click links in text for more info


Coventina was a Romano-British goddess of wells and springs. She is known from multiple inscriptions at one site in Northumberland county of England, an area surrounding a wellspring near Carrawburgh on Hadrian's Wall, it is possible that other inscriptions, two from Hispania and one from Narbonensis, refer to Coventina, but this is disputed. Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, built to contain the outflow from a spring now called "Coventina's Well"; the well and the walled area surrounding it are nearby the site variously referred to as Procolita, Brocolitia, or Brocolita, once a Roman fort and settlement on Hadrian's Wall, now known as Carrawburgh. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum are found near the site; the well itself was a spring in a rectangular basin 2.6m x 2.4m in the centre of a walled enclosure 11.6m x 12.2m within a wall 0.9m thick. The contents of the well included 13487 coins from Mark Anthony to Gratian, a relief of three water nymphs, the head of a male statue, two dedication slabs to the goddess Coventina, ten altars to Coventina and Minerva, two clay incense burners, a wide range of votive objects.

The site near Coventina's Well was excavated by British archaeologist, John Clayton, in 1876. The date of the wall at Coventina's Well is uncertain, but some have theorized that it was built sometime after the completion of the Roman fort. Since Hadrian's Wall does not deviate to avoid the well, this may suggest that the boundary wall around the well was built some time after in order to control the flow of water in a marshy area. Evidence from coin hoards and stones which covered them and those blocking the well suggest a abrupt end around 388 due to events linked to anti-Pagan edicts of Theodosius I. Excavation of the site revealed several inscribed altars, some with depictions of Coventina in typical Roman nymph form - reclining clothed and associated with water. On one, Coventina is either depicted with two attendants. At least ten inscriptions to Coventina are recorded from Carrawburgh. Several stone altars contained dedications to Coventina. An example of an inscription from the site reads: Deae Coventinae / T D Cosconia / nvs Pr Coh / I Bat L M“To the Goddess Coventina, Titus D Cosconianus, Prefectus of the First Cohort of Batavians and deservedly.”

Three altars dedicated to Mithras were placed there by the Prefects of the military garrison. In his book The Skystone, Jack Whyte represents Coventina as the inspiration for The Lady of the Lake. Seamus Heaney's poem "Grotus and Conventina" from his 1987 collection'The Haw Lantern'. has historical, folkloric and literary resources for Coventina, plus photographs of the archaeological site and the artifacts found there. Includes directions to the site and associated museum. Brocolita at

Church of Our Father (Atlanta)

Church of Our Father was the first Unitarian church established in Atlanta, Georgia. The church was organized on March 1883, by Rev. George Leonard Chaney, a Boston minister. Rev. Chaney held Sunday services in the Senate Chamber, Concordia Hall and the United States Courtroom. A church building was constructed at the corner of North Forsyth and Church Street and dedicated on April 23, 1884; the original building was demolished in 1900. The church continued to serve Atlanta's liberal religious community for more than six decades. During that time the church name was changed several times. In 1918, Atlanta's Unitarians merged with the city's Universalist congregation; the combined congregation collapsed in 1951. From its founding in 1825, the southern church expansion of the Boston-based American Unitarian Association was hampered by the liberal Unitarian theology perceived in the south as religious heresy and the AUA’S adoption in 1837 of abolition advocacy. Prior to the Civil War, Unitarian churches were operating in Virginia.

By the end of the Civil War, only the churches in Louisville and New Orleans were active. For years after the war, the AUA made no effort to expand its southern churches; this non-engagement policy was reversed at the January 10, 1881 meeting of the directors of the AUA. The directors authorized Rev. John Heywood to conduct a tour of general missionary work in the south and requested that Rev. Enoch Powell perform missionary work in Atlanta. Six months after Rev. Powell's initial Atlanta trip, the AUA directors allocated $1,000 for Atlanta missionary work and requested that Rev. Chaney lead that effort. Years Rev. Chaney noted, “They had sent a young minister to spy out the land, who promptly returned with the tidings of ‘nothing doing’ or to be done in Atlanta. I was a member of the Executive Board of the Association and zealous in sending other ministers into the field. So, for shame, when I was asked to go myself, I could not refuse.” The resumption of missionary work in Atlanta coincided with the city’s recovery from the Civil War.

