In philately, the term cover pertains to the outside of an envelope or package with an address with postage stamps that have been cancelled and is a term used among stamp and postal history collectors. The term does not include the contents of the letter or package, although they may add interest to the item if still present. Cover collecting plays an important role in postal history as many covers bear stamps and other markings along with names and addresses all of which help to place a cover at a given time and place in history; the term originates from the practice of covering a letter by folding a separate sheet about it to physically protect it and prevent infringement of confidentiality. In the first half of the 19th century it became the fashion to cut the cover into a diamond or lozenge shape; this was the precursor of the version of the envelope known today. Its convenience and popularity led to the lozenge design being adopted for the special pre-paid postage envelopes and covers issued in 1840 after postal reforms were introduced by Rowland Hill and others.
A philatelic cover is an envelope or post card prepared with a stamp and address and sent through the mail delivery system for the purpose of creating a collectible item. There are several different basic categories for covers. Names for cover types is terminology used by collectors of stamps and postal history. There exist a wide variety of covers; the categories begin with the most common types of collectible covers, such as first day covers or first flight covers. Sometimes there will be an area of overlap in the subject of categories. For example, there are First day covers that were sent with mail aboard airplanes on First flight mail runs. Event covers can include, First flights, or other types of covers. A military cover sent to a head of state can be referred to as a Historic cover. A first day cover is an envelope with a postage stamp canceled on its first day of issue; the design or theme of the stamp may be printed on the cover to enhance its appeal to the philatelic community. An event cover notes an anniversary.
Stamp on cover. This is a cover, collected as an example of a given stamp postally used on a cover, however older stamps with recent cancellations are philatelic. A pre-stamped cover is a cover that has an imprinted stamp. First flight covers are those carried on an aircraft authorized by a government or postal administration, for the first time on a particular route. A stampless cover is an envelope or folded outer sheet bearing an address and manuscript or ink-stamped postal markings without prepaid adhesive postage stamps from the period before adhesive postage stamps became available or common in the mid-to-late 19th Century. Military covers can include a wide variety of subjects that may include first flight covers, prisoner of war covers. Mail sent from an Army Post Office or a Navy Post Office are common types of military covers. Railroad covers is mail, processed aboard special rail cars outfitted with an official post office where mail is processed en route to its general destination.
Historical covers are those that have special historical significance above and beyond that of the average collectible cover. These can include mail sent by Presidents or other heads of state. If the historical cover is i.e. to or from a General in an Army the cover can be classified as a military cover. Names for cover categories are used as general reference in philately. If aspects of a cover are referenced in a historical capacity the category of the cover may not be mentioned. Other specialty types of covers include Censored covers along with Blockade mail, Pony Express covers, Prisoner of war covers and Patriotic covers, among others; the availability of the different types of covers varies and is something that adds perspective to the historical and philatelic significance of the cover. For example, First Day covers and First Flight covers are common because the events that inspired the creation of these covers were somewhat common. In other examples, various types of military and historical covers are scarce or rare because the circumstances or events that prompted the creation of these covers were conversely uncommon.
While covers sent in recent decades tend to be common, they can prove to be scarce because the circumstance that created these covers were uncommon, as are the various examples of historical covers i.e. sent by a head of state to another prominent individual. At the same time there exist covers that are quite old but are still common and not difficult to find, as are various types of post cards or commercial covers. Patriot covers are common because the practice of sending these was popular during periods of war. Patriotic cover availability here can vary depending on the country and time period in question. Covers collected for the stamp on cover can vary in availability and depends on the availability of the stamp issue itself along with the demand for the use of a particular denomination; the denomination of a stamp determines the availability of the issue on cover as the use of some higher, denominations was uncommon because of the low demand for a particular postage rate. There are a number of circumstances that can affect the availability of a given cover type and which contribute to a cover's historical and philatelic value.
