A cowbell is a bell worn around the neck of free-roaming livestock so herders can keep track of an animal via the sound of the bell when the animal is grazing out of view in hilly landscapes or vast plains. Although they are referred to as "cow bells" due to their extensive use with cattle, the bells are used on a wide variety of animals; the bell and clapper are crafted from iron, brass, copper, or wood. The collar used to hold the bell is traditionally made with wood fibers; the craftsmanship of cow bells varies by geographic culture. Most cow bells are made of flat pieces of plated sheet metal. Plating causes the sheet metal to have a surface which can be left plain; the ornaments on the cow bell and the collar are decorative although some cultures believe that certain ornaments provide or enhance magical protections such as the power to prevent or cure fever and other illnesses. Different bells can have specific sounds to identify important characteristics of the animals, such as age and species.

Some cultures have developed names to differentiate between bells and their tones. Each of these bells possess unique sounds and sizes. Bells are used to keep track of grazing animal herds such as goats, reindeer and cows, they are used in Europe, Mediterranean areas and Latin America, but are used worldwide by those who practice transhumance, including nomadic pastoral tribes in Africa and Asia. Some people put bells on their livestock because they believe the foreign sound of the bell scares off predators, some studies have shown that the sound of the bell has the opposite effect and leads predators to livestock because predators develop a learned association between the sound of the bell and the presence of a prey animal, it is difficult to pinpoint when the use of cow bells began, but the earliest examples of recognizable cow bells date back to the Iron Age. The use of iron bells in sub-Saharan African music and the Niger–Congo area is linked to the early iron-making technology spread during the Bantu migrations.

The earliest archaeological evidence of bells dates back to more than 5000 years ago, from the 3rd millennium BC in Neolithic China. During this era, there is evidence of early forms of pottery cowbells, which were used to track goats and cattle; the pottery bells were replaced by metal bells. In West Asia, the first bells appeared in 1000 BC; the earliest metal bells, one found in the Taosi site, four in the Erlitou site, are dated to about 2000 BC. Though the bells for shepherding were expanded from the fertile crescent to Celtic, Carthaginian and Roman cultures, in Europe the earliest written evidence of bells used for livestock dates to the late 14th to early 15th century. Grimm's Deutsches Wörterbuch s.v. "Kuhschelle" points to a 1410 mention in a Frankfurt archive. The OED attributes the phrase "to bear the bell" in the sense "to take the first place" as referring to the leading cow or sheep of a drove or flock to Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde, 1374. In 15th-century Germany, a cow bell was worn only by leading piece of livestock.

The wider distribution of the bell worn by livestock was a gradual process of the Early Modern period. In France in the mid-16th century, Francois Rabelais makes this practice explicit in his Gargantua and Pantagruel, stating that such was the custom, to appear on the field wearing jingling garment, as the high priest wears when entering the sacristy; the importance of the cow bell is highlighted in Swiss folklore, which reflects a period when a great Trychel, or large cow bell, was a rare and much-coveted item. The legend of the Simmental tells how a young cowherd strays inside a mountain, is offered by a beautiful woman the choice between a treasure of gold coins, a golden Trychel, or the fairy herself, he chooses the Trychel. As opposed to regular cast-metal bells, trychlen are made of hammered sheet metal; this results in a clanking, less crisp sound, but at the same time results in a bell, lighter and thus easier to carry. In Southern Germany, such cow bells are called Kuhglocke. Modern-day manufacturing of cow bells continues today in Korea and India.

Despite a May 2012 fire that destroyed its factory, the Bevin Brothers Manufacturing Company continues to make cow bell bells in East Hampton, CT, as it has since its founding in 1832. S. company making just bells. In Western Europe, when the snow has melted in the spring, villages send the cows to the high alpine meadows to graze; this event, called Alpaufzug, is celebrated in each village with a procession through the village to the high pastures. The cows are decorated with floral wreaths woven through the horns; the best milk-producing cow in the village wears the largest bell. The bells are made in various sizes, are awarded to the cows according to their milk production that year. In the fall, the event is repeated, but is called an "Alpabzug", as the animals return from the high meadow; the best cows from each herd again lead the procession. The traditional festival is called Viehscheid in Southern Germany, has other names in the Alpine regions. Robert Sc

