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Cover date

The cover date of a periodical publication such as a magazine or comic book is the date displayed on the cover. This is not the true date of publication. For some publications, the cover date may not be found on the cover, but rather on an inside jacket or on an interior page. In the United States and the United Kingdom, the standard practice is to display on magazine covers a date, some weeks or months in the future from the publishing or release date. There are two reasons for this discrepancy: first, to allow magazines to continue appearing "current" to consumers after they have been on sale for some time, second, to inform newsstands when an unsold magazine can be removed from the stands and returned to the publisher or be destroyed. Weeklies are dated a week ahead. Monthlies are dated a month ahead, quarterlies are dated three months ahead. In other countries, the cover date matches more the date of publication, may indeed be identical where weekly magazines are concerned. In all markets, it is rare for monthly magazines to indicate a particular day of the month: thus issues are dated May 2016, so on, whereas weekly magazines may be dated 17 May 2016.

The general practice of most mainstream comic book companies since the creation of the comic book in the 1930s was to date individual issues by putting the name of a month on the cover, two months after the release date. For example, a 1951 issue of Superman which had the cover date of July would have been published two months earlier from that date in the month of May speaking. In 1973 the discrepancy between the cover date and the publishing date went from two months to three months. In 1989 the cover date and publishing date discrepancy was changed back to two months, though each comic book company now uses its own system. Of the two major American comic book publishers, DC Comics continues to put cover dates on the cover. Marvel Comics opted against putting cover dates on the cover in October 1999.

Richard South

Richard South FRES was an English entomologist who specialised in Lepidoptera. South was born in Marylebone, London and educated at a private school, in Reading, he is best known for writing three important books on moths of the British Isles. After his death, these were updated by H. M. Edelsten. Michael Salmon has described these as "innovative" and "a new kind of guide for the century", noting their early use of colour photographs and eschewing of "Victorian polixity and classical preciousness"; the moth volumes were reprinted as late as 1980. South was editor of The Entomologist, he published many papers on the Lepidoptera of the Far East, including China and Korea, an account of the butterflies collected by Captain F. M. Bailey in western China and South-Eastern and the Mishmi Hills. Major parts of his collections of specimens survive, in the Natural History Museum and in the collection of Birmingham Museums Trust. South was married twice, firstly to his cousin Sarah, after widowhood, to Evelyn Urquhart, whose father had been a Mayor of Paddington.

He lived in London. South R; the Butterflies of the British Isles, Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd. London & NY: 210 pp. South R; the Moths of the British Isles, Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd. London & NY: 359 pp. South R; the Moths of the British Isles, Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd. London & NY: 388 pp. South R. Catalogue of the Collection of Palaearctic Butterflies, 240 pp. South R. Stokoe W. J. & Stovin G. H. T; the Caterpillars of British Moths including the Eggs and Food-Plants, Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd. London & NY: 408 pp. Works by Richard South at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Richard South at Internet Archive

Royal School for the Blind, Liverpool

The Royal School for the Blind in Liverpool, England, is the oldest specialist school of its kind in the UK, having been founded in 1791. Only the Paris school is older, but the Royal School for the Blind is the oldest school in the world in continuous operation, the first in the world founded by a blind person, Edward Rushton, an anti-slavery campaigner, it was the first school in the world to offer education and training to blind adults as well as children. The first building to be used by the school was quite unsuitable. Situated at 6 Commutation Row, opposite the potteries of Shaw's Brow, two houses erected were rented by the charity for the sole use of the school, they were much too small and by 1800 enough money had been raised to erect a purpose built school nearby on the site occupied by the Odeon cinema on London Road. Designed by John Foster junior the school was now well and established and would stay on this site for the next 50 years. In 1806 during a royal visit to Liverpool by the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Clarence, the royal entourage visited the School for the Blind, where they met pupils and inspected some of the manufactured goods on show.

After being entertained by the choir of the school singing the'Halleluiah Chorus', the Prince ordered 10 guineas to be distributed among the pupils and bestowed 100 guineas on the school as well as his royal patronage which has continued unbroken to the present day. The gift was a great boost to the Institution, raising funds to extend the site. Architect John Foster was again engaged, land to the rear of the building was secured and building began on new facilities in 1807. Completed in 1812, 53 males and 18 females moved into the buildings which were now residential, with work rooms, technical facilities and music rooms; the mission of the school guardians was that the institution would be'less of an asylum, where the ease a comfort of the blind were principally considered, more approaching a school, where pupils could be instructed in some useful art or trade, by which they might be enabled to procure for themselves a comfortable livelihood.' In 1819 a chapel was opened by the school on adjoining land, with a connecting tunnel for the pupils to avoid the road and traffic above.

John Foster was asked to draw up plans and being fresh from a tour of Greece and the islands, the classical influence was captured in the Doric frontage to the building. This influence would be carried over into other local building during his career as the city architect; as Lime Street Station began to expand at the height of'Railway Mania', pressure was being brought to bear on the owners of local properties and the school guardians began to make plans to move once more. The L. N. W. R. agreed in 1849 to exchange land they held in Hope Street and Hardman Street, plus the sum of £9,500 for the entire estate adjoining Lime Street Station owned by the school. A further £ 2,000 was given to the school for its removal; this was to entail the transfer of the chapel to the new site on the corner block of Hope Street and Hardman Street where it was re-erected in its entirety, apart from its front steps, the local council refusing to grant the necessary space. The new school building, designed by Arthur Hill Holme, erected alongside the chapel facing Hardman Street, opened in 1851, with eighty-five pupils.

With the passing of the Elementary Education Act in 1893, the Hardman Street School could not provide the required facilities laid down by the new legislation. Thanks to Mary Louisa Hornby, a major benefactor, Wavertree Hall was purchased in Church Road, the original hall demolished and the new school opened in November 1898. Taking in children from the age of five to sixteen, they would be transferred to the Hardman Street School for technical training. Due to dwindling attendances and the Chapel having no parish of its own, it was decided to close the building in 1930, with its demolition that year. There was great debate over the fate of the Doric front, saved, but nothing came of the numerous suggestions. A new extension was opened in 1932 on the same site, designed by the architects Anthony Minoprio and Hugh Spencely, which provided additional work space, recreation rooms, offices and a sales shop for the goods manufactured by the students. During the Second World War, both the Wavertree School and Hardman Street were evacuated with staff to Rhyl, moving together on 1–2 September 1939.

Four buildings were taken over. Part of the Hardman Street school had been requisitioned by the R. A. F. until then. Following the changes introduced by the new Act, Wavertree became a school for mixed pupils aged 7–11, with Henshaw's School for the Blind in Manchester taking senior children; those with academic promise were sent to Worcester College for Boys, Chorleywood College for Girls or the Royal Normal School, where pupils would stay until they were eighteen. The Hardman Street School became a technical college for the North West region for those aged sixteen to twenty-one. General academic education would continue, plus the provision of vocational training in basket making, shoe repairing, brush making, hand and round machine knitting - all wholly inadequate in a modernising post war industrialised world where many blind persons were now being taken on under the terms of the Disabled Persons Employment Act of 1944; the technical college failed to move with the times, c