NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC. The division operates under NBCUniversal Broadcast, Cable and News, a subsidiary of NBCUniversal, in turn a subsidiary of Comcast; the group's various operations report to the president of Noah Oppenheim. NBC News aired the first scheduled news program in American broadcast television history on February 21, 1940; the group's broadcasts are produced and aired from 30 Rockefeller Center, NBC's headquarters in New York City. The division presides over America's number-one-rated newscast, NBC Nightly News, the longest-running television series in American history, Meet The Press, the Sunday morning program of newsmakers interviews. NBC News offers 70 years of rare historic footage from the NBCUniversal Archives online. NBC News operates a 24-hour cable news network known as MSNBC, which includes the organization's flagship daytime news operation, MSNBC Live; the cable network shares editorial control with NBC News. In 2017, the organization entered into a partnership and purchased a 25% stake in Euronews, a European 24-hour news network.
The first scheduled, American television newscast in history was made by NBC News on February 21, 1940, anchored by Lowell Thomas, airing weeknights at 6:45 p.m. It was Lowell Thomas in front of a television camera while doing his NBC network radio broadcast, the television simulcast seen only in New York. In June 1940, NBC, through its flagship station in New York City, W2XBS operating on channel one, televised 30¼ hours of coverage of the Republican National Convention live and direct from Philadelphia; the station used a series of relays from Philadelphia to New York and on to upper New York State, for rebroadcast on W2XB in Schenectady, making this among the first "network" programs of NBC Television. Due to wartime and technical restrictions, there were no live telecasts of the 1944 conventions, although films of the events were shown over WNBT the next day. About this time, there were irregularly scheduled, quasi-network newscasts originating from NBC's WNBT in New York City and fed to WPTZ in Philadelphia and WRGB in Schenectady, NY, such as Esso sponsored news features a well as The War As It Happens in the final days of World War II, another irregularly scheduled NBC television newsreel program, seen in New York and Schenectady on the few television sets which existed at the time.
After the war, NBC Television Newsreel aired. In 1948, when sponsored by Camel Cigarettes, NBC Television Newsreel was renamed Camel Newsreel Theatre and when John Cameron Swayze was added as an on-camera anchor in 1949, the program was renamed Camel News Caravan. In 1948, NBC teamed up with Life magazine to provide election night coverage of President Harry S. Truman's surprising victory over New York governor Thomas E. Dewey; the television audience was small. The following year, the Camel News Caravan, anchored by John Cameron Swayze, debuted on NBC. Lacking the graphics and technology of years, it nonetheless contained many of the elements of modern newscasts. NBC hired its own film crews and in the program's early years, it dominated CBS's competing program, which did not hire its own film crews until 1953.. In 1950, David Brinkley began serving as the program's Washington correspondent, but attracted little attention outside the network until paired with Chet Huntley in 1956. In 1955, the Camel News Caravan fell behind CBS's Douglas Edwards with the News, Swayze lost the tepid support of NBC executives.
The following year, NBC replaced the program with the Huntley-Brinkley Report. Beginning in 1951, NBC News was managed by director of news Bill McAndrew, who reported to vice president of news and public affairs J. Davidson Taylor. Television assumed an prominent role in American family life in the late 1950s, NBC News was called television's "champion of news coverage." NBC president Robert Kintner provided the news division with ample amounts of both financial resources and air time. In 1956, the network paired anchors Chet Huntley and David Brinkley and the two became celebrities, supported by reporters including John Chancellor, Frank McGee, Edwin Newman, Sander Vanocur, Nancy Dickerson, Tom Pettit, Ray Scherer. Created by producer Reuven Frank, NBC's The Huntley–Brinkley Report had its debut on October 29, 1956. During much of its 14-year run, it exceeded the viewership levels of its CBS News competition, anchored by Douglas Edwards and, beginning in April 1962, by Walter Cronkite. NBC's vice president of news and public affairs, J. Davidson Taylor, was a Southerner who, with producer Reuven Frank, was determined that NBC would lead television's coverage of the civil rights movement.