Airmail Civil War covers Crash cover Disinfected mail Philatelic cover Pris
A lid known as a cover, is part of a container, serves as the closure or seal one that closes the object. Lids can be placed on small containers such as tubs as well as larger lids for open-head pails and drums; some lids have a security strip or a tamper-evident band to hold the lid on securely until opening is desired or authorized. These are irreversible to indicate that the container has been opened. Lids have been found on pottery dating back as far as 3100 BC. Ancient Egyptian canopic jars with lids held the organs of mummified bodies as early as 2686 BC; the coffee lid market is valued at $180 million. An estimated 14 billion lids were sold in 2009 in the United States; some containers such as tubs or jars now have a plastic film heat sealed onto the container: this is called a lidding film. Collecting lids is a worldwide spread hobby. Due to the advertising nature, there are many unique designs for lids; the aesthetic value of lids makes them desirable for collectors. The word is used metaphorically, as in "keeping the lid on the secret" and "flipped his lid".
Other meanings or usages include: A well-known myth concerns Pandora opening the lid of a box and unleashing terrible evils into the world. An old saying that you never have to put a lid on a bucket of crabs is used as a metaphor for group situations where an individual feels held back by others. An old Yiddish saying, that "every pot will find its lid" refers to people finding an appropriate match in marriage; the term "lid" is used slang as a synonym for an ounce of herbal cannabis. Lids are referred to in the Book of Numbers. Comedians Fry and Laurie performed a song called "Where is the Lid?". The rock band Nazareth performed a song called'Lift the Lid'. Closure Soroka, W, "Fundamentals of Packaging Technology", IoPP, 2002, ISBN 1-930268-25-4 Yam, K. L. "Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6
Franklin Edward Cover was an American actor best known for starring in the sitcom The Jeffersons. His character, Tom Willis, was half of one of the first interracial marriages to be seen on prime-time television. Cover was born on November 1928 in Cleveland, Ohio, to Britta and Franklin Held Cover, he graduated from John Marshall High School in 1947. Cover graduated from Denison University in 1951, he received his MA in Theater in 1954 and MFA in Theater in 1955 both from Case Western Reserve University, his career started on the stage acting in Part 1 and Hamlet. He appeared in Forty Carats with Julie Harris, he made his television debut on Naked City and appeared on The Jackie Gleason Show. In 1965, he married Mary Bradford Stone, his first starring role was on The Jeffersons as Tom Willis, married to a black woman, played by Roxie Roker. The couple lived in the same high-rise apartment building as the sitcom's title characters. Cover would be the foil to Sherman Hemsley's black businessman, George Jefferson.
The sitcom ran from 1975 to 1985. He appeared in The Stepford Wives in 1975, played Hubert Humphrey in the 1982 TV movie A Woman Called Golda. Following the end of The Jeffersons, Cover continued to make guest appearances on television shows as well as appearing in a supporting role in Wall Street. In 1994, he appeared in the second episode of ER, his final television appearance was in an episode of Will & Grace that aired on May 13, 1999. Cover died at the Lillian Booth Actors Home in Englewood, New Jersey, on February 5, 2006, he had been living at the home since December 2005 while recovering from a heart condition, died of pneumonia. He was survived by his wife, his son, Bradford Cover, an actor who lives in New York City, has appeared on Law and Order and Off Broadway, is a company member at The Pearl Theatre Company. His daughter Susan is the founder of Susie's Supper Club, a home delivery food service that catered to parents and children in New York. Mirage - Group Leader What's So Bad About Feeling Good?
- Medical Expert The Great Gatsby - Senator Evans The Stepford Wives - Ed Wimpiris Wall Street - Dan Zits - FBI Chief Brain Donors - Doctor Almost Heroes - Nicholas Burr Franklin Cover on IMDb Franklin Cover at the Internet Broadway Database Franklin Cover at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Obituary at Legacy.com "Jeffersons Star moves on up" at E! Online, February 10, 2006 "Franklin Cover, 77, comic foil to Sherman Hemsley" at Boston Globe, February 12, 2006 Franklin Cover at Find a Grave
First day of issue
A first day of issue cover or first day cover is a postage stamp on a cover, postal card or stamped envelope franked on the first day the issue is authorized for use within the country or territory of the stamp-issuing authority. Sometimes the issue is made from a permanent foreign or overseas office. Covers that are postmarked at sea or their next port of call will carry a Paquebot postmark. There will be a first day of issue postmark a pictorial cancellation, indicating the city and date where the item was first issued, "first day of issue" is used to refer to this postmark. Depending on the policy of the nation issuing the stamp, official first day postmarks may sometimes be applied to covers weeks or months after the date indicated. Postal authorities may hold a first day ceremony to generate publicity for the new issue, with postal officials revealing the stamp, with connected persons in attendance, such as descendants of the person being honored by the stamp; the ceremony may be held in a location that has a special connection with the stamp's subject, such as the birthplace of a social movement, or at a stamp show.
