned stunning production, a strong cohesion exists in terms of subject matter and concept. D. Black sticks to the meaning of Ali’Yah closely, he and his production team will bring you right to the musical cloud then. It’s just a shame D. Black struggles to keep you there for a permanent residence." A staff review by HipHopDX stated that "D. Black may not be the best lyricist among his peers, but with a project like Ali’Yah, it’s evident that he’s not only shown progress with his lyrical content, but as an individual."
Sample credits"Keep On Going" samples "London Girl", performed by 50 Cent and produced by DJ DB. D. Black – main artist, composer, producer, executive producer, art direction, graphic design B. Brown – producer, A&R, engineer Chris Torres – A&R, engineer Jake One – producer Vitamin D – producer Darrius Willrich – producer, vocals Marissa – vocals Zach Bruce – vocals Randy Gary – vocals Ali'yah at Discogs Ali'yah at AllMusic. Retrieved 6 July 2016