In 1955, NBC provided national coverage of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s leadership of the bus boycott in Montgomery, airing reports from Frank McGee news director of NBC's Montgomery affiliate WSFA-TV, who would join the network. A year John Chancellor's coverage of the admission of black students to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas was the first occasion when the key news story came from television rather than print and prompted a prominent U. S. senator to observe "When I think of Little Rock, I think of John Chancellor." Other reporters who covered the movement for the network included Sander Vanocur, Herbert Kaplow, Charles Quinn, Richard Valeriani, hit with an ax handle
Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering and analyzing national security information from around the world through the use of human intelligence. As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States. Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Though it is not the only agency of the Federal government of the United States specializing in HUMINT, the CIA serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the U. S. intelligence community. Moreover, the CIA is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President.
It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIA Director concurrently served as the head of the Intelligence Community. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA had the largest budget of all IC agencies, exceeding previous estimates; the CIA has expanded its role, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations; when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, to perform covert actions. According to its fiscal 2013 budget, the CIA has five priorities: Counterterrorism, the top priority Nonproliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
Warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events. Counterintelligence Cyber intelligence; the CIA has an executive office and five major directorates: The Directorate of Digital Innovation The Directorate of Analysis The Directorate of Operations The Directorate of Support The Directorate of Science and Technology The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence. The Deputy Director is formally appointed by the Director without Senate confirmation, but as the President's opinion plays a great role in the decision, the Deputy Director is considered a political position, making the Chief Operating Officer the most senior non-political position for CIA career officers; the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day-to-day operation of the CIA.
Each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Associate Director of military affairs, a senior military officer, manages the relationship between the CIA and the Unified Combatant Commands, who produce and deliver to the CIA regional/operational intelligence and consume national intelligence produced by the CIA; the Directorate of Analysis, through much of its history known as the Directorate of Intelligence, is tasked with helping "the President and other policymakers make informed decisions about our country's national security" by looking "at all the available information on an issue and organiz it for policymakers". The Directorate has four regional analytic groups, six groups for transnational issues, three that focus on policy and staff support. There is an office dedicated to Iraq; the Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, for covert action. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of human intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U.
S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence and budget between the United States Department of Defense and the CIA. In spite of this, the Department of Defense organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency; this Directorate is known to be organized by geographic regions and issues, but its precise organization is classified. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research and manage technical collection disciplines and equipment. Many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air
Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information. Spies help agencies uncover secret information. Any individual or spy ring, in the service of a government, company or independent operation, can commit espionage; the practice is clandestine, as it is by definition unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. Espionage is a method of intelligence gathering which includes information gathering from public sources. Espionage is part of an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term tends to be associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies for military purposes. Spying involving corporations is known as industrial espionage. One of the most effective ways to gather data and information about the enemy is by infiltrating the enemy's ranks; this is the job of the spy. Spies can return information concerning the strength of enemy forces, they can find dissidents within the enemy's forces and influence them to defect.
In times of crisis, spies sabotage the enemy in various ways. Counterintelligence is the practice of thwarting enemy intelligence-gathering. All nations have strict laws concerning espionage and the penalty for being caught is severe. However, the benefits gained through espionage are so great that most governments and many large corporations make use of it. Information collection techniques used in the conduct of clandestine human intelligence include operational techniques, asset recruiting, tradecraft. Today, espionage agencies target terrorists as well as state actors. Since 2008, the United States has charged at least 57 defendants for attempting to spy for China. Intelligence services value certain intelligence collection techniques over others; the former Soviet Union, for example, preferred human sources over research in open sources, while the United States has tended to emphasize technological methods such as SIGINT and IMINT. In the Soviet Union, both political and military intelligence officers were judged by the number of agents they recruited.
Espionage agents are trained experts in a targeted field so they can differentiate mundane information from targets of value to their own organizational development. Correct identification of the target at its execution is the sole purpose of the espionage operation. Broad areas of espionage targeting expertise include: Natural resources: strategic production identification and assessment. Agents are found among bureaucrats who administer these resources in their own countries Popular sentiment towards domestic and foreign policies. Agents recruited from field journalistic crews, exchange postgraduate students and sociology researchers Strategic economic strengths. Agents recruited from science and technology academia, commercial enterprises, more from among military technologists Military capability intelligence. Agents are trained by military espionage education facilities, posted to an area of operation with covert identities to minimize prosecution Counterintelligence operations targeting opponents' intelligence services themselves, such as breaching confidentiality of communications, recruiting defectors or moles Although the news media may speak of "spy satellites" and the like, espionage is not a synonym for all intelligence-gathering disciplines.