Prior to 1840, postage costs were high and they were paid by the person who received the mail. The cost was measured by how far the letter had to go. Sometimes this amounted to a considerable sum. Sir Rowland Hill calculated that the cost to the Post Office was far less than what some people were paying to send/receive their mail. Hill believed that sending mail should be affordable to all so proposed that postage should be pre-paid, based on the weight rather than the number of sheets and the cost should be drastically reduced. On 10 January 1840 a Uniform 1d postmark was released which allowed a universal penny postage rate, this was a postmark, paid and was applied when the letter was sent, it was decided that an adhesive label should be used to prevent forgeries and mis-use of the postal service and the Penny Black stamp was born. The stamp was covered a letter up to 14 grams in weight, it was released for sale on 6 May 1840 however, several post offices that received the stamps prior to that date released the stamps early.
The City of Bath is known for releasing the stamps on 2 May 1840. Here began the first First Day Covers. Event covers known as commemorative covers, instead of marking the issuance of a stamp, commemorate events. A design on the left side of the envelope explains the anniversary being celebrated. Ideally the stamp or stamps affixed relate to the event. Cancels are obtained either from the location or, in the case of the United States, from the Postal Service's Cancellation Services unit in Kansas City. Philatelic covers are envelope prepared with a stamp and sent through the mail delivery system to create a collectible item. Information about philatelic covers is available online in catalogs and collector websites. Computer vended postage stamps issued by Neopost had first-day-of-issue ceremonies sponsored by the company, not by an official stamp-issuing entity. Personalised postage stamps of different designs are sometimes given first-day-of-issue ceremonies and cancellations by the private designer.
The stamps issued by private local posts can have first days of issue, as can artistamps. The postmark is one of the most important features of a cover. Stamps are cancelled by a postmark, which shows they have been used and can’t be re-used to send a letter. Circular Date Stamps are the'bread-and-butter' postmarks used on everyday mail by Post Office counters across the UK. A CDS postmark is straight forward and only features the town’s name and the date. There is no picture, it you wanted to use a CDS postmark because the town is relevant to the stamp issue, you would have to go to the town’s local Post Office to get it. On a cover, the postmark should link them to the envelope. Postmarks came to the foreground in the early 1960s, when collectors started to demand more interesting cancellations on their first day covers. For the Red Cross issue in 1963, a special Florence Nightingale cover was posted at her birthplace, West Wellow; the Botanical Conference issue of 1964 featured primroses on the stamps, so one clever cover dealer posted his covers at Primrose Valley.
This kind of relevant postmark made a cover worth ten times more than the same cover with a standard postmark issued by the Philatelic Bureau at Edinburgh. In the US, the U. S. Postal Service chooses several, as ` official' first day cities; these have a special connection to the stamp issue being released, these postmarks are the only ones that have the wording:'First Day of Issue' With postmarks becoming more and more important to the covers, pictorial postmarks became popular. Pictorial postmarks are known as Special Handstamps/Postmarks. In 1924 The first commemorative set of stamps for the British Empire Exhibition had both special postmarks and a special slogan, but it was not until the late 1960s/early 1970s that dealers and organisations caught on that you could sponsor/design a connected postmark and it would make an ordinary cover something special; these days anyone can sponsor a postmark. They need to design the postmark, get it approved by Royal Mail and pay a fee; the postmark becomes the property of Royal Mail and anyone is allowed to use it on their covers.
