Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Michael John Parenti is an American political scientist and cultural critic who writes on scholarly and popular subjects. He has taught at American and international universities and has been a guest lecturer before campus and community audiences. Michael Parenti was raised in an Italian-American working-class family and neighborhood in New York City about which he has written, he received a BA from City College of New York, an MA from Brown University, his PhD in political science from Yale University. Parenti is the father of an author and contributor to The Nation magazine. For many years Parenti taught political and social science at various institutions of higher learning, he devoted himself full-time to writing, public speaking, political activism. He is the author of many more articles, his works have been translated into at least 18 languages. Parenti lectures throughout the United States and abroad. Parenti's writings cover a wide range of subjects: U. S. politics, ideology, political economy, fascism, democratic socialism, free-market orthodoxies, conservative judicial activism, ancient history, modern history, repression in academia and entertainment media, environmentalism, racism, the wars in Iraq and Yugoslavia and his own early life.
His influential book Democracy for the Few, now in its ninth edition, is a critical analysis of U. S. society and political institutions and a college-level political science textbook published by Wadsworth Publishing. In recent years he has addressed such subjects as "Empires: Past and Present," "US Interventionism: the Case of Iraq," "Race and Class Power," "Ideology and History," "The Collapse of Communism," and "Terrorism and Globalization."In 1974, Parenti ran in Vermont on the democratic socialist Liberty Union Party ticket for U. S. Congress and received 7% of the vote. In the 1980s, he was a Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Policy Studies in Washington, D. C. In Washington, D. C. in 2003, the Caucus for a New Political Science gave him a Career Achievement Award. In 2007, he received a Certificate of Special Congressional Recognition from U. S. Representative Barbara Lee and an award from New Jersey Peace Action, he served for 12 years as a judge for Project Censored. He is on the advisory boards of Independent Progressive Politics Network and Education Without Borders as well as the advisory editorial boards of New Political Science and Nature and Thought.
In 2000, Verso Books published. According to Kirkus Reviews: "Parenti dissents from every piece of conventional wisdom about the former Yugoslavia’s breakup, the Kosovo crisis, the NATO bombing campaign against the Serbian state in purported support of the Kosovar Albanians. Instead, he assembles an alternate history in which an American-led coalition backed by aggressive financial interests precipitated the civil war and the profoundly destructive air campaign that killed at least 3,000 civilians." Publishers Weekly's review stated: "Parenti gives an unabashedly critical assessment of this intervention, based on a solid and passionate rejection of Western leaders"lies' about events in the Balkans and Western interests in that part of the world. Readers not familiar with his leftist analysis may find Parenti's dismissal of NATO's justification for its 1999 bombing campaign shocking or silly. In 2003 The New Press published Parenti's The Assassination of Julius Caesar: A People's History of Ancient Rome.
PW said, "Parenti... narrates a provocative history of the late republic in Rome to demonstrate that Caesar's death was the culmination of growing class conflict, economic disparity and political corruption." Kirkus Reviews wrote: "Populist historian Parenti... views ancient Rome’s most famous assassination not as a tyrannicide but as a sanguinary scene in the never-ending drama of class warfare." Kirkus Reviews described the book as "revisionist history at its most provocative." Political Affairs wrote: "This is an excellent book and a good read." Prometheus Books published His Demons. Writing for the San Francisco Chronicle, Don Lattin said: "God and his Demons is a depressing, mean-spirited book. Much of it is a recounting of the usual suspects we find in the new wave of atheist chic nonfiction - targets like Islamist extremists, TV preachers, child-molesting Catholic priests, Christian-right political operatives, cult leaders and, for historical context, a reminder that the Crusades and the Inquisition were no picnic either, along with a tired recounting of all those troublesome passages in the Hebrew Bible and the anti-Semitism in much New Testament translation."
