Edmonton is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region, surrounded by Alberta's central region; the city anchors the north end of what Statistics Canada defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor". The city had a population of 932,546 in 2016, making it Alberta's second-largest city and Canada's fifth-largest municipality. In 2016, Edmonton had a metropolitan population of 1,321,426, making it the sixth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Edmonton is North America's northernmost metropolitan area with a population over one million. A resident of Edmonton is known as an Edmontonian. Edmonton's historic growth has been facilitated through the absorption of five adjacent urban municipalities in addition to a series of annexations through 1982, the annexation of 8,260 ha of land from Leduc County and the city of Beaumont on January 1, 2019. Known as the "Gateway to the North", the city is a staging point for large-scale oil sands projects occurring in northern Alberta and large-scale diamond mining operations in the Northwest Territories.
Edmonton is a cultural and educational centre. It hosts a year-round slate of festivals, reflected in the nickname "Canada's Festival City", it is home to North America's largest mall, West Edmonton Mall, Fort Edmonton Park, Canada's largest living history museum. The earliest known inhabitants arrived in the area, now Edmonton around 3,000 BC and as early as 12,000 BC when an ice-free corridor opened as the last glacial period ended and timber and wildlife became available in the region. In 1754, Anthony Henday, an explorer for the Hudson's Bay Company, may have been the first European to enter the Edmonton area, his expeditions across the Canadian Prairies were to seek contact with the aboriginal population for establishing the fur trade, as the competition was fierce between the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company. By 1795, Fort Edmonton was established on the river's north bank as a major trading post for the Hudson's Bay Company; the new fort's name was suggested by John Peter Pruden after Edmonton, the hometown of both the HBC deputy governor Sir James Winter Lake, Pruden.
In 1876, Treaty 6, which includes what is now Edmonton, was signed between the Aboriginal peoples in Canada and Queen Victoria as Queen of Canada, as part of the Numbered Treaties of Canada. The agreement includes the Plains and Woods Cree and other band governments of First Nations at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt, Battle River; the area covered by the treaty represents most of the central area of the current provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta. The coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway to southern Alberta in 1885 helped the Edmonton economy, the 1891 building of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway resulted in the emergence of a railway townsite on the river's south side, across from Edmonton; the arrival of the CPR and the C&E Railway helped bring settlers and entrepreneurs from eastern Canada, Europe, U. S. and other parts of the world. The Edmonton area's fertile soil and cheap land attracted settlers, further establishing Edmonton as a major regional commercial and agricultural centre; some people participating in the Klondike Gold Rush passed through South Edmonton/Strathcona in 1897.
Strathcona was North America's northernmost railway point, but travel to the Klondike was still difficult for the "Klondikers," and a majority of them took a steamship north to the Yukon from Vancouver, British Columbia. Incorporated as a town in 1892 with a population of 700 and as a city in 1904 with a population of 8,350, Edmonton became the capital of Alberta when the province was formed a year on September 1, 1905. In November 1905, the Canadian Northern Railway arrived in Edmonton. During the early 1900s, Edmonton's rapid growth led to speculation in real estate. In 1912, Edmonton amalgamated with the City of Strathcona, south of the North Saskatchewan River. Just before World War I, the boom ended, the city's population declined from more than 72,000 in 1914 to less than 54,000 only two years later. Many impoverished families moved to subsistence farms outside the city, while others fled to greener pastures in other provinces. Recruitment to the army during the war contributed to the drop in population.
Afterwards, the city recovered in population and economy during the 1920s and 1930s and took off again during and after World War II. The Edmonton City Centre Airport opened in 1929. Named Blatchford Field in honour of former mayor Kenny Blatchford, pioneering aviators such as Wilfrid R. "Wop" May and Max Ward used Blatchford Field as a major base for distributing mail and medicine to Northern Canada. World War II saw Edmonton become a major base for the construction of the Alaska Highway and the Northwest Staging Route; the airport was closed in November 2013. In 1892 Edmonton was incorporated as a town; the first mayor was Matthew McCauley, who established the first school board in Edmonton and Board of Trade and a municipal police service. Due to mayor McCauley's good relationship with the federal Liberals this helped Edmonton to maintain political prominence over Strathcona, a rival settlement on the south bank of the North Saskatche
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Law Courts (Edmonton)
The Law Courts building is the main courthouse in the city of Edmonton, the capital of Alberta. It hosts hearings of the Provincial Court of Alberta, the Alberta Court of Queen's Bench, the Court of Appeal of Alberta; the courthouse is located in Downtown Edmonton. The building was designed by the firm Bell, McCulloch and Associates. During Edmonton's years as a frontier settlement, as a booming railway hub, in the North-Western Territory, Edmonton's courts lacked a purpose-built courthouse and relied on rented space. Edmonton was passed over while purpose-built courthouses were constructed in much smaller, younger settlements; this changed when Edmonton became the capital of the new province of Alberta. In 1908, construction began on new Beaux-Arts/Greek revival courthouse, on what is now the west side of Churchill Square, to the southwest of the current Law Courts where the Edmonton City Centre mall now stands, it was completed in 1912 and demolished in 1972. As of April 2012, Edmonton's automated traffic ticketing is operated by City of Edmonton's Office of Traffic Safety, overseen by The Edmonton Police Service as per the Provincial Automated Enforcement Technology Guidelines.
