England and Wales
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four nations of the United Kingdom. "England and Wales" forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows a single legal system, known as English law. The devolved National Assembly for Wales was created in 1999 by the Parliament of the United Kingdom under the Government of Wales Act 1998 and provides a degree of self-government in Wales; the powers of the Assembly were expanded by the Government of Wales Act 2006, which allows it to pass its own laws, the Act formally separated the Welsh Government from the Assembly. There is no equivalent body for England, directly governed by the Parliament and the government of the United Kingdom. During the Roman occupation of Britain, the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit, with the exception of the land to the north of Hadrian's Wall – though the Roman-occupied area varied in extent, for a time extended to the Antonine/Severan Wall.
At that time, most of the native inhabitants of Roman Britain spoke Brythonic languages, were all regarded as Britons, divided into numerous tribes. After the conquest, the Romans administered this region as the province of Britain. Long after the departure of the Romans, the Britons in what became Wales developed their own system of law, first codified by Hywel Dda when he was king of most of present-day Wales. However, after the Norman invasion of Wales in the 11th century, English law came to apply in the parts of Wales conquered by the Normans. In 1283, the English, led by Edward I, with the biggest army brought together in England since the 11th century, conquered the remainder of Wales organised as the Principality of Wales; this was united with the English crown by the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284. This aimed to replace Welsh criminal law with English law. Welsh law continued to be used for civil cases until the annexation of Wales to England in the 16th century; the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 consolidated the administration of all the Welsh territories and incorporated them into the legal system of the Kingdom of England.
Prior to 1746 it was not clear whether a reference to "England" in legislation included Wales, so in 1746 Parliament passed the Wales and Berwick Act. This specified that in all prior and future laws, references to "England" would by default include Wales; the Wales and Berwick Act was repealed in 1967, although the statutory definition of "England" created by that Act still applies for laws passed before 1967. In new legislation since 1967, what was referred to as "England" is now "England and Wales", while references to "England" and "Wales" refer to those political divisions. England and Wales are treated as a single unit for some purposes, because the two form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England; the continuance of Scots law was guaranteed under the 1706 Treaty of Union that led to the Acts of Union 1707, as a consequence English law—and after 1801, Irish law—continued to be separate. Following the two Acts of Union, Parliament can restrict the effect of its laws to part of the realm, the effect of laws, where restricted, was applied to one or more of the former kingdoms.
Thus, most laws applicable to England applied to Wales. However, Parliament now passes laws applicable to Wales and not to England, a practice, rare before the middle of the 20th century. Examples are the Welsh Language Acts 1967 and 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998. Measures and Acts of the National Assembly for Wales passed since the Government of Wales Act 2006 apply in Wales but not in England. Following the Government of Wales Act, effective since May 2007, the National Assembly for Wales can legislate on matters devolved to it. Following a referendum on 3 March 2011, the Welsh Assembly gained direct law-making powers, without the need to consult Westminster; this was the first time in 500 years that Wales had its own powers to legislate. Each piece of Welsh legislation is known as an Act of the Assembly. For a company to be incorporated in the United Kingdom, its application for registration with Companies House must state "whether the company's registered office is to be situated in England and Wales, in Scotland or in Northern Ireland", which will determine the law applicable to that business entity.
A registered office must be specified as "in Wales" if the company wishes to use a name ending cyfyngedig or cyf, rather than Limited or Ltd. or to avail itself of certain other privileges relating to the official use of the Welsh language. Outside the legal system, the position is mixed; some organisations combine as "England and Wales", others are separate. In sports, cricket has a combined international team administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board, who govern the sport across both nations, whilst football, rugby union, rugby league, the Commonwealth Games and other sports have separate national representative teams for each country. A few Welsh association football clubs, most notably Cardiff City F. C. and Swansea City F. C. play in the English football league system, while The New Saints F. C. which represents places on both sides of the border, plays in the Welsh football league system. Some religious denominations organise on the basis of England and Wales, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, but small denominations, e.g. the Evangelical Presbyterian Church.