It is a specific form of human source intelligence. Codebreaking, aircraft or satellite photography, research in open publications are all intelligence gathering disciplines, but none of them is considered espionage. Many HUMINT activities, such as prisoner interrogation, reports from military reconnaissance patrols and from diplomats, etc. are not considered espionage. Espionage is the disclosure of sensitive information to people who are not cleared for that information or access to that sensitive information. Unlike other forms of intelligence collection disciplines, espionage involves accessing the place where the desired information is stored or accessing the people who know the information and will divulge it through some kind of subterfuge. There are exceptions to physical meetings, such as the Oslo Report, or the insistence of Robert Hanssen in never meeting the people who bought his information; the US defines espionage towards itself as "The act of obtaining, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation".
Black's Law Dictionary defines espionage as: "... gathering, transmitting, or losing... information related to the national defense". Espionage is a violation of United States law, 18 U. S. C. §§ 792–798 and Article 106a of the Uniform Code of Military Justice". The United States, like most nations, conducts espionage against other nations, under the control of the National Clandestine Service. Britain's espionage activities are controlled by the Secret Intelligence Service. A spy is a person employed to seek out top secret information from a source. Within the United States Intelligence Community, "asset" is a more common usage. A case officer or Special Agent, who may have diplomatic status and directs the human collector. Cutouts are couriers who do not know the case officer but transfer messages. A
Intelligence has been defined in many ways, including: the capacity for logic, self-awareness, emotional knowledge, planning, critical thinking, problem solving. More it can be described as the ability to perceive or infer information, to retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment or context. Intelligence is most studied in humans but has been observed in both non-human animals and in plants. Intelligence in machines is called artificial intelligence, implemented in computer systems using programs and, appropriate hardware; the word "intelligence" derives from the Latin nouns intelligentia or intellēctus, which in turn stem from the verb intelligere, to comprehend or perceive. In the Middle Ages, the word intellectus became the scholarly technical term for understanding, a translation for the Greek philosophical term nous; this term, was linked to the metaphysical and cosmological theories of teleological scholasticism, including theories of the immortality of the soul, the concept of the Active Intellect.
This entire approach to the study of nature was rejected by the early modern philosophers such as Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, all of whom preferred the word "understanding" in their English philosophical works. Hobbes for example, in his Latin De Corpore, used "intellectus intelligit", translated in the English version as "the understanding understandeth", as a typical example of a logical absurdity; the term "intelligence" has therefore become less common in English language philosophy, but it has been taken up in more contemporary psychology. The definition of intelligence is controversial; some groups of psychologists have suggested the following definitions: From "Mainstream Science on Intelligence", an op-ed statement in the Wall Street Journal signed by fifty-two researchers: A general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas and learn from experience. It is not book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts.
Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do. From Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns, a report published by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association: Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never consistent: a given person's intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria. Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to organize this complex set of phenomena. Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions, none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen, somewhat different, definitions.
Besides those definitions and learning researchers have suggested definitions of intelligence such as: Human intelligence is the intellectual power of humans, marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness. Intelligence enables humans to remember descriptions of things and use those descriptions in future behaviors, it is a cognitive process. It gives humans the cognitive abilities to learn, form concepts and reason, including the capacities to recognize patterns, comprehend ideas, solve problems, use language to communicate. Intelligence enables humans to think. Note that much of the above definition applies to the intelligence of non-human animals. Although humans have been the primary focus of intelligence researchers, scientists have attempted to investigate animal intelligence, or more broadly, animal cognition; these researchers are interested in studying both mental ability in a particular species, comparing abilities between species. They study various measures of problem solving, as well as verbal reasoning abilities.