Calling it an "angry volume" that "makes no clear argument", Publishers Weekly said: "His condescending tirade is directed not so much at religion as at human beings whom—one gets the impression—he can suffer." Gregory Erlich, writing in Counterpunch, said, "God and His Demons is exceptionally well-written book, infused with the author’s characteristic style, wit, no-nonsense analysis and deeply-felt humanism. This ranks among the author’s most important works, deserving of the highest praise." Apart from several recordings of some of his public speeches, Parenti has appeared in the 1992 documentary Panama Deception, the 2004 Liberty Bound and 2013 Fall and Winter documentaries as an author and social commentator. Parenti was interviewed in Boris Malagurski's documentary film The Weight of Chains 2, he was interviewed for two episodes of the Showtime series Penn & Teller: Bullshit!, speaking about the Dalai Lama (Episod
William Henry Blum was an American author and critic of United States foreign policy. He lived in Washington, DC. Blum was born at Beth Moses Hospital in Borough Park, Brooklyn, to Ruth and Isidore Blum, who were Polish Jewish immigrants, his father was a machinist. He was a graduate of Erasmus Hall High School and gained a degree in accountancy in 1955 from the City College School of Business and Civic Administration, which became Baruch College of the City University of New York. Beginning as a computer programmer for IBM, he was taken on by the State Department, he had the ambition of becoming a foreign service officer to, as he explained, "take part in the great anti-Communist crusade". Blum became disillusioned by the Vietnam War and was persuaded to leave his government post in 1967. By he had taken part in anti-war protests and had become a founder and editor of the Washington Free Press, an alternative bi-weekly newspaper which did not last long. In 1969, he wrote and published an exposé of the CIA in which were revealed the names and addresses of more than 200 CIA employees.
He worked as freelance journalist in the United States and South America. In 1972–1973, Blum worked as a journalist in Chile where he reported on the Allende government's "socialist experiment". In the mid-1970s, he worked in London with ex-CIA officer Philip Agee and his associates "on their project of exposing CIA personnel and their misdeeds", he supported himself with his speaking engagements on college campuses. One of Blum's stories on Iraq was listed by Project Censored as one of "The Top Ten Censored Stories of 1998"In his books and online columns, Blum devoted substantial attention to CIA interventions and assassination plots. Noam Chomsky has called Blum's book on the CIA, "far and away the best book on the topic." Blum supported Ralph Nader's presidential campaigns. He circulated a monthly newsletter by email called "The Anti-Empire Report". Blum described his life's mission as: "If not ending, at least slowing down the American Empire. At least injuring the beast. It's causing so much suffering around the world."In an interview with C-SPAN in 2006, Blum stated: "Speaking about U.
S. foreign policy, my specialty, the authors I would most recommend would be Michael Parenti and Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman and Howard Zinn and Alexander Cockburn." In early 2006, Blum became the subject of widespread media attention when Osama bin Laden issued a public statement in which he quoted Blum and recommended that all Americans read Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower. As a result of the mention, sales of his book increased. "I was quite surprised and shocked and amused when I found out what he'd said," Blum commented. "I was glad. I knew it would help the book's sales and I was not bothered by who it was coming from. If he shares with me a deep dislike for certain aspects of US foreign policy I'm not going to spurn any endorsement of the book by him. I think it's good that he shares those views and I'm not turned off by that." On the Bin Laden endorsement, Blum stated, "This is as good as being an Oprah book." In an interview on MSNBC Countdown, he said: "Basically it's US foreign policy which creates anti-American terrorists.
It's the things. It's not, that they hate our freedom and democracy. That's just propaganda."In a May 22, 2006 article entitled, "Come Out of the White House With Your Hands Up", Blum wrote, "Since the bin Laden recommendation, January 19, I have not been offered a single speaking engagement on any campus.... This despite January–May being the most active period for me and other campus speakers." Blum died on December 9, 2018 in Arlington, Virginia from kidney failure at the age of 85 after being injured in a fall in his apartment two months earlier. 1986: The CIA: A Forgotten History 1995: Killing Hope: U. S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II, a revised and expanded edition of The CIA: A Forgotten History 2000: Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower 2002: West-Bloc Dissident: A Cold War Memoir 2003: Killing Hope: U. S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II, revised edition 2004: Freeing the World to Death: Essays on the American Empire 2013: America's Deadliest Export: Democracy - The Truth About US Foreign Policy and Everything Else 2014: Killing Hope: U.
