An electronic book known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. E-books can be read on dedicated e-reader devices, but on any computer device that features a controllable viewing screen, including desktop computers, laptops and smartphones. In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet, where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems. With print books, readers are browsing through images of the covers of books on publisher or bookstore websites and selecting and ordering titles online. With e-books, users can browse through titles online, when they select and order titles, the e-book can be sent to them online or the user can download the e-book.
At the start of 2012 in the U. S. more e-books were published online. The main reasons for people buying e-books online are lower prices, increased comfort and a larger selection of titles. With e-books, "lectronic bookmarks make referencing easier, e-book readers may allow the user to annotate pages." "Although fiction and non-fiction books come in e-book formats, technical material is suited for e-book delivery because it can be searched" for keywords. In addition, for programming books, code examples can be copied; the amount of e-book reading is increasing in the U. S.. This is increasing, because by 2014 50% of American adults had an e-reader or a tablet, compared to 30% owning such devices in 2013. E-books are referred to as "ebooks", "eBooks", "Ebooks", "e-Books", "e-journals", "e-editions" or as "digital books"; the devices that are designed for reading e-books are called "e-readers", "ebook device" or "eReaders". Some trace the idea of an e-reader that would enable a reader to view books on a screen to a 1930 manifesto by Bob Brown, written after watching his first "talkie".
He titled it The Readies, playing off the idea of the "talkie". In his book, Brown says movies have outmaneuvered the book by creating the "talkies" and, as a result, reading should find a new medium: “A simple reading machine which I can carry or move around, attach to any old electric light plug and read hundred-thousand-word novels in 10 minutes if I want to, I want to.” Brown's notion, was much more focused on reforming orthography and vocabulary, than on medium: introducing huge numbers of portmanteau symbols to replace normal words, punctuation to simulate action or movement. E-readers never followed a model at all like Brown's. Brown predicted the miniaturization and portability of e-readers. In an article, Jennifer Schuessler writes, "The machine, Brown argued, would allow readers to adjust the type size, avoid paper cuts and save trees, all while hastening the day when words could be'recorded directly on the palpitating ether.'" He felt the e-reader should bring a new life to reading.
Schuessler relates it to a DJ spinning bits of old songs to create a beat or an new song as opposed to just a remix of a familiar song. The inventor of the first e-book is not agreed upon; some notable candidates include the following: In 1949, Ángela Ruiz Robles, a teacher from Ferrol, patented the Enciclopedia Mecánica, or the Mechanical Encyclopedia, a mechanical device which operated on compressed air where text and graphics were contained on spools that users would load onto rotating spindles. Her idea was to create a device which would decrease the number of books that her pupils carried to school; the final device would include audio recordings, a magnifying glass, a calculator and an electric light for night reading. Her device was never put into production but one of her prototypes is kept in the National Museum of Science and Technology in La Coruna, Spain; the first e-book may be the Index Thomisticus, a annotated electronic index to the works of Thomas Aquinas, prepared by Roberto Busa, S.
J. beginning in 1949 and completed in the 1970s. Although stored on a single computer, a distributable CD-ROM version appeared in 1989. However, this work is sometimes omitted. In 2005, the Index was published online. Alternatively, some historians consider electronic books to have started in the early 1960s, with the NLS project headed by Doug Engelbart at Stanford Research Institute, the Hypertext Editing System and FRESS projects headed by Andries van Dam at Brown University. FRESS documents were structure-oriented rather than line-oriented. All these systems provided extensive hyperlinking and other capabilities. Van Dam is thought to have coined the term "electronic book", it was established enough to use in an article title by 1985. FRESS was used for reading extensive primary texts on
The iPod Nano is a portable media player designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first generation model was introduced on September 7, 2005, as a replacement for the iPod Mini, using flash memory for storage; the iPod Nano went since its introduction. Apple discontinued the iPod Nano on July 27, 2017. Development work on the design of the iPod Nano started only nine months before its launch date; the Nano was launched in two colors with two available sizes: 2 GB and 4 GB. On February 7, 2006, Apple updated the lineup with the 1 GB model. Apple released some accessories, including armbands and silicone "tubes" designed to bring color to the Nano and protect it from scratches, as well as a combination lanyard-earphone accessory that hangs around the neck and avoids the problem of tangled earphone cords; the current models with Bluetooth headphones have a similar advantage. On September 7, 2005, Apple introduced the iPod Nano at a media event with Steve Jobs pointing to the small watch pocket in his jeans and asking, "Ever wonder what this pocket is for?"