Some challenges in this area are defining intelligence so that it has the same meaning across species, operationalizing a measure that compares mental ability across different species and contexts. Wolfgang Köhler's research on the intelligence of apes is an example of research in this area. Stanley Coren's book, The Intelligence of Dogs is a notable book on the topic of dog intelligence. Non-human animals noted and studied for their intelligence include chimpanzees and other great apes, elephants and to some extent parrots and ravens. Cephalopod intelligence provides important comparative study. Cephalopods appear to exhibit characteristics of significant intelligence, yet their nervous systems differ radically from those of backboned animals. Vertebrates such as mammals, birds and fish have shown a high degree of intellect that varies according to each species; the same is true with arthropods. Evidence of a general factor of intell
Valerie Elise Plame Wilson, known as Valerie Plame, Valerie E. Wilson, Valerie Plame Wilson, is a writer, spy novelist, former operations officer who worked at the United States Central Intelligence Agency; as the subject of the 2003 Plame affair known as the CIA leak scandal, Plame's identity as covert officer of the CIA was leaked to and subsequently published by Robert Novak of the Washington Post. In the aftermath of the scandal, Richard Armitage in the U. S. Department of State was identified as one source of the information, I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Chief of Staff to Vice President Dick Cheney, was convicted of lying to investigators. After a failed appeal, President George W. Bush commuted Libby's sentence and in 2018, President Donald Trump pardoned him. No one was formally charged with leaking the information. In collaboration with a ghostwriter, Plame wrote a memoir detailing her career and the events leading up to her resignation from the CIA, she has subsequently published at least two spy novels.
A 2010 biographical feature film, Fair Game, was produced based on memoirs by her husband. Valerie Elise Plame was born on August 13, 1963, on Elmendorf Air Force Base, in Anchorage, Alaska, to Diane and Samuel Plame III. Plame's paternal grandfather was Jewish; the rest of Plame's family was Protestant. She graduated in 1981 from Lower Moreland High School, in Huntingdon Valley, in 1985 from Pennsylvania State University, with a B. A. in advertising. While attending Penn State, she joined Pi Beta Phi sorority and worked for the business division of the Daily Collegian student newspaper. After graduating from Penn State in 1985, Plame married her college boyfriend. In 1997, while working for the Central Intelligence Agency, Plame met former Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, IV, "at a reception in Washington at the residence of the Turkish Ambassador." According to Wilson, because Plame was unable to reveal her CIA role to him on their first date, she told him that she was an energy trader in Brussels, he thought at that time that she was "an up-and-coming international executive."
After they began dating and became "close," Plame revealed her employment with the CIA to Wilson. They were married on Plame's second marriage and Wilson's third. Professionally and she has used variants of her name. Professionally, while a covert CIA officer, she used her given first name and her maiden surname, "Valerie Plame." Since leaving the CIA, as a speaker, she has used the name "Valerie Plame Wilson", she is referred to by that name in the civil suit that the Wilsons brought against former and current government officials, Wilson v. Libby, and in public records of her political contributions, since her marriage in 1998, she has used the name "Valerie E. Wilson." At the time they met, Wilson relates in his memoir, he was separated from his second wife Jacqueline. They divorced after 12 years of marriage, his divorce had been "delayed because I was never in one place long enough to complete the process," although he and she had been living separate lives since the mid-1990s. Plame and Wilson are the parents of twins, Trevor Rolph, Samantha Finnell Diana, born in January 2000.
From his first marriage, to Susan Dale Otchis, Wilson is the father of another set of twins, Sabrina Cecile and Joseph Charles, who were born in 1979. Prior to the disclosure of her classified CIA identity, Valerie and their twins lived in The Palisades, a neighborhood of Washington, D. C. on the fringe of Georgetown. After she resigned from the CIA following the disclosure of her covert status, in January 2006, the family moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico, where Plame serves as a consultant to the Santa Fe Institute. In a 2011 interview, Plame said she and Wilson had received threats while living in the D. C. metro area, while she acknowledged an element of threat remains in their new home, the New Mexico location "tamps down the whole swirl."Plame endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the run-up for the 2016 U. S. presidential election. After graduating from college, moving to Washington, D. C. and marrying Sesler, Plame worked at a clothing store while awaiting results of her application to the CIA.