Prior to the disestablishment of the Church in Wales in 1920, the Anglican churc
The White Chamber was part of the medieval Palace of Westminster. A dining hall, the location for the Court of Requests, it was the meeting place of the House of Lords from 1801 until it was gutted by fire in 1834. Re-roofed, it was the temporary home of the House of Commons until 1851, when it was pulled down for the building of the new Palace of Westminster. Known as the Lesser Hall, the White Hall or the Greater White Chamber, it measured 120 by 34 feet, it was situated to the south of the somewhat larger Westminster Hall, with the same north-south alignment. It was built c.1167 as a dining hall, remodelled by Henry III, adjacent to his new King's Chamber to the east, perpendicular to the south end of the White Chamber. The King's Chamber was a state bedchamber, used for state ceremonies. To the south of the east end of the King's Chamber was the Queen's Chamber, an smaller chamber for his queen, Eleanor of Provence. Like the King's Chamber and the Queen's Chamber, the White Chamber was on the upper storey of the building, with cellars for the services below.
The White Chamber was repaired after a fire in 1298. The custom grew for Parliament to be convened by the King in the Painted Chamber, from c.1259 the Lords retired to the Queen's Chamber and the Commons elsewhere. Guy Fawkes was caught in the cellars below the Queen's Chamber in 1605; the White Chamber was the home of the Court of Requests until 1801. The Court of Requests was associated with the Privy Council, heard complaints and petitions to the King; the Court became known as the "Court of White Hall". The House of Lords moved from the Queen's Chamber to the White Hall in 1801, as it needed more space to accommodate Irish peers after the Act of Union with Ireland. To make room, the Court of Requests moved to the Painted Chamber; when used as the House of Lords, the King's throne was located on a dais at the south end of the White Hall, with the Lord Chancellor's woolsack and a table in front for the house's clerks and mace, surrounded by benches on three sides - for the government, the opposition, the non-partisan crossbenches.
Tapestries were hung from the walls. It was lit by semicircular windows; the vacated Queen's Chamber, the Prince's Chamber, were pulled down by Sir John Soane in 1823 to create a new Royal Gallery and Staircase. The White Chamber survived, but was gutted in the devastating fire in 1834; the fire started in the cellar below the White Chamber, where piles of unwanted tally sticks were being destroyed in two furnaces used to warm the chamber above. Many of the other principal rooms of the palace were damaged, including the Painted Chamber and St Stephen's Chapel; the Great Hall was unscathed. The Painted Chamber and White Chamber were re-roofed so the House of Lords could move temporarily to the former, the Commons to the latter; the ruins of the White Chamber were demolished in September 1851 to make way for the building of the new Palace of Westminster. Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales, 1300–1500: Volume 3, Southern England, Anthony Emery, Cambridge University Press, 2006 The Palace of Westminster, Cracroft's Peerage Meeting places of the medieval Parliament, parliament.uk Location of Parliaments in the 13th Century, parliament.uk Location of Parliaments in the middle ages, parliament.uk The House of Lords 1801-1834, parliament.uk Reconstructing the Lesser Hall: An Interim Report from the Medieval Palace of Westminster Research Project
Woodstock is a market town and civil parish 8 miles northwest of Oxford in Oxfordshire, England. The 2011 Census recorded the parish population as 3,100. Blenheim Palace, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is next to Woodstock, in the parish of Blenheim. Winston Churchill is buried in the nearby village of Bladon. Edward, elder son of King Edward III and heir apparent, prince of Aquitaine and Wales, Duke of Cornwall and Earl of Chester was born in Woodstock Manor on 15 June 1330. During his lifetime, he was called Edward of Woodstock. In the reign of Queen Mary I, her half-sister Elizabeth was imprisoned in the gatehouse of Woodstock Manor; the name Woodstock is Old English in origin, meaning a "clearing in the woods". The Domesday Book of 1086 describes Woodstock as a royal forest. Æthelred the Unready, king of England, is said to have held an assembly at Woodstock at which he issued a legal code now known as IX Æthelred. King Henry I may have kept a menagerie in the park. Woodstock was the scene of King Henry II's courtship of Rosamund Clifford.