Red light camera and photo radar tickets are now payable in person at the courthouse. Those with matters to be heard in front of the court are able to advance book any audio-visual equipment they may require via the online request form; the current, brutalist building was built in the early 1970s and is reminiscent of Boston City Hall and 222 Jarvis Street in Toronto, Ontario
Court of Appeal for Ontario
The Court of Appeal for Ontario is an appellate court in Ontario, based at historic Osgoode Hall in downtown Toronto. The Court is composed of 22 judicial seats, in addition to one or more justices who sit supernumerary, they hear over 1,500 appeals each year, on issues of private law, constitutional law, criminal law, administrative law and other matters. The Supreme Court of Canada hears appeals from less than 3% of the decisions of the Court of Appeal for Ontario, therefore in a practical sense, the Court of Appeal is the last avenue of appeal for most litigants in Ontario. Among the Court of Appeal's most notable decisions was a 2003 ruling that legalized same-sex marriage in Ontario, making Canada the first jurisdiction in the world where same-sex marriage was legalized by a court ruling. Among many judges from the Court who have been elevated to the Supreme Court of Canada are Justices Rosalie Abella, Louise Arbour, Peter Cory, Louise Charron, Andromache Karakatsanis, Bora Laskin and Michael Moldaver, as well as Bertha Wilson, the first female justice on both the Court of Appeal for Ontario and the Supreme Court of Canada.
The Court of Appeal derives its jurisdiction from Ontario's Courts of Justice Act. Supernumerary Justices Supreme Court of Canada Court of Appeal for Ontario official site Ontario Courts website Plan to webcast Ontario appeal cases delayed
Joseph Julius Kryczka was a Canadian ice hockey administrator and judge, known as "Justice Joe". His hockey career included tenures as president of the Alberta Amateur Hockey Association, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association from 1971 to 1973, he began his legal career as a lawyer was appointed a judge, elevated to a justice on the Court of Queen's Bench of Alberta. Kryczka was the lead negotiator who secured the agreement for Canada to play the Soviet Union at the 1972 Summit Series, his negotiating skills were unrecognized at the time, his contribution to the Summit Series was overshadowed by Alan Eagleson. During his career he negotiated other notable disagreements in Canadian hockey; when the Western Canada Hockey League broke away from the governing body, Kryczka was able to reunite the league with the rest of Canada, maintain the threatened the Memorial Cup competition. He successfully brought Alberta hockey back under the national umbrella when it resigned, he dealt with the World Hockey Association when it raided rosters of Canadian junior teams without compensation, became the first commissioner of the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League.
Kryczka graduated from the University of Alberta, played hockey with the Golden Bears. He practiced law in Calgary for over 20 years, was a director with the Calgary Cowboys, played a key role with Calgary's successful bid for the 1988 Winter Olympics, he was inducted into both Canada's Sports Hall of Fame and the Alberta Sports Hall of Fame in 1990. Kryczka was born on June 1935, in Coleman, Alberta, he grew up playing minor ice hockey until the juvenile age level in Coleman, was captain of the juvenile team in the 1951–52 season. He attended Coleman High School, received a bursary from the Elks of Canada for having the highest marks in grade nine, he graduated with honours in 1953 as the class valedictorian. Kryczka enrolled at University of Alberta in 1953, graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1957, he was active in student life, serving as president of both the political science and law clubs, was secretary of the student council. He played junior baseball for his Coleman team in summers.