This means other people's postmarks. However, to be an “official” cover, a postmark has to be on the cover produced by the organisation that sponsored the post
Robert Glasper is an American singer and record producer. He has been nominated for 6 Grammys, has won 3 Grammy Awards and is nominated for an Emmy Award, his 2012 album Black Radio won the Grammy Award for Best R&B Album at the 55th Grammy Awards. His 2014 album Black Radio 2 won the Grammy Award for Best Traditional R&B Performance at the 56th Grammy Awards; the song "These Walls" from Kendrick Lamar's album To Pimp A Butterfly won Best Rap/Sung Collaboration at the 57th Grammy Awards, on which Glasper plays keys. The soundtrack for the film Miles Ahead won Best Soundtrack Compilation at the 58th Grammy Awards, for which Glasper was a producer; the song "Letter To The Free", written with Common for the Ava DuVernay documentary 13th, won the 2017 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Original Music and Lyrics. Glasper's earliest musical influence was his mother, Kim Yvette Glasper, who sang jazz and blues professionally, she took him with her to club dates rather than leave her son with babysitters.
She was the music director at the East Wind Baptist Church. He performed during services at three churches: Baptist and Seventh-day Adventist. Glasper has said that he first developed his sound in church, where he learned his own way to hear harmony, was inspired to mix church and gospel harmonies with jazz harmonies. Glasper attended Elkins High School in Missouri City and the High School for the Performing and Visual Arts, he was in the second Vail Jazz Workshop in 1997, went on to attend the New School for Jazz and Contemporary Music in New York City. At the New School, Glasper met neo-soul singer Bilal Oliver, they began performing and recording together, which led to associations with a variety of hip-hop and R&B artists parallel to Glasper's emerging jazz career. He has worked with Bilal and Mos Def as musical director, Q-Tip, Kanye West, Meshell Ndegeocello, J Dilla, Erykah Badu, Jay-Z, Talib Kweli, Slum Village, Maxwell, with whom he toured extensively on 2009's BLACKsummers'night tour.
Glasper's first album, was released by Fresh Sound New Talent in 2004, after the pianist's stints playing in bands with guitarists Russell Malone and Mark Whitfield, bassist Christian McBride, trumpeters Terence Blanchard and Roy Hargrove. The album features six original compositions by Glasper alongside versions of the jazz standards "Blue Skies", "Alone Together", Herbie Hancock's "Maiden Voyage". Glasper has said that his arrangement of the Hancock tune was inspired by the Radiohead song "Everything in Its Right Place". Mood is a piano trio recording, with Bob Hurst on bass and Damion Reid on drums. Two tracks feature vocalist Bilal, two others adding Russell Malone, saxophonists John Ellis and Marcus Strickland. Blue Note Records released Canvas, Glasper's major-label debut, in 2005; the album features nine original songs and again a version of a Hancock composition, "Riot". Glasper plays the Fender Rhodes electric piano on three tracks, Bilal sings on two. In My Element, released in 2006, includes songs written in honor of Glasper's mother and hip-hop producer J Dilla.
The pianist revisits Hancock's "Maiden Voyage", which segues into a version of "Everything in Its Right Place", quotes Duke Ellington’s "Fleurette Africaine". Glasper's 2009 album Double-Booked is divided between songs performed by Glasper in an acoustic piano trio and funk-influenced tracks played on electric instruments, such as the Fender Rhodes and the vocoder; the album features spoken-word appearances by Bilal and Mos Def. Bilal received a 2010 Grammy Award nomination for Best Urban/Alternative Performance for the track "All Matter". Glasper has performed at venues and festivals throughout the world including the Apollo Theater, The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Hollywood Bowl, North Sea Jazz Festival, The Kennedy Center, Mt Fuji Festival, The Barbican, London Jazz Festival, Monterey Jazz Festival, Playboy Jazz Festival, Fonda Theater, El Rey Theater, the Troubadour. In addition to his working trio, he leads the Robert Glasper Experiment, in which he explores fusions of jazz and hip hop.