The market of the town was established when King Henry II gave Woodstock a Royal charter in 1179. The Bear Hotel in Park Street opposite The Oxfordshire Museum dates from the 13th century. Near the village was Woodstock Palace, a residence, popular with several English kings throughout the medieval period; the building was destroyed in the English Civil War. 60 years the palace remains were cleared for the building of Blenheim Palace. From the 16th century the town prospered by making gloves. Today it is dependent on tourists, many of whom visit Blenheim Palace. In the 17th century the town was altered when the 1st Duke of Marlborough became a permanent resident; the town has a successful fine steelwork industry by 1720 and by 1742 its products were of high enough quality to be considered viable diplomatic gifts. By the end of the 18th century this had developed into Cut steel jewellery. By 1626 James Keene, who had a bell-foundry in Bedford, had started one in Woodstock; until 1640 another member of the family, Humphrey Keene, was a bell-founder with him.
James was succeeded by his son Richard. Richard Keene closed the Woodstock foundry in the 1680s but continued casting bells at Royston, Hertfordshire until 1703. Numerous parish churches still have one or more bells cast by the Keenes, including at Asthall, Cassington, Charlton-on-Otmoor, Chesterton, Duns Tew, Garsington, Kiddington, Milton, North Moreton, Rousham, Sandford St Martin, Stanton Harcourt, Steeple Aston, Steeple Barton, Stratton Audley, Tackley and Woodeaton in Oxfordshire, Stowe in Buckinghamshire, Stanton in Gloucestershire, Middleton Cheney in Northamptonshire and Martley in Worcestershire; the Palace was designed in a heavy Italo-Corinthian style. It was designated to the first Duke of Marlborough. Most of the palace was paid for by the nation. Churchill was given this palace in honour for his victories over the French and the Bavarians at the Battle of Blenheim in 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession; the greater part of the art treasures and curios were sold off in 1886, the great library collected by Charles Spencer, Earl of Sunderland, the son-in-law of the first Duke of Marlborough, in 1881.
The magnificent park contains Fair Rosamund's Well, near. On the summit of a hill stands a column commemorating the duke. Blenheim Park forms a separate parish; when Thomas Wyatt led an uprising in 1554 to depose Queen Mary I and put Princess Elizabeth on the throne in her place, Elizabeth was imprisoned in a lodge in Woodstock as a precaution. The lodge was used because the now lost Woodstock Palace or manor house was too dilapidated to house her. A survey in 1551 reported that "the mansion... for many years past hath been decayed." While imprisoned, Elizabeth wrote a poem. "Much suspected by me, None proved can be." She was released in April 1555 after nearly a year in captivity. The River Glyme, in a steep valley, divides the town into Old Woodstock; the town has two main suburbs: Hensington to the south and east of the town centre, Old Woodstock to the north. The town hall of Woodstock was built in 1766 to designs by Sir William Chambers, there are a number of 17th-century buildings in the town centre.
The almshouses were built in 1798 on behalf of duchess of Marlborough. Chaucer's House was once home to Chancellor of England, Thomas Chaucer, thought to be the son of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer; the Church of England parish church of St Mary Magdalene has a Norman doorway. The church has a turret clock that John Briant of Hertford made in 1792; the parish is now part of the Benefice of Blenheim, which includes Begbroke, Shipton-on-Cherwell and Yarnton. The Oxfordshire Museum, the county museum of Oxfordshire, occupies a large historic house, Fletcher's House, in the centre of Woodstock; the museum has a garden containing works of art and a Dinosaur Garden with a full-size replica of a Megalosaurus. Both the primary school and The Marlborough School, the secondary school, are in Shipton Road. There is nursery provision through WUFA. Oxford School of Drama is in the north of Woodstock parish. Woodstock has a Non-League football club Old Woodstock Town who play at Eynsham Hall Sports Ground, was promoted to the Hellenic Football League Premier Division for the 2008–09 season.