By the 1880’s Atlanta was experiencing a building boom and the 1881 International Cotton Exposition brought favorable national attention to the city. More to the Unitarian southern expansion effort, the idea of the exposition originated with a Bostonian Unitarian, Edward Atkinson. Atkinson subsequently served on the exposition’s executive committee with Georgia Governor Colquitt and prominent citizens of the city. If not directly influencing the timing of the AUA’s action, the relationships established by Atkinson were leveraged by the AUA directors in their Atlanta expansion strategy. Upon the arrival of Rev. Powell in Atlanta in January 1881, the city newspaper reported that Unitarian services would be held in that state’s senate chambers “by the courtesy of Governor Colquitt." In February 1882 when Rev. Chaney arrived in Atlanta, The Atlanta Constitution newspaper included in his biographical background that Rev. Chaney “has labored for the cause of industrial education with Mr. Edward Atkinson, of Boston.”

In March 1883 one year after Rev. Chaney first arrived in Atlanta, he announced “that the time had come for giving organized form to the interest we felt on the establishment of a new church in Atlanta." A church covenant and constitution were adopted and a committee appointed to identify property on which a new church building could be built. A month in April 1883, the committee reported that a lot had been secured with funds provided by the AUA. A church building was soon erected on the corner of Forsyth and Church Streets and dedicated on the evening of April 23, 1884; the church remained at this location until 1899 when the church property was sold to the Carnegie Library Trustees for the construction of Atlanta's first public library. A new church building was constructed nearby at the corner of Spring and Forsyth Streets and dedicated in January 1900. A proposal to rename the church to the "First Unitarian Church of Atlanta" was offered during the January 1901 church annual meeting but was voted down.

The timing of the initiative to change the church's name may have been influenced by the dedication a year earlier of the new First Universalist Church of Atlanta building on East Harris Street. The two denominations shared liberal faith principles and had a sense of common bond in the otherwise orthodox faith environment in Atlanta. Three years another effort was made to rename the church. On April 17, 1904 members were asked to vote on two names. Both names failed to achieve the required two-thirds majority. However, after a request by one member to change his ballot, the vote to change the name to the First Unitarian Church of Atlanta carried by that single vote; the Unitarians sold their second church building and built their third church on West Peachtree Street in 1915. This new church building located between Third Avenue and Kimball Street included a set of stained glass windows known as the Founders’ Windows; the name was derived from an inscription on the windows reading “In Honor of George Leonard Chaney - Caroline Isabel Chaney”.

Rev. Chaney and his wife Isabel were both present as the hymn of dedication was sung by the pastor, Rev. Joseph Wade Conkling. Three years Atlanta's Universalists joined their fellow liberal colleagues in this church building in what was described as a temporary merger for the duration of World War I; this merger of local Atlanta Unitarians and Universalists appears to have been influenced by a December 1917 reco

Pleinfeld station

Pleinfeld station is at a railway junction on the Nuremberg–Augsburg railway in the market town of Pleinfeld in the German state of Bavaria. It has five platform tracks; the Gunzenhausen–Pleinfeld railway, now a secondary line, was built as part of the Ludwig South-North Railway, which reached Pleinfeld in 1849, 20 years before the line from Treuchtlingen, which forms part of the modern main line. The law authorising the construction of the Ludwig South-North Railway was adopted on 25 August 1843; the Bavarian King Ludwig I's decision that the line would run from Donauwörth via Nördlingen and Gunzenhausen to Nuremberg was proclaimed on 7 October. The Bavarian government confirmed this decision on 21 February 1844; the first land was acquired in the Pleinfeld area on 23 September 1845. A contact was awarded for the production of “objects” for Pleinfeld station on 28 February 1849 and the track plan for the station was approved by the Royal Railways Commission in Munich on 22 March 1849; the opening of the Gunzenhausen–Pleinfeld–Schwabach line took place on 1 October 1849, closing the gap between Munich and Nuremberg.

The councils of the towns of Ellingen, Weißenburg and Pleinfeld applied on 7 April 1861 for the establishment of a two-track line from Pleinfeld to Weißenburg. On 17 May 1861, the Directorate General of the Royal Transport Institute in Nuremberg, requested the extension of the line so that logs unusually large logs could be loaded; this request was reiterated on 16 July 1866. The land required for the construction of the line between Treuchtlingen and Pleinfeld was determined on 19 March 1867 and the acquisition of land for the expansion of the station was approved on 12 September 1868; the line was opened on 2 October 1869. The enlarged station was handed over for operation on 5 June 1873. After the extension of the tracks, there was a new main station building, a freight hall, a watering point, two public toilets, roundhouse I in the old warehouse, roundhouse II, a rail service residential building in the old station building, two signalman's houses, water cranes, a weighbridge and a turntable.