He played three seasons of ice hockey as a defenceman with the Golden Bears, was teammates with his brother Adam in 1955. He earned two varsity letters in university, he completed his law degree in 1958 at the University of Alberta. The university awarded him a gold ring for scholastic achievements, received the Lorne Calhoun Memorial Award for contributions to student activities. Kryczka became an articled clerk in Calgary under future Court of Appeal of Alberta justice David Clifton Prowse, was called to the bar in 1959, he was associated with the law firm of Peter Lougheed in the early 1960s, became a partner of Mason and Kryczka. He served as vice-president of the Alberta Young Liberal Association in 1966, continued to practice law in Calgary until 1980. Kryczka began volunteering as community hockey coach in 1959, refereed in various leagues, he was elected to the executive committee of the Alberta Amateur Hockey Association in 1963, served as the Calgary Booster Club president from 1964 to 1965.
He was elected second vice-president of the AAHA in September 1966, became its president in October 1967. Kryczka's presidency of the AAHA coincided with the formation of the Western Canada Hockey League, which had teams in Alberta and Manitoba. Various disputes arose with the WCHL, because it was outside of the jurisdiction of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association, the governing body for the AAHA. In February 1969, the CAHA and Kryczka as president of the AAHA, were named in a lawsuit by the WCHL and its governing body, the Canadian Hockey Association; the WCHL sought development money for its players drafted by the National Hockey League, as per the draft agreement between the NHL and the CAHA, but the CAHA refused to distribute money to a league it did not sanction. That month, Kryczka gave an ultimatum to the Alberta Hockey Referees Association, stating that the AAHA would only use referees which did not officiate in the WCHL; the decision threatened to end an agreement from October 1968, where referees in Alberta formed an independent organization to officiates games for both governing bodies.
In March, Kryczka suspended two referees who still worked games in the WCHL. At the 1969 CAHA annual general meeting, Kryczka said that the WCHL succeeded in drawing many fans, gave an opportunity for many young men to play in Western Canada, he felt that CAHA branches such as Alberta, should be able to establish a major junior category for higher-level competition, similar to what the WCHL did across three provinces. The CAHA reorganized its committees to give more representation at the national level to its leagues, but the motion to have a major junior classification was defeated. Kryczka was elected vice-president of the CAHA in May 1969. In September 1969, he was optimistic that the WCHL would be able to agree on reuniting, he felt it would be possible if the WCHL agreed to appropriately compensate CAHA teams from which players were signed, that there would be no expansion into cities with an existing CAHA team. He further confirmed that the CAHA had not approved of its players being signed by the WCHL, or relocation into its territory.
He said that the CAHA would not agree to those demands of the WCHL, which are against CAHA regulations. In 1969, Canada and the CAHA withdrew from play in the Ice Hockey World Championships over a dispute with the International Ice Hockey Federation regarding the use of p
In common law systems, a superior court is a court of general competence which has unlimited jurisdiction with regard to civil and criminal legal cases. A superior court is "superior" relative to a court with limited jurisdiction, restricted to civil cases involving monetary amounts with a specific limit, or criminal cases involving offenses of a less serious nature. A superior court may hear appeals from lower courts; the term "superior court" has its origins in the English court system. The royal courts were the highest courts in the country, with what would now be termed supervisory jurisdiction over baronial and local courts. Decisions of those courts could be reviewed by the royal courts, as part of the Crown's role as the ultimate fountain of justice; the royal courts became known as the "superior courts", while lower courts whose decisions could be reviewed by the royal courts became known as "inferior courts". The decisions of the superior courts were not reviewable or appealable, unless an appeal was created by statute.
Superior Courts in Canada exist at the federal and territorial levels. The provincial and territorial superior courts of original jurisdiction are courts of general jurisdiction: all legal matters fall within their jurisdiction, unless assigned elsewhere by statute passed by the appropriate legislative authority, their jurisdiction includes civil lawsuits involving contracts, torts and family law. They have jurisdiction over criminal prosecutions for indictable offences under the Criminal Code of Canada, they hear civil appeals from decisions of the provincial and territorial "inferior" courts, as well as appeals from those courts in summary conviction matters under the Criminal Code. They have jurisdiction of judicial review over administrative decisions by provincial or territorial government entities such as labour boards, human rights tribunals and licensing authorities; the superior courts of appeal hear appeals from the superior courts of original jurisdiction, as well as from the inferior courts and administrative tribunals.