Aston, Michael. The Landscape of Towns. Archaeology in the Field Series. London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd. pp. 94, 165, 171. ISBN 0-460-04194-0. Ballard, Adolphus. Chronicles of the royal borough of Woods
Julius Caesar (judge)
Sir Julius Caesar was an English lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1589 and 1622. He was known as Julius Adelmare. Caesar was born near Tottenham in Middlesex, the son of Cesare Adelmare, from Treviso and his wife Margery Perient or Pirry. Cesare Adelmare, like many of his ancestors, studied at the University of Padua, where he was made doctor in 1547, he was registered as a doctor in his native Treviso in 1542. In England in 1544 he was found to be working unlicensed and licensed, he was naturalised in 1558, was a physician to Queens Mary I and Elizabeth I. Cesare's father Pietro Maria Adelmare was a graduate of Padua, was a judge and ambassador for Treviso, his mother, Paola Cesarini, was said to be descended from the well-known Cesarini family of Rome. Julius was baptised in the Church of St. Dunstan's-in-the-East in February 1558, his sponsors being the Lord Treasurer, William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester. After his father's death, his mother married, as Michael Lok.
He was educated at Winchester College and matriculated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, on 10 January 1575, aged 16, was awarded BA on 17 May 1575 and MA on 18 February 1578. He studied at the University of Paris, where he was made LLB and LLD on 22 April 1581. Caesar was noted for his persistent striving for advancement and for financial reward in the time of Queen Elizabeth, he was a general commissioner on piracy in October 1581. In 1583 he was counsel to City of London and commissary of his friend John Aylmer, the Bishop of London in Middlesex and Essex. On 5 March 1584 he was awarded a law degree at Oxford, became doctor of canon law. In 1584, he was appointed Judge of the High Court of Admiralty until 1605, was an advocate of Doctors' Commons in 1586. In 1588 he became a master in chancery, he was elected MP for Reigate in 1589. He became Bencher of the Inner Temple in 1590 and was Master of Requests Extraordinary of Court of Requests in 1591, he became JP from 1592 and was governor of mineral and battery works in 1593.
In 1593 he was elected MP for Bletchingley. He was treasurer of the Inner Temple in 1593, he became Master of Requests Ordinary of Court of Requests in 1595 and Master of St Katherine's Hospital in 1596. In 1597 he was elected MP for Windsor and was re-elected MP for Windsor in 1601. Queen Elizabeth, on her way to Nonsuch Palace, paid him a visit at his house at Mitcham on 12 September 1598, she spent the night of the 12th there, dined with him the next day. In the reign of King James, Caesar acquired extensive property in Hertfordshire, achieved greater influence and political importance, he was knighted at Greenwich by King James in May 1603. He became ecclesiastical commissioner for the Province of Canterbury in 1603. In 1606 he was elected MP for Middlesex, he was Chancellor and Under Treasurer of the Exchequer from 1606 to 1614. In 1607 he was appointed to the Privy Council. In 1614 he was appointed Master of the Rolls, an office which he held till his death in 1636, he was re-elected MP for Middlesex in 1614.
In 1621 he was elected MP for Maldon. He was commissioner to inquire into operation of the poor law from 1631 to 1633. Caesar was buried at Great St. Helen's, Bishopsgate. Caesar was a remarkable civil servant and left many volumes of papers relating to his official work, others relating to the mint, of which his first father-in-law was master, he worked on the history of the Exchequer, presented to Burghley a history of the Court of Requests "to defend it against the slights of the common lawyers". In 1625 he wrote a treatise on the constitution and functions of the privy council, entitled Concerning the Private Council of the Most High and Mighty King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, his manuscripts, many of which are now in the British Museum, were sold by auction in 1757 for a sum of around £500. Caesar married three times, he married firstly Dorcas Lusher, widow of Richard Lusher of the Middle Temple and daughter of Sir Richard Martin, master of the mint and Lord Mayor of London, with whom he had four sons and a daughter.