He has made numerous TV appearances including CBS Late Show With David Letterman, NBC Tonight Show With Jay Leno and NBC Late Night With Jimmy Fallon, The Conan O'Brien Show on TBS. In February 2012, Glasper released Black Radio, which featured performances by many neo-soul and hip hop artists including Lupe Fiasco, Lalah Hathaway and Yasiin Bey; the album was recorded live, with no overdubs. Black Radio laid out a new paradigm for creative music, reaching beyond entrenched genre boundaries to create a singular vision that drew from all reaches of contemporary black music and beyond; the album was met with both commercial success and wide acclaim, with Rolling Stone declaring “Glasper heads down the fraught path of hip-hop jazz and gets it right,” adding that “with music this smart and inviting, the implied diss of mainstream doesn’t feel like sour grapes. The album won the 2013 GRAMMY Award for Best R&B Album. In November 2012 Black Radio Recovered: The Remix EP was released with five remixed tracks from the prior album, including remixes by Questlove, Georgia Muldrow, Pete Rock and 9th Wonder.
On October 29, 2013, Glasper released Black Radio 2, another genre-defying effort that took the Black Radio blueprint and built to even
In biology, mating is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms for the purposes of sexual reproduction. Some definitions limit the term to pairing between animals, while other definitions extend the term to mating in plants and fungi. Fertilization is the fusion of both sex gamete. Copulation is the union of the sex organs of two sexually reproducing animals for insemination and subsequent internal fertilization. Mating may lead to external fertilization, as seen in amphibians and plants. For the majority of species, mating is between two individuals of opposite sexes. However, for some hermaphroditic species, copulation is not required because the parent organism is capable of self-fertilization; the term mating is applied to related processes in bacteria and viruses. Mating in these cases involves the pairing of individuals, accompanied by the pairing of their homologous chromosomes and exchange of genomic information leading to formation of recombinant progeny. For animals, mating strategies include random mating, disassortative mating, assortative mating, or a mating pool.
In some birds, it includes behaviors such as feeding offspring. The human practice of mating and artificially inseminating domesticated animals is part of animal husbandry. In some terrestrial arthropods, including insects representing basal phylogenetic clades, the male deposits spermatozoa on the substrate, sometimes stored within a special structure. Courtship involves inducing the female to take up the sperm package into her genital opening without actual copulation. In groups such as dragonflies and many spiders, males extrude sperm into secondary copulatory structures removed from their genital opening, which are used to inseminate the female. In advanced groups of insects, the male uses its aedeagus, a structure formed from the terminal segments of the abdomen, to deposit sperm directly into the female's reproductive tract. Other animals reproduce sexually including many basal vertebrates. Vertebrates reproduce with internal fertilization through cloacal copulation, while mammals copulate vaginally.
Like in animals, mating in other Eukaryotes, such as plants and fungi, denotes sexual conjugation. However, in vascular plants this is achieved without physical contact between mating individuals, in some cases, e.g. in fungi no distinguishable male or female organs exist. Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with 1,500 species described. In general, under high stress conditions like nutrient starvation, haploid cells will die. Protists are a large group of diverse eukaryotic microorganisms unicellular animals and plants, that do not form tissues. Eukaryotes emerged in evolution more than 1.5 billion years ago. The earliest eukaryotes were protists. Mating and sexual reproduction are widespread among extant eukaryotes including protists such as Paramecium and Chlamydomonas. In many eukaryotic species, mating is promoted by sex pheromones including the protist Blepharisma japonicum. Based on a phylogenetic analysis and Roger proposed that facultative sex was present in the common ancestor of all eukaryotes.
However, to many biologists it seemed unlikely until that mating and sex could be a primordial and fundamental characteristic of eukaryotes. A principal reason for this view was that mating and sex appeared to be lacking in certain pathogenic protists whose ancestors branched off early from the eukaryotic family tree. However, several of these protists are now known to be capable of, or to have had, the capability for meiosis and hence mating. To cite one example, the common intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis was once considered to be a descendant of a protist lineage that predated the emergence of meiosis and sex. However, G. intestinalis was found to have a core set of genes that function in meiosis and that are present among sexual eukaryotes. These results suggested that G. intestinalis is capable of meiosis and thus mating and sexual reproduction. Furthermore, direct evidence for meiotic recombination, indicative of mating and sexual reproduction, was found in G. intestinalis. Other protists for which evidence of mating and sexual reproduction has been described are parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania, Trichomonas vaginalis, acanthamoeba.