Advertising emphasized the iPod Nano's small size: 40 millimetres wide, 90 millimetres long, 6.9 millimetres thick and weighing 42 grams. The stated battery life was up to 14 hours, while the screen was 176×132 pixels, 38 millimetres diagonal, displaying 65,536 colors. 1, 2, 4 GB capacities were available. On November 11, 2011, Apple announced a recall on this model of iPod nano; the recall was issued due to a battery overheat issue. This recall applied to iPod nanos sold between September 2005 and December 2006. On September 25, 2006, Apple updated the Nano line; the second-generation Nano featured scratch-resistant, anodized aluminum casing like the earlier Mini's design. However, unlike the second-generation Mini, the button labels were grey instead of matching the Nano's casing; the second-generation Nano featured a 40% brighter, "more vibrant" display, a battery life upgrade, storage sizes doubled to 2, 4, 8 GB models. The second generation introduced gapless playback of audio files, along with a new search option.
The 2 GB model was available in silver only. The 4 GB was available in green, silver, or pink, the 8 GB model was only available in black - red was added for 4 and 8 GB models. Apple claimed that the second generation iPod Nano's packaging was "32% lighter with 52% less volume than the first generation", thereby reducing environmental impact and shipping costs. On October 13, 2006, Apple announced a special edition iPod Nano. For each red iPod Nano sold in the United States, Apple donates US$10 to the Product Red initiative, while retaining the regular price. On November 3, 2006, Apple introduced a red 8 GB model, due to "outstanding customer demand", again retaining the same price point of the equivalent black model. Apple updated the Nano again on September 5, 2007; the third-generation Nano featured a 2-inch QVGA screen and a shorter, heavier design, with new colors. New features included browsing via Cover Flow, a new user interface, video playback, support for new iPod Games. Users had to repurchase games bought a month before the debut of the new iPod as they were not supported.
The Nano was announced in a 4 GB version coming in silver and an 8 GB version coming in silver, mint green and Product Red. The battery lasted for approx. 24 hours on audio playback and approx. 5 hours on video playback. On January 22, 2008, Apple released a pink version of the 8 GB iPod Nano. Combining elements from previous generations of the iPod Nano, the third-generation Nano had an aluminum front plate and a stainless steel back plate; the Nano sported a new Minimalistic hold switch, similar to the iPod Shuffle's power switch, moved to the bottom of the player. The 2-inch screen had the smallest dot pitch of any Apple product, having the same pixel count as the 2.5-inch display of the iPod Classic. On October 6, 2007, Apple released a firmware update via iTunes, said to improve Cover Flow and yield faster menu navigation; the update was released for the iPod Classic. On November 28, 2007, Apple released another firmware update via iTunes, which included unspecified bugfixes. January 15, 2008 saw the release of version 1.1, which added support for iTunes movie rentals, music song lyrics support and included more unspecified bugfixes.
Apple released update version 1.1.2 in May 2008 and version 1.1.3 in July 2008 with more bug fixes. At the Apple Let's Rock Event on September 9, 2008, the iPod Nano Fourth Generation was announced, it returned to the narrow form factor of the 1st and 2nd Generation model, while retaining and rotating the 51-millimetre screen from the 3rd gen model. It was thinner than the first and third generation Nano, measuring 90.7 millimetres tall by 38.7 millimetres wide by 6.2 millimetres thick, weighing 36.8 grams. It had a curved aluminum glass screen. Apple claimed the battery would last 24 hours of music playback, only 4 hours of video playback, compared to the 5 hours of the previous generation; the six previous colors were replaced by silver, purple, light blue, yellow, orange and pink, for a total of n
Andrew Coulter Enright
Andrew Coulter Enright, born on August 9, 1979, is an American artist. He conceived the Cover Flow visual browsing computer interface purchased by Apple Computer in 2006, for iTunes and other products. Enright wrote the 2003 book How to Be Fashionable or Consume Like Me, which gained worldwide notoriety as a satirical account of the New York hipster movement, he is employed by a commercial organization, but he produces art independently in various media and maintains a personal blog, The Treehouse and The Cave. He lives in New York City with his wife
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
IPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. All generations of the iPhone use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software; the first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard; the iPhone can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video, take photos, play music and receive email, browse the web and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps; as of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone. Apple has released twelve generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the twelve major releases of the iOS operating system.
The original first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri; the iPhone 5 featured Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal, they were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7-and-5.5-inch displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models.
The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, therefore, no Touch ID. In September 2018, Apple again released 3 new iPhones, which are the iPhone XS, an upgraded version of the since discontinued iPhone X, iPhone XS Max, a larger variant with the series' biggest display as of 2018 and iPhone XR, a lower end version of the iPhone X; the original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Subsequent iterations of the iPhone have garnered praise; the iPhone is one of the most used smartphones in the world, its success has been credited with helping Apple become one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies. Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees to work on the confidential "Project Purple."
Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet towards a phone. Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. According to Steve Jobs, the "i" word in "iMac" stands for internet, instruct and inspire. Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1's firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple's iPod nano. Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house and paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue, in exchange for four years of exclusive US sales, until 2011. Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco; the two initial models, a 4 GB model priced at US$499 and an 8 GB model at US$599, went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide.
The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the'Jesus phone'. Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, Germany in November 2007, Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008. On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G including the original six. Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty territories. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it in June and August, starting with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost, 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000; the back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal; the iPhone 3G was available in
Apple Worldwide Developers Conference
The Apple Worldwide Developers Conference is a conference held annually by Apple Inc. in San Jose, California. Apple uses the event to showcase its new software and technologies for software developers. Attendees can participate in hands-on labs with Apple engineers and attend in-depth sessions covering a wide variety of topics. WWDC began in 1987 in Santa Clara. After 15 years in nearby San Jose, the conference moved to San Francisco, where it became Apple's primary media event of the year and sold out. WWDC returned to San Jose 13 years later. A $1,599 ticket is required to enter the conference. Tickets are obtained through an online lottery. Scholarships are available for members of STEM organizations. Attendees must be 13 years or older and must be a member of an Apple Developer program; until 2007, the number of attendees varied between 2,000 and 4,200. The WWDC events held from 2008 to 2015 were capped, sold out at 5,000 attendees. WWDC 2018 had 6,000 attendees from 77 countries, including 350 scholarship recipients.
WWDC is held annually from Monday through Friday on one week in June. The conference consists of a keynote address, presentation sessions, one-on-one "lab" consultations, special get-togethers and events; the conference begins with a Monday morning keynote address by other Apple executives. It is attended by both conference attendees and the media, since Apple makes product announcements at the event. Hardware announced during the address is sometimes exhibited in the conference hall afterwards; the keynote address is followed in the afternoon by a Platforms State of the Union address, which highlights and demonstrates changes in Apple's software developer platforms that are detailed in sessions in the week. The Apple Design Awards are announced on the first day of the conference. Several session tracks run from Tuesday through Friday; the presentations cover programming and other topics and range from introductory to advanced. All scheduled presentations are delivered by Apple employees; these presentations are streamed live, recordings can be viewed on demand on the Apple Developer website in the conference's iOS and tvOS applications.
Lunchtime sessions are given by a variety of guest speakers who are industry experts in technology and science. In the past, some sessions included question-and-answer time, a popular Stump the Experts session featured interaction between Apple employees and attendees. At the labs, which run throughout the week, Apple engineers are available for one-on-one consultations with developers in attendance. Experts in user interface design and accessibility are available for consultations by appointment. Apple organizes social get-togethers during the conference for various groups, such as women in technology or developers interested in internationalization or machine learning; the Thursday evening Bash at a nearby park features live music and drinks for all attendees 21 years or older. In 1989, System 7 was announced. In 1991, WWDC saw the first public demonstration of QuickTime. In 1995, WWDC'95 focused fully on the Copland project, which by this time was able to be demonstrated to some degree. Gil Amelio stated that the system was on-schedule to ship in beta form in summer with an initial commercial release in the late fall.
However few live demos were offered, no beta of the operating system was offered. In 1996, WWDC'96's primary emphasis was a new software component technology called OpenDoc, which allowed end users to compile an application from components offering features they desired most; the OpenDoc consortium included Adobe, Lotus and Apple. Apple touted OpenDoc as the future foundation for application structure under Mac OS; as proof of concept, Apple demonstrated a new end-user product called Cyberdog, a comprehensive Internet application component suite offering users an integrated browser, email, FTP, telnet and other services built of user-exchangeable OpenDoc components. ClarisWorks, a principal product in Apple's wholly owned subsidiary Claris Corporation, was demonstrated as an example of a pre-OpenDoc component architecture application modified to be able to contain functional OpenDoc components. In 1997, WWDC marked the return of Steve Jobs as a consultant. WWDC'97 was the first show after the purchase of NeXT, focused on the efforts to use OpenStep as the foundation of the next Mac OS.
The plan at that time was to introduce a new system named Rhapsody, which would consist of a version of OpenStep modified with a more Mac-like look and feel, the Yellow Box, along with a Blue Box that allowed extant Mac applications to run under OS emulation. The show focused on the work in progress, including a short history of development efforts since the two development teams had been merged on February 4. Several new additions to the system were demonstrated, including tabbed and outline views, a new object-based graphics layer. In 1998, in response to developer comments about the new operating system, the big announcement at WWDC'98 was the introduction of Carbon a version of the classic Mac OS API implemented on OpenStep. Under the original Rhapsody plans, classic applications would run in sandboxed installation of the classic Mac OS, have no access to the new Mac OS X features. To receive new features, such a