Law Preservation Party

Law Preservation Party was the name used in the State of New York by the Prohibition Party during the early 1930s. The name change was done to affirm their support of the continuance of Prohibition in the United States in the face of widespread opposition which ended with the passing of the 21st Amendment in 1933; the party was established in 1930 and ran a candidate for governor, Robert P Carroll, who received 190,666 votes, 6.0% of the total and sufficient to get the party certified as an official party. In 1932 the party ran candidates for House election, 1932 congressional and state elections. At its 1932 convention in Syracuse, the party cross-endorsed nine Republicans from the western part of the state. Five congressional candidates did appear on the ballot as the sole nominee of the party. Of these, Ernest R Clark achieved a respectable 20,209 votes, running against incumbent Republican James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr. and Democrat David A. White in the 39th congressional district. Senatorial candidate D. Leigh Colvin earned 74,610 votes from a total vote of over 3.5 million.

Its candidate for governor, John F. Vichert, received 102,959 votes 2.2% of the 4.7 million votes cast. This kept the party certified and on the ballot. Following the passage of the 21st Amendment, party activity declined. By the elections of 1934, when Senatorial nominee William Shaefe Chase earned only 16,769 votes. Four Republican congressional candidates were cross endorsed, including the successful candidacies of Hamilton Fish, Jr. Frances D. Culkin and Robert L. Bacon. Five congressional candidates again appeared on the Law Preservation line, with Neil D. Cranmer achieving by far the best result with 2,231 out of the more than 80,000 cast in the 37th congressional district; the candidate for Governor, William Varney received only 20,449 votes, 0.5% of the total and the party was decertified. The Law Preservation Party did not contest subsequent congressional elections; the strength of the party was upstate New York. In 1930, when its candidate for governor received 6.0% of the statewide vote, its regional split was 0.6% in New York City, but 14.0% in upstate New York.

In September 2017, the party relaunched as the New York Prohibition Party in response to the alcohol-friendly and pro-gambling policies of incumbent Governor Andrew Cuomo. It fielded one candidate in the 2018 New York state elections, Jonathan Makeley, a 22-year-old college student majoring in history, who ran for the state Assembly seat held at the time by Raymond Walter. Makeley received 3 write-in votes. "Political Combinations in Elections". Harvard Law Review. 45: 906–912. March 1932. Doi:10.2307/1332029. JSTOR 1332029."Dry Factions Favor Clark for Congress. Teacher, Lecturer Favored for Preservationist. Designation Confers Today with Judge Remington to Support Hoover". Rochester Times Union. 1932-08-12. RVF. Bio Men V19. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2006-10-26."Cuthbert Pound Nominated: Chief Judge of State Court of Appeals Given Support of Three Parties for Election". Cornell Alumni News. 35: 1. October 13, 1932. Retrieved 2006-10-25. Ellis, George D.. "Statistics of the Congressional and Presidential Elections of November 8, 1932".

Clerk of the House of Representatives. Pp. 23–26. Archived from the original on October 16, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-25. Leroy D. Brandon. "Statistics of the Congressional and Presidential Elections of November 6, 1934". Clerk of the House of Representatives. Pp. 19–23. Archived from the original on October 26, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-25

The North Queensland Guardian

The North Queensland Guardian was a newspaper published from Townsville, in the Australian state of Queensland between 1937 and 1943. The newspaper was published by the Queensland State Committee of the Communist Party of Australia. Fred Paterson was the chairman of the editorial board of the newspaper; the first issue was published on May Day 1937. The first editorial of the newspaper stated that The North Queensland Guardian would launch "...a crusade against poverty. The North Queensland Guardian was the first communist newspaper in the state with a degree of success. Under Paterson's editorship the hammer and sickle was removed from the front page of the newspaper. Unlike other Communist Party of Australia organs, The North Queensland Guardian carried commercial advertisements, it carried articles on sports and social events, dedicating significant attention to women's activities. By May 1937 the newspaper reached a circulation of 5,100 copies, it was sold at two pence per issue. In 1938 the newspaper condemned the moves to displace the Murri people and confiscate their wages, called on its sympathizers to side with the Aborigines Progressive Association.

With the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, the Australian communist press was confronted with increasing censorship issues. On 27 May 1940 the newspaper was banned; the newspaper was published illegally between June 1940 and 8 January 1943. During this time its size was reduced; the last issue of The North Queensland Guardian was published on 5 November 1943. It was superseded by The Queensland Guardian, published from Brisbane