She was accepted into the 1985–86 CIA officer training class and began her training for what became a 20-year career with the Agency. Although the CIA will not publicly release the specific dates of Plame's employment from 1985 to 2002, due to security concerns, Special Counsel Patrick Fitzgerald affirmed that Plame "was a CIA officer from January 1, 2002, forward" and that "her association with the CIA was classified at that time through July 2003. Details about Plame's professional career are still classified, but it is documented that she worked for the CIA in a non-official cover capacity relating to counter-proliferation. Plame served the CIA at times as a non-official cover, operating undercover in two positions in Athens and Brussels. While using her own name, "Valerie Plame", her assignments required posing in various professional roles in order to gather intelligence more effectively. Two of her covers include serving as a junior consular officer in the early 1990s in Athens and later as an energy analyst for the private company "Brewster Jennings & Associates," which the CIA acknowledged was a front company for certain investigations.
However, others have stated that she
United States Intelligence Community
The United States Intelligence Community is a federation of 16 separate United States government intelligence agencies and a 17th administrative office, that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States. Member organizations of the IC include intelligence agencies, military intelligence, civilian intelligence and analysis offices within federal executive departments; the IC is overseen by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence making up the seventeen-member Intelligence Community, which itself is headed by the Director of National Intelligence, who reports to the President of the United States. Among their varied responsibilities, the members of the Community collect and produce foreign and domestic intelligence, contribute to military planning, perform espionage; the IC was established by Executive Order 12333, signed on December 4, 1981, by U. S. President Ronald Reagan; the Washington Post reported in 2010 that there were 1,271 government organizations and 1,931 private companies in 10,000 locations in the United States that were working on counterterrorism, homeland security, intelligence, that the intelligence community as a whole includes 854,000 people holding top-secret clearances.
According to a 2008 study by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, private contractors make up 29% of the workforce in the U. S. intelligence community and account for 49% of their personnel budgets. The term "Intelligence Community" was first used during LTG Walter Bedell Smith's tenure as Director of Central Intelligence. Intelligence is information that agencies collect and distribute in response to government leaders' questions and requirements. Intelligence is a broad term that entails: Collection and production of sensitive information to support national security leaders, including policymakers, military commanders, Members of Congress. Safeguarding these processes and this information through counterintelligence activities. Execution of covert operations approved by the President; the IC strives to provide valuable insight on important issues by gathering raw intelligence, analyzing that data in context, producing timely and relevant products for customers at all levels of national security—from the war-fighter on the ground to the President in Washington.
Executive Order 12333 charged the IC with six primary objectives: Collection of information needed by the President, the National Security Council, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, other executive branch officials for the performance of their duties and responsibilities. S. international terrorist and/or narcotics activities, other hostile activities directed against the U. S. by foreign powers, organizations and their agents. The IC is headed by the Director of National Intelligence, whose statutory leadership is exercised through the Office of the Director of National Intelligence; the other 16 members of the IC are: The IC performs under two separate programs: The National Intelligence Program known as the National Foreign Intelligence Program as defined by the National Security Act of 1947, "refers to all programs and activities of the intelligence community, as well as any other programs of the intelligence community designated jointly by the Director of National Intelligence and the head of a United States department or agency or by the President.
Such term does not include programs, projects, or activities of the military departments to acquire intelligence for the planning and conduct of tactical military operations by the United States Armed Forces". Under the law, the DNI is responsible for directing and overseeing the NIP, though the ability to do so is limited; the Military Intelligence Program refers to the programs, projects, or activities of the military departments to acquire intelligence for the planning and conduct of tactical military operations by the United States Armed Forces. The MIP is controlled by the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence. In 2005 the Department of Defense combined the Joint Military Intelligence Program and the Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities program to form the MIP. Since the definitions of the NIP and MIP overlap when they address military intelligence, assignment of intelligence activities to the NIP and MIP sometimes proves problematic; the overall organization of the IC is governed by the National Security Act of 1947 and Executive Order 12333.
The statutory organizational relationships were revised with the 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act amendments to the 1947 National Security Act. Though the IC characterizes itself as a federation of its member elements, its