S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II, revised edition William Blum William Blum on IMDb American Exceptionalism: The Naked Truth by William Blum at CovertAction Magazine William Blum's articles at CounterPunch William Blum's articles at Foreign Policy Journal William Blum's articles at Z Communications William Blum's articles at the Centre for Research on Globalization America's most feared man Interview with Nerve Magazine, Issue 2, Summer 2003 Myth and Denial in the War on Terrorism Article on CounterPunch, August 12, 2003 William Blum in the Media Whirlwind Appearance on C-SPAN's call-in show Washington Journal, Jan. 28, 2006 Killing Hope
Christopher Andrew (historian)
Christopher Maurice Andrew is an Emeritus Professor of Modern and Contemporary History at the University of Cambridge with an interest in international relations and in particular the history of intelligence services. Andrew is Professor of Modern and Contemporary History, former Chair of the History Faculty at Cambridge University, Official Historian of the Security Service, Honorary Air Commodore of 7006 Intelligence Squadron in the Royal Auxiliary Air Force, Chairman of the Cambridge Intelligence Seminar, former Visiting Professor at Harvard and Canberra. Andrew is co-editor of Intelligence and National Security, a presenter of BBC Radio and TV documentaries, including the Radio Four series What If?. His twelve previous books include a number of studies on the use and abuse of secret intelligence in modern history, he is a governor of Norwich School where in the 1950s he was a pupil, has retired from his post as President of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Andrew studied under the historian and wartime cryptanalyst Sir Harry Hinsley, in common with fellow historian Peter Hennessy.
Former students of Andrew - including Peter Jackson, Richard Aldrich, Tim Edwards, David Gioe, Larry Valero, Wesley Wark - now staff the intelligence studies and intelligence history posts in universities around the English-speaking world, while many others - such as Thomas Maguire and Christian Schlaepfer - continue to work in intelligence related positions in both government and private industry. Andrew produced two studies in collaboration with two defectors and former KGB officers, Oleg Gordievsky and Vasili Mitrokhin; the first of these works, KGB: The Inside Story was a scholarly work on the history of KGB actions against Western governments produced from archival and open sources, with the critical addition of information from the KGB defector Gordievsky. His two most detailed works about the KGB were produced in collaboration with KGB defector and archivist Vassili Mitrokhin, who over the course of several years recopied vast numbers of KGB archive documents as they were being moved for long storage.
Exfiltrated by the Secret Intelligence Service in 1992, Mitrokhin and his documents were made available to Andrew after an initial and thorough review by the security services. Both volumes, 1999's The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB and the 2005 edition The World Was Going Our Way: The KGB and the Battle for the Third World resulted in some public scandal as they revealed the names of former KGB agents and collaborators in government and private life around the world. Most famous amongst these was the revelation in 1999 of the "Grandmother Spy", 87-year-old Melita Norwood, who had passed industrial information and other intelligence to the KGB for more than 50 years; the Cambridge Intelligence Seminar, chaired by Andrew, convenes at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Active and former senior members of various intelligence services around the world participate in the discussions, with most participants made up of Andrew's graduate students, fellow historians and other academics.
At these meetings, detailed analysis of various past and present intelligence affairs is discussed under the Chatham House Rule, with the confidence that it will not be attributed to a person or organisation. Professor Andrew is on the Editorial Board of Journal of Terrorism Studies. In February 2003, Andrew accepted the post of official historian for the Security Service MI5, being mandated to write an official history of the service due for their centennial in 2009; this appointment - which entailed Andrew's enrollment into the Security Service - drew criticism from some historians and commentators. In general, these criticisms drew on the suggestion that he was too close to MI5 to be impartial, that indeed his link with the Service made him a "court historian" instead of a clear-eyed and critical historian. Persistent—if unfounded—rumours that Andrew was "MI5's main recruiter in Cambridge" have done little to quieten critics. Andrew's response to these criticisms has been that he cannot afford to be biased towards the service.