He married secondly on 10 April 1596 Alice Dent, widow of John Dent, merchant of London, daughter of Christopher Green of Manchester, with whom he had three more sons. He married thirdly Anne Hogan, widow of Henry Hogan of East Bradenham and daughter of Henry Woodhouse of Waxham, Norfolk on 19 April 1615, his third wife was the granddaughter of Nicholas Bacon. Francis Bacon, his wife's uncle, died in his arms, his son named Julius Caesar, was sent to study at the University of Padua. He was wounded while sought revenge, he lay in wait for him with a pistol. He fell while attempting to draw his sword and was set upon by Brochetta who ran him through and killed him, his son Sir Charles Caesar was a member of Parliament, as well as Master of the Rolls from 1639 to 1642, which he purchased for £15,000 and a £2,000 loan. His son Sir John Caesar of Hyde Hall, Hertfordshire, a country gentleman, was knighted in Scotland on 20 June 1617, his son Thomas Caesar D. D. was rector of Llanrhuddlad Anglesey, Wales of whom a memorial graces the chancel of Beaumaris parish church, Anglesey.
His son Robert Caesar was one of the Six Clerks of a member of Parliament. Hill, La
James VI and I
James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, positioning him to accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died childless, he continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58.
After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, styled himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonisation of the Americas began. At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors, he achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English Parliament. Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture. James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie, The True Law of Free Monarchies, Basilikon Doron, he sponsored the translation of the Bible into English that would be named after him: the Authorised King James Version.
Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character since. Since the latter half of the 20th century, historians have tended to revise James's reputation and treat him as a serious and thoughtful monarch, he was committed to a peace policy, tried to avoid involvement in religious wars the Thirty Years' War that devastated much of Central Europe. He tried but failed to prevent the rise of hawkish elements in the English Parliament who wanted war with Spain. James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, the older sister of Henry VIII. Mary's rule over Scotland was insecure, she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen. During Mary's and Darnley's difficult marriage, Darnley secretly allied himself with the rebels and conspired in the murder of the Queen's private secretary, David Rizzio, just three months before James's birth.
James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He was baptised "Charles James" or "James Charles" on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle, his godparents were Charles IX of France, Elizabeth I of England, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. Mary refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as "a pocky priest", spit in the child's mouth, as was the custom; the subsequent entertainment, devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez, featured men dressed as satyrs and sporting tails, to which the English guests took offence, thinking the satyrs "done against them". James's father, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh in revenge for the killing of Rizzio. James inherited his father's titles of Duke of Earl of Ross. Mary was unpopular, her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, suspected of murdering Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her.
In June 1567, Protestant rebels imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle. She was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent; the care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to be conserved and upbrought" in the security of Stirling Castle. James was anointed King of Scots at the age of thirteen months at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, by Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, on 29 July 1567; the sermon at the coronation was preached by John Knox. In accordance with the religious beliefs of most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland, the Kirk; the Privy Council selected George Buchanan, Peter Young, Adam Erskine, David Erskine as James's preceptors or tutors. As the young king's senior tutor, Buchanan subjected James to regular beatings but instilled in him a lifelong passion for literature and learning. Buchanan sought to turn James into a God-fearing, Protestant king who accepted the limitations of monarchy, as outlined in his treatise De Jure Regni apud Scotos.
In 1568, Mary escaped from her i
City of London
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders; the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, it is a separate county of England, being an enclave surrounded by Greater London. It is the smallest county in the United Kingdom; the City of London is referred to as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile, as it is 1.12 sq mi in area. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being based in the City; the name London is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City.
London most denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs, in addition to the City of London itself. This wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888; the local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council, such as being the police authority. It is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries; the Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, an office separate from the Mayor of London. The Lord Mayor, as of November 2018, is Peter Estlin; the City is a major business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the world's primary business centre, it continues to be a major meeting point for businesses. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008; the insurance industry is focused around Lloyd's building. A secondary financial district exists at Canary Wharf, 2.5 miles to the east.
The City work there. About three quarters of the jobs in the City of London are in the financial and associated business services sectors; the legal profession forms a major component of the northern and western sides of the City in the Temple and Chancery Lane areas where the Inns of Court are located, of which two—Inner Temple and Middle Temple—fall within the City of London boundary. Known as "Londinium", the Roman legions established a settlement on the current site of the City of London around 43 AD, its bridge over the River Thames turned the city into a road nexus and major port, serving as a major commercial centre in Roman Britain until its abandonment during the 5th century. Archaeologist Leslie Wallace notes that, because extensive archaeological excavation has not revealed any signs of a significant pre-Roman presence, "arguments for a purely Roman foundation of London are now common and uncontroversial."At its height, the Roman city had a population of 45,000–60,000 inhabitants.