Protists reproduce asexually under favorable environmental conditions, but tend to reproduce sexually under stressful conditions, such as starvation or heat shock. Animal husbandry Breeding in the wild Breeding season Evolution of sex Lordosis behavior Mate choice copying Mating system Reproduction Sex determination system Sexual conflict Sexual intercourse Introduction to Animal Reproduction Advantages of Sexual Reproduction
A cover charge is an entrance fee sometimes charged at bars, nightclubs, or restaurants. The American Heritage Dictionary defines it as a "fixed amount added to the bill at a nightclub or restaurant for entertainment or service." In restaurants, cover charges do not include the cost of food, ordered, but in some establishments, they do include the cost of bread, butter and other accompaniments which are provided as a matter of course. The Oxford English Dictionary defines a "cover charge" as "a charge for service added to the basic charge in a restaurant"; such a charge is made in many countries described by the word equivalent to "cover". A place-setting at a restaurant, in English and in other languages, is referred to as "a cover" or equivalent term in other languages. A term sometimes used in the US is "table charge"; the charge is a few US dollars or equivalent. Although the charge is said to be for bread, olives, etc. taken to the table, it is payable whether or not they are eaten. Restaurants in English-speaking countries sometimes have a menu in French.
This term and the related charge, originating in France, has been used with this meaning in English since at least 1899. The French word both means table setting and is the past participle of couvrir, "to cover"; the couvert or cover charge has been levied for many years in English-speaking countries by 1899. In the US the cover charge became an entry charge where both entertainment and food and drink are provided, carries the expectation of entertainment; the first such cover charge was introduced in 1913 by Louis Fischer at Reisenweber's restaurant in Manhattan, to cover the production costs of Ned Wayburn's revues held there. In most countries where restaurant cover charges are made the practice is far from universal. Tourist destinations may be more to make this charge, which unwary visitors may not anticipate. Tips are much lower internationally than the 15-20% typical in restaurants in the USA without cover charge; the term "cover charge" is used in other cases, can be confusing. A practice, sometimes called.
Restaurants may make a charge to diners. According to Massachusetts law, subject to a penalty of up to $50, no cafe, restaurant, or bar can require payment of a minimum or cover charge unless a sign is conspicuously posted with at least one-inch-high letters, stating that a minimum charge or cover charge shall be charged and indicating the amount. Children under thirteen may not be charged; this law was put in place to resolve the problem of “secret” cover charges, which are indicated only in tiny text on the menu. Clubgoers would find this cover charge added to their first drink order. In Illinois, bars cannot impose a cover charge unless the fee goes towards the cost of off-setting entertainment costs such as a live band. In 1995, the Italian regional government in Lazio began requiring restaurants in the region to remove the cover charge for "Pane e coperto" from their bills. In 1998, the European Union ruled that the regional law was invalid, but the region is continuing to try to abolish the practice Bars and clubs that use cover charges use them for several reasons.
In some cases, popular bars and clubs have a substantial excess demand. In this case, the club can gain additional revenue from customers by requiring an entrance charge. Other bars and clubs use cover charges only on nights when there is live entertainment or a DJ, to cover the costs of hiring the performers. Cover charges are much lower for local, semi-professional bands or entertainers than for better-known touring bands from other regions. In North America, the cover charge for a performance by a local teenage band may be as low as a few dollars; some expensive jazz clubs and comedy clubs have both a minimum drink requirement. Many sports bars have cover charge when they are showing a boxing or a UFC pay per view event, to help defray to costs of ordering the pay-per-view material. In economics, the term "price discrimination" refers to charging different prices to different customers, based on the anticipated elasticity of demand of different customers. Bars offer student discounts because university or college students will have a different willingness to pay than an average consumer, due to their budget constraints.
Thus, the bar sets a lower price for entry for university and college students because students have elastic demand. In some bars there are different cover charges for legal drinking-age customers and for minors who may not purchase or drink alcohol; some bars have lower cover charges for some categories, such as college or university students with student identification. Cover