As The Guardian quoted Andrew, "Posterity and postgraduates are breathing down my neck. I tell my PhD students: I know you can only get on in the profession by assaulting teachers. You are not going to make a reputation by saying'Look, Professor Andrew was right all along the line'." Fellow of the Royal Historical Society Chair of the British Intelligence Study Group Co-Founding Editor of Intelligence and National Security Honorary Doctorate in Strategic Intelligence from the US National Defense University Théophile Delcassé and the Making of the Entente Cordiale France Overseas: The Great War and the Climax of French Overseas Expansion The Missing Dimension: Governments and Intelligence Communities in the Twentieth Century Secret Service: The Making of the British Intelligence Community Her Majesty's Secret Service:The Making of the British Intelligence Community Codebreaking and Signals Intelligence Intelligence and International Relations 1900-1945 KGB: The Inside Story of its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev Instructions from The Centre: Top Secret Files on KGB Foreign Operations 1975-1985 More Instructions from The Centre: Top Secret Files on KGB Global Operations
Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, cognitive scientist, political activist, social critic. Sometimes called "the father of modern linguistics", Chomsky is a major figure in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science, he holds a joint appointment as Institute Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and laureate professor at the University of Arizona, is the author of over 100 books on topics such as linguistics, war and mass media. Ideologically, he aligns with libertarian socialism. Born to middle-class Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants in Philadelphia, Chomsky developed an early interest in anarchism from alternative bookstores in New York City, he began studying at the University of Pennsylvania at age 16, taking courses in linguistics and philosophy. From 1951 to 1955, he was appointed to Harvard University's Society of Fellows. While at Harvard, he developed the theory of transformational grammar. Chomsky began teaching at MIT in 1957 and emerged as a significant figure in the field of linguistics for his landmark work Syntactic Structures, which remodelled the scientific study of language.
From 1958 to 1959, he was a National Science Foundation fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study. Chomsky is credited as the creator or co-creator of the universal grammar theory, the generative grammar theory, the Chomsky hierarchy, he played a pivotal role in the decline of behaviorism, being critical of the work of B. F. Skinner. Chomsky vocally opposed U. S. involvement in the Vietnam War, believing the war to be an act of American imperialism. In 1967, he attracted widespread public attention for his antiwar essay "The Responsibility of Intellectuals". Associated with the New Left, he was arrested multiple times for his activism and was placed on Richard Nixon's Enemies List. While expanding his work in linguistics over late 1960s and 1970s, he became involved in the so-called linguistics wars with generative semantics. In the 1980s, Chomsky helped develop binding theory. In collaboration with Edward S. Herman, Chomsky co-wrote Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, which articulated the propaganda model of media criticism and worked to expose the Indonesian occupation of East Timor.
Additionally, his defense of freedom of speech—including free speech for Holocaust deniers—generated significant controversy in the Faurisson affair of the early 1980s. In the 1990s, Chomsky started the minimalist program. Since retiring from active teaching, Chomsky has continued his vocal political activism by opposing the War on Terror and supporting the Occupy Movement. One of the most cited scholars in history, Chomsky has influenced a broad array of academic fields, he is recognized as a paradigm shifter who helped spark a major revolution in the human sciences, contributing to the development of a new cognitivistic framework for the study of language and the mind. In addition to his continued scholarly research, he remains a leading critic of U. S. foreign policy and contemporary state capitalism, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, mainstream news media. His ideas have proved significant within the anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist movements; some of his critics have accused him of anti-Americanism.