Londinium was an ethnically diverse city, with inhabitants from across the Roman Empire, including natives of Britannia, continental Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. The Romans built the London Wall some time between 190 and 225 AD; the boundaries of the Roman city were similar to those of the City of London today, though the City extends further west than Londonium's Ludgate, the Thames was undredged and thus wider than it is today, with Londonium's shoreline north of the City's present shoreline. The Romans built a bridge across the river, as early as 50 AD, near to today's London Bridge. By the time the London Wall was constructed, the City's fortunes were in decline, it faced problems of plague and fire; the Roman Empire entered a long period of instability and decline, including the Carausian Revolt in Britain. In the 3rd and 4th centuries, the city was under attack from Picts and Saxon raiders; the decline continued, both for Londinium and the Empire, in 410 AD the Romans withdrew from Britain.
Many of the Roman public buildings in Londinium by this time had fallen into decay and disuse, after the formal withdrawal the city became uninhabited. The centre of trade and population moved away from the walled Londinium to Lundenwic, a settlement to the west in the modern day Strand/Aldwych/Covent Garden area. During the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, the London area came in turn under the Kingdoms of Essex and Wessex, though from the mid 8th century it was under the control or threat of the Vikings. Bede records that in 604 AD St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop, it is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the medieval and the present cathedrals. Alfred the Great, King of Wessex and arguably the first king of the "English", occupied and began the resettlement of the old Roman walled area, in 886, appointed his son-in-law Earl Æthelred of Mercia over it as part of their reconquest of the Viking occupied parts of Englan
Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords; the Privy Council formally advises the sovereign on the exercise of the Royal Prerogative, corporately it issues executive instruments known as Orders in Council, which among other powers enact Acts of Parliament. The Council holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council used to regulate certain public institutions; the Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, city or borough status to local authorities. Otherwise, the Privy Council's powers have now been replaced by its executive committee, the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Certain judicial functions are performed by the Queen-in-Council, although in practice its actual work of hearing and deciding upon cases is carried out day-to-day by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The Judicial Committee consists of senior judges appointed as Privy Counsellors: predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and senior judges from the Commonwealth. The Privy Council acted as the High Court of Appeal for the entire British Empire, continues to hear appeals from the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories, some independent Commonwealth states; the Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland and the Privy Council of England. The key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below: In Anglo-Saxon England, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England. During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a royal court or curia regis, which consisted of magnates and high officials; the body concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation and justice. Different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court; the courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, while Parliament became the supreme legislature of the kingdom.
The Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, rather than on the advice of Parliament, were accepted as valid. Powerful sovereigns used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. For example, a committee of the Council—which became the Court of the Star Chamber—was during the 15th century permitted to inflict any punishment except death, without being bound by normal court procedure. During Henry VIII's reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation; the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIII's death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became a administrative body; the Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, which evolved into the modern Cabinet. By the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, Privy Council had been abolished.
The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws and to direct administrative policy. The forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons. In 1653, Cromwell became Lord Protector, the Council was reduced to between thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs; the Council became known as the Protector's Privy Council. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protector's Council was abolished. Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I more power transferred to this committee, it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact. Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the definition of the word privy in Privy Council is an obsolete meaning "of or pertaining to a particular person or persons, one's own". It is related to the word private, derives from the French word privé; the sovereign, when acting on the Council's advice, is known as the King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council. The members of the Council are collectively known as The Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council; the chief officer of the body is the Lord President of the Council, the fourth highest Great Officer of State, a Cabinet member and either the Leader of the House of Lords or of the House of Commons. Another important official is the Clerk, whose signature is appended to all orders made in the Council. Both Privy Counsellor and Privy Councillor may be used to refer to a member of the Council; the former, however, is preferred by the Privy Council Office, emphasising English usage of the term Counsellor a