When planning started in 1875 for new lines in Bavaria, two possible routes, Pleinfeld–Kelheim via Heideck, Greding and Dietfurt and Pleinfeld–Schwandorf via Hilpoltstein and Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz were identified. The municipalities of Pleinfeld and Georgensgmünd both argued that these lines should connect in their town. On 9 April 1904, Pleinfeld petitioned for the building of a marshalling yard, because it wanted to be a node for the operations of local freight traffic following the construction of the Donauwörth–Treuchtlingen line. For operational reasons and Donauwörth were selected for this role; this new line was opened on 1 October 1906. Pleinfeld requested electric power for lighting from the railway-owned power company on 7 February 1908; this was followed by an electricity supply contract on 22 March 1910. The first sketches for the reconstruction of station emerged in 1911; the railway's management agreed on 23 July 1933 to improvements to the station and the line. An electro-mechanical interlocking of class VES was put into operation on 25 August 1933 and the electrification of the line was completed in 1935.

Towards the end of the Second World War the entire overhead wiring in the station area was destroyed by U. S. strafing on 5 March 1945. Rail operation with electric rolling stock, was maintained; the trains continued under their own momentum and were assisted by a steam locomotive back to the electrified section of track. Following the bombardment of a munitions train, ten freight wagons exploded in April 1945. Operations on the line to Gunzenhausen were restored on 13 June 1945. From 5 November 1957 communications on the line between signalmen changed from telegraph to telephone; the first battery electric multiple unit of class ETA 150 ran from Pleinfeld to Nördlingen on 20 March 1959. In 1972, the freight office was closed. In 1975/76 the old station building was closed and the station building and the platform underpass were rebuilt and the station tracks were rebuilt. A new track plan interlocking of class Sp Dr S60 was put into operation on 31 July 1979; this interlocking was remotely controlled from Georgensgmünd station from 15 February 1982 and it was controlled from Weißenburg station from 1 June 1987.

The ticket office was opened only once a month for the sale of monthly passes from 31 May 1982 and it was closed in 1986 with the installation of ticket machines. The delivery of wagon-load freight ended in the summer of 1999. Since the inauguration of the line S 3 of the Nuremberg S-Bahn between Nuremberg and Roth on 9 June 2001, Pleinfeld has only been served to and from Nuremberg by the Nuremberg–Treuchtlingen Regional-Express service, which takes only 33 or 36 minutes to reach Nuremberg; the electrification of track 6 was removed and the track was dismantled during the renewal of overhead lines in 2006. Pleinfeld station has five tracks on three platforms. Track 1 is the “home” platform, is no longer used for scheduled passenger services. Regional trains to Nuremberg stop on track 2 and regional trains to Treuchtlingen stop on track 3. Track 4 is used by Regionalbahn services to and from Gunzenhausen, while track 5 is no longer used for scheduled passenger services; the two island platforms are connected by an underpass to the “home” platform.

The platforms are not covered and there is no destination displays. The station has no barrier-free facilities for the disabled. Platform lengths and heights are as follows: Track 1: length 309 m, height 38 cm Track 2: length 309 m, height 38 cm Track 3: len

Church of St. Peter and St. Paul (Montreuil, Seine-Saint-Denis)

The church of St. Peter and St. Paul, formally the church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul du Haut-Montreuil, is a Roman Catholic church in Montreuil, Seine-Saint-Denis, France, it was the parish church of the royal Château de Vincennes. The church is located at the crossing of Boulevard Henri-Barbusse, Rue Franklin and Rue de l'Église in the commune of Montreuil just east of Paris; the chevet is located at Rue de Romainville. The parish of Montreuil was already formed in the Merovingian period as shown by the presence of a small monastery on a hill that overlooked Vincennes; the city of Montreuil derives its name from the Latin word monasteriolum. In the 8th century, a royal decree testified the presence of a church on the site on the feast day of Sts. Peter and Paul; the current building replaced an earlier Romanesque church. The oldest part of the building is the choir from the late early 13th centuries, it is similar to the choir of Notre-Dame de Paris. St. Peter and St. Paul was the parish church of the royal Château de Vincennes and was therefore attended and maintained by members of the French royal family between the 13th and the 16th centuries, which enabled the residents of Montreuil to pay fewer taxes.