Avram Noam Chomsky was born on December 7, 1928, in the East Oak Lane neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His mother Elsie emigrated from Belarus to the United States in 1906, while his father William Chomsky left Ukraine for the United States in 1913. William was appointed to the faculty at Gratz College in Philadelphia in 1924. Elsie taught at Gratz. Much William Chomsky was appointed professor of Hebrew at Dropsie College from 1955–77. Noam was the Chomsky family's first child, his younger brother, David Eli Chomsky, was born five years in 1934. The brothers were close, although David was more easygoing while Noam could be competitive. Chomsky and his brother were raised Jewish, being taught Hebrew and discussing the political theories of Zionism; as a Jew, Chomsky faced anti-semitism as a child from the Irish and German communities living in Philadelphia. Chomsky described his parents as "normal Roosevelt Democrats" who had a center-left position on the political spectrum, he was influenced by his uncle who owned a newspaper stand in New York City, where Jewish leftists came to debate the issues of the day.
Whenever visiting his uncle, Chomsky frequented left-wing and anarchist bookstores in the city, voraciously reading political literature. He described his discovery of anarchism as "a lucky accident", because it allowed him to become critical of Stalinism and other forms of Marxism–Leninism. Chomsky's primary education was at Oak Lane Country Day School, an independent Deweyite institution that focused on allowing its pupils to pursue their own interests in a non-competitive atmosphere, it was there, at age 10, that he wrote his first article, on the spread of fascism, following the fall of Barcelona to Francisco Franco's fascist army in the Spanish Civil War. At age 12, Chomsky moved on to secondary education at Central High School, where he joined various clubs and societies and excelled academically but was troubled by the hierarchical and regimented teaching methods. During the same time period, Chomsky atten
Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering and analyzing national security information from around the world through the use of human intelligence. As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States. Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Though it is not the only agency of the Federal government of the United States specializing in HUMINT, the CIA serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the U. S. intelligence community. Moreover, the CIA is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President.
It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIA Director concurrently served as the head of the Intelligence Community. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA had the largest budget of all IC agencies, exceeding previous estimates; the CIA has expanded its role, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations; when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, to perform covert actions. According to its fiscal 2013 budget, the CIA has five priorities: Counterterrorism, the top priority Nonproliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
Warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events. Counterintelligence Cyber intelligence; the CIA has an executive office and five major directorates: The Directorate of Digital Innovation The Directorate of Analysis The Directorate of Operations The Directorate of Support The Directorate of Science and Technology The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence. The Deputy Director is formally appointed by the Director without Senate confirmation, but as the President's opinion plays a great role in the decision, the Deputy Director is considered a political position, making the Chief Operating Officer the most senior non-political position for CIA career officers; the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day-to-day operation of the CIA.
Each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Associate Director of military affairs, a senior military officer, manages the relationship between the CIA and the Unified Combatant Commands, who produce and deliver to the CIA regional/operational intelligence and consume national intelligence produced by the CIA; the Directorate of Analysis, through much of its history known as the Directorate of Intelligence, is tasked with helping "the President and other policymakers make informed decisions about our country's national security" by looking "at all the available information on an issue and organiz it for policymakers". The Directorate has four regional analytic groups, six groups for transnational issues, three that focus on policy and staff support. There is an office dedicated to Iraq; the Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, for covert action. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of human intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U.
S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence and budget between the United States Department of Defense and the CIA. In spite of this, the Department of Defense organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency; this Directorate is known to be organized by geographic regions and issues, but its precise organization is classified. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research and manage technical collection disciplines and equipment. Many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air
Philip Burnett Franklin Agee was a Central Intelligence Agency case officer and writer, best known as author of the 1975 book, Inside the Company: CIA Diary, detailing his experiences in the CIA. Agee joined the CIA in 1957, over the following decade had postings in Washington, D. C. Ecuador and Mexico. After resigning from the Agency in 1968, he became a leading opponent of CIA practices. A co-founder of CovertAction Quarterly, he died in Cuba in January 2008. Agee was raised in Tampa, Florida, he had, Agee wrote in On the run, "a privileged upbringing in a big white house bordering an exclusive golf club". After graduating from Tampa's Jesuit High School, he attended the University of Notre Dame, from which he graduated cum laude in 1956. Agee attended the University of Florida College of Law, he served in the United States Air Force from 1957 to 1960. Agee worked as a case officer for the Central Intelligence Agency from 1960 to 1968, including postings to Quito and Mexico City. Agee stated that his Roman Catholic social conscience had made him uncomfortable with his work by the late 1960s leading to his disillusionment with the CIA and its support for authoritarian governments across Latin America.