The jurisdiction of the superior courts of appeal are statutory. The details of their jurisdiction will vary depending on the laws passed by the federal government and the particular province or territory. All judges of the provincial superior courts are appointed by the federal government under the authority of the Constitution Act, 1867, while judges of the territorial superior courts are appointed under the authority of their respective territorial acts passed by the federal Parliament; the judges of the Federal Courts are appointed by the federal government under the authority of the Federal Courts Act. In Hong Kong, the Court of Final Appeal, the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance, are all superior courts of record; the general superior courts of South Africa are the High Courts, the Supreme Court of Appeal and the Constitutional Court. The High Courts are courts of first instance with general jurisdiction. Most cases are, tried in the magistrates' courts or other lower courts, appeals from these courts are heard by the High Court.
The Supreme Court of Appeal is an appellate court, hearing appeals from the High Courts. The Constitutional Court is an appellate court, hearing appeals on constitutional matters from the Supreme Court of Appeal or in some cases directly from the High Courts; the Constitutional Court occasionally acts as a court of first instance in certain cases involving the constitutionality of laws and government actions. There are specialist superior courts with exclusive jurisdiction over certain matters; the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the superior court of record of the United Kingdom and is the final appellate court for all separate legal systems of the parts of the United Kingdom. In England and Wales, the Court of Appeal, the High Court and the Crown Court, altogether form the Senior Courts of England and Wales, are all superior courts of record; the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the final forum for several independent Commonwealth nations as well as all Overseas Territories of the United Kingdom and Crown Dependencies, thus is the superior court in its capacity as the final appellate court of the respective legal systems.
In a number of jurisdictions in the United States, the Superior Court is a state trial court of general jurisdiction with power to hear and decide any civil or criminal action, not specially designated to be heard in some other courts. California, Washington, the District of Columbia, Georgia are all examples of such jurisdictions. In other states, equivalent courts are known as courts of common pleas, circuit courts, district courts or, in the case of New York, supreme courts; the term "superior court" raises the obvious question of superior to what. Many jurisdictions had inferior trial courts of limited jurisdiction such as municipal courts, traffic courts, justice of the peace courts, so it was natural to call the next level of courts "superior." However, some states, like California, have unified their court systems. In California, all lower courts were absorbed into the Superior Courts of California after 1998; the lower courts now exist only as mere administrative subdivisions of the superior courts.
The superior courts are no
Federal Court (Canada)
The Federal Court is a Canadian trial court that hears cases arising under certain areas of federal law. The Federal Court is a lower court with nationwide jurisdiction; the Court was created on July 2, 2003 by the Courts Administration Service Act when it and the Federal Court of Appeal were split from their predecessor, the Federal Court of Canada. The Court's authority comes from the Federal Courts Act. On October 24, 2008, the Federal Court was given its own armorial bearings by the Governor General, the third court in Canada to be given its own Coat of Arms – after the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada and Ontario Superior Court of Justice; the coat of arms features a newly created fantastical creature, the winged sea caribou, as the supporters, representing the provision of justice on air and sea. The Federal Court consists of thirty-two other judges. There are 28 full-time judges, along with four supernumerary judges, six deputy judges, six prothonotaries. Law Clerks are hired for not more than a one-year terms to help the judges research and prepare decisions.
They are assigned to a particular judge. Judges' salaries are determined annually by the Judicial Benefits Commission. Chief Justice receives $315,900; the Federal Court cannot hear any case unless a federal statute confers jurisdiction on the Court to hear cases of that type. Some examples of the sort of cases heard by the Federal Court are: judicial review of immigration decisions, judicial review of Veterans Review and Appeal Board of Canada decisions, intellectual property disputes, cases involving admiralty law, various aboriginal law matters, claims against the Queen in Right of Canada; these instances of jurisdiction may either be exclusive or concurrent with provincial superior courts, depending on the statute. The Court has the authority to judicially review the decisions made by federal boards and administrative tribunals, to resolve lawsuits by or against the federal government. Decisions of the Federal Court may be appealed to the Federal Court of Appeal; because it is a superior court of national jurisdiction, judgments are enforceable across Canada without the need for certification by the courts of a specific province.
The prothonotaries of the court by seniority are: Richard Morneau Mireille Tabib Martha Milczynski Kevin R. Aalto Mandy Aylen Kathleen Marie Ring Chief JusticeAllan Lutfy: July 3, 2003 – September 30, 2011Puisne judges Federal Court website