The church drew the royal family for Sunday and Easter services. At this time, Louis IX and his mother Blanche of Castile attended religious services there. King Charles V and his future spouse Joanna of Bourbon were baptised together at St. Peter and St. Paul in 1375. In the 16th century, the royal family moved to the Palace of Fontainebleau and the Château de Saint-Germain and no longer attended the church of Montreuil regularly. However, it made donations for St. Peter and St. Paul until Notre-Dame de la Pissote became a parish church in Vincennes in the mid-17th century; the central part of the façade was built in the 14th century, while the façade of an aisle was erected in the 15th century. The bell tower was built in the 14th and 15th centuries, with an interruption during the Hundred Years War; the great nave and the first three bays date back to the 15th century, while the side aisles with the baptismal font were added in the 18th century. In the 19th century, the bell tower was restored after its spire was destroyed by lightning in 1808.

The church was completed in the 19th century with the construction of the chapel of Sainte-Geneviève. St. Peter and St. Paul was listed as a Class Historic Monument in 1913. By the end of the 20th-century and the early 21st-century, the church was deteriorated; the ceiling collapsed several times and the keystone of the nave broke away in 1986, which caused the church to be closed by 1993. After further restoration works that cost nearly €1,9 million, the renovated choir was inaugurated on March 10, 2007; the church has a rectangular base, with no transept. The triforium is characteristic of the early 13th-century Gothic style, its arch frames three ribs in each bay. Around 1980, tombs were excavated in front of the façade of the church. Numerous small stakes reinforce the foundations of the church; the chevet wall is adorned with two wooden statues of Saints Peter and Paul topped by four bas-reliefs showing the Four Evangelists. A brass cross made by Jacques Dieudonné stands in the center. Louis IX and his mother Blanche of Castile attended several services in the church Charles V and his future spouse Joanna of Bourbon were baptised there together in 1375 Martin Prévost, settler of New France, was baptised at St. Peter and St. Paul on 4 January 1611 "Église Saint-Pierre-Saint-Paul".

Atlas de l'architecture et du patrimoine. Retrieved November 16, 2019

The Spirit of Notre Dame

The Spirit of Notre Dame is a 1931 American drama film directed by Russell Mack, written by Walter DeLeon, Robert Keith, Richard Schayer and Dale Van Every, starring Lew Ayres, Sally Blane, William Bakewell, Andy Devine, Harry Barris and J. Farrell MacDonald, it was released on October 1931, by Universal Pictures. Lew Ayres as Bucky O'Brien Sally Blane as Peggy William Bakewell as Jim Stewart Andy Devine as Truck McCall Harry Barris as Wasp J. Farrell MacDonald as Coach Frank Carideo as himself Don Miller, Elmer Layden, Jim Crowley, Harry Stuhldreher as the Four Horsemen Nat Pendleton as assistant coach Adam Walsh as himself Bucky O'Connor as himself John Law as himself Moon Mullins as himself Art McManmon as himself Al Howard as himself John B. O'Brien as himself The Spirit of Notre Dame on IMDb


Drayage is the transport of goods over a short distance in the shipping and logistics industries. Drayage is part of a longer overall move, such as from a ship to a warehouse; some research defines it as "a truck pickup from or delivery to a seaport, border point, inland port, or intermodal terminal with both the trip origin and destination in the same urban area". Port drayage is the term used when describing short hauls from ports and other areas to nearby locations. Drayage is a key aspect of the transfer of shipments to and from other means of transportation; the term drayage is used for the fee paid for such services. The term meant "to transport by a sideless cart", or dray; such carts, pulled by dray horses, were used to move goods short distances, limited by the physical limitations of a dray horse. Dray activities occurred at marine ports, spreading to canal and rail terminals. Over time, the dray horse was replaced by the delivery truck; the study of drayage is a new area, as recent events have elevated the prominence of the dray industry.

Economically, NAFTA and the growth of globalized trade have increased imports and exports that are shipped in marine International Organization for Standardization containers. Furthermore, the rise in fuel costs have limited the options for cost-cutting along the supply chain. Although drayage is a small component of the supply chain, its cost and potential problems can be disproportionately high. Various interest groups began realizing the influence of drayage. For example, environmentalists sought to reduce harbor trucking pollution by regulating dray activities. Shocked by the spike in fuel prices, businesses became more aware of the costs of port congestion and regulations concerning driver hours of service. Public safety advocates worried that dray trucks, which use city streets during normal working hours, were "under-regulated and a risk to commuters". Lastly, organized labor was concerned about the bargaining power of the trucking industry, as dray drivers were purported to be "low bid carriers".

In intermodal freight transport, drayage is the transport of containerized cargo by specialized trucking companies between ocean ports or rail ramps and shipping docks. Once the cargo is loaded into a container, it isn’t touched again until it reaches its destination