In the book Agee condemned the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre in Mexico City and wrote that this was the immediate event precipitating his leaving the agency. Agee claimed that the CIA was "very pleased with his work" and had offered him "another promotion", that his superior "was startled" when Agee told him about his plans to resign. In contrast, Sovietologist John Barron maintained in his book The KGB Today that Agee's resignation was forced "for a variety of reasons, including his irresponsible drinking and vulgar propositioning of embassy wives, inability to manage his finances". Agee denied these claims as ad hominem attacks meant to discredit him. Russian exile Oleg Kalugin, former head of the KGB's Counterintelligence Directorate, claimed that in 1973 Agee approached the KGB's resident in Mexico City and offered a "treasure trove of information." According to Kalugin, the KGB was too suspicious to accept his offer. Kalugin states that: Agee went to the Cubans, who welcomed him with open arms...
The Cubans shared Agee's information with us. But as I sat in my office in Moscow reading reports about the growing revelations coming from Agee, I cursed our officers for turning away such a prize. For his part, Agee claimed in his work On the Run that he never had any intention of working for the KGB or Cuban intelligence, he was following his conscience in revealing the CIA's subversion and sabotage of democratically elected governments and genuine movements for social justice. While Agee was writing Inside the Company, the KGB kept in contact with him through Edgar Anatolyevich Cheporov, a London correspondent of the Novosti News Agency. Agee was accused of receiving up to US$1 million in payments from the Cuban intelligence service, he denied the accusations, which were first made by a high-ranking Cuban intelligence officer and'defector' in a 1992 Los Angeles Times report. A Los Angeles Times article claimed that Agee posed as a CIA Inspector General staff member in order to target a member of the CIA's Mexico City station on behalf of Cuban intelligence.
According to this story, Agee was identified during a meeting by a CIA case officer. To the end of his life, Philip Agee categorically denied having worked for any intelligence service after leaving the CIA, he maintained. However, after his death the KGB, who gave him the codename PONT, acknowledged his true affiliation; because of legal problems in the United States, Inside the Company was first published in 1975 in Britain, while Agee was living in London. In an issue of Playboy magazine after the book's publication, Agee was interviewed: "Millions of people all over the world had been killed or at least had their lives destroyed by the CIA... I couldn't just sit by and do nothing."Agee acknowledged that "Representatives of the Communist Party of Cuba gave important encouragement at a time when I doubted that I would be able to find the additional information I needed."The London Evening News called Inside the Company: CIA Diary "a frightening picture of corruption, pressure and conspiracy".
The Economist called the book "inescapable reading". Miles Copeland, Jr. a former CIA station chief in Cairo, said the book was "as complete an account of spy work as is to be published anywhere" and it is "an authentic account of how an ordinary American or British'case officer' operates... All of it... is presented with deadly accuracy."The book was delayed for six months before being published in the United States. Inside the Company identified 250 alleged CIA officers and agents; the list of officers and agents, all known to Agee, appears in an appendix to the book. While written as a diary, the book reconstructs events based on Agee's memory and his subsequent research. Agee describes his first overseas assignment in 1960 to Ecuador, where his primary mission had the aim of forcing a diplomatic break between Ecuador and Cuba, he writes that the technique he used included bribery, intimidation and forgery. Agee spent four years in Ecuador penetrating Ecuadorian politics, he states that his actions destroyed the political fabric of Ecuador.
Agee helped bug the United Arab Republic code-room in Montevideo, with two contact microphones placed on the ceiling of the room below. On December 12, 1965 Agee visited senior Uruguayan military and police officers at a Montevideo police headquarters, he realized that the screaming he hear