Salem is the capital of the U. S. state of Oregon, the county seat of Marion County. It is located in the center of the Willamette Valley alongside the Willamette River, which runs north through the city; the river forms the boundary between Marion and Polk counties, the city neighborhood of West Salem is in Polk County. Salem was founded in 1842, became the capital of the Oregon Territory in 1851, was incorporated in 1857. Salem had a population of 169,798 in 2017, making it the second-largest city in the state after Portland. Salem is a little under an hour's driving distance away from Portland. Salem is the principal city of the Salem Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan area that covers Marion and Polk counties and had a combined population of 390,738 at the 2010 census. A 2013 estimate placed the metropolitan population at the state's second largest; the city is home to Willamette University, Corban University, Chemeketa Community College. The State of Oregon is the largest public employer in the city, Salem Health is the largest private employer.
Transportation includes public transit from Salem-Keizer Transit, Amtrak service, non-commercial air travel at McNary Field. Major roads include Interstate 5, Oregon Route 99E, Oregon Route 22, which connects West Salem across the Willamette River via the Marion Street and Center Street bridges; the Native Americans who inhabited the central Willamette Valley at first European contact, the Kalapuya, called the area Chim-i-ki-ti, which means "meeting or resting place" in the Central Kalapuya language. When the Methodist Mission moved to the area, they called the new establishment Chemeketa; when the Oregon Institute was established, the community became known as the Institute. When the Institute was dissolved, the trustees decided to lay out a town site on the Institute lands; some possible sources for the name "Salem" include William H. Willson, who in 1850 and 1851 filed the plans for the main part of the city, suggested adopting an Anglicized version of the Biblical word "Shalom", meaning "peace".
The Reverend David Leslie, President of the town's Trustees wanted a Biblical name, suggested using the last five letters of "Jerusalem". Or, the town may be named after Salem, where Leslie was educated. There were many names suggested, after the change to Salem, some people, such as Asahel Bush, believed the name should be changed back to Chemeketa; the Vern Miller Civic Center, which houses the city offices and library, has a public space dedicated as the Peace Plaza in recognition of the names by which the city has been known. It is estimated; the Kalapuya peoples would gather on the plateau east and south of the current downtown area in the winter and establish camps. They harvested in the streams and fields of the area. One staple of life was the camas root, periodically the Kalapuya would set fires that would clear and fertilize the meadows where it grew. In the early 1850s, the Kalapuya, along with the other native peoples west of the Cascade Mountains, were removed by the U. S. government through a combination of treaties and force.
Most Kalapuya people were moved to the Grande Ronde Reservation somewhat to the west of Salem, with smaller numbers ending up at Siletz Reservation and other Oregon and Washington reservations. The first people of European descent arrived in the area as early as 1812; the first permanent American settlement in the area was the Jason Lee Methodist mission located in the area north of Salem known as Wheatland. In 1842, the missionaries established the Oregon Institute in the area, to become the site of Salem. In 1844, the mission was dissolved and the town site established. In 1851, Salem became the territorial capital; the capital was moved to Corvallis in 1855, but was moved back to Salem permanently that same year. Salem incorporated as a city in 1857, with the coming of statehood in 1859, it became the state capital. Oregon has had three capitol buildings in Salem. A two-story state house, occupied for only two months, burned to the ground in December 1855. Oregon's second capitol building was completed in 1876 on the site of the original.
The Revival-style building was based in part on the U. S. Capitol building; the building received its distinctive copper dome in 1893. On April 25, 1935, this building was destroyed by fire; the third and current Oregon State Capitol was completed on the same site in 1938. It is recognizable by its distinctive pioneer statue atop the capitol dome, plated with gold-leaf and named the Oregon Pioneer. Agriculture has always been important to Salem, the city has recognized and celebrated it in a number of ways. In 1861, Salem was chosen as the permanent site of the Oregon State Fair by the Oregon State Agricultural Association. Salem is nicknamed the "Cherry City", because of the past importance of the local cherry-growing industry; the first cherry festival in Salem was held in 1903 and was an annual event, with parades and the election of a cherry queen, until sometime after World War I. The event was revived as the Salem Cherryland Festival for several years in the late 1940s. Salem is located in Marion and Polk counties.
The 45th Parallel
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued; the trade stimulated the exploration and colonization of Siberia, northern North America, the South Shetland and South Sandwich Islands. Today the importance of the fur trade has diminished. Animal rights organizations oppose the fur trade, citing that animals are brutally killed and sometimes skinned alive. Fur has been replaced in some clothing by synthetic imitations, for example, as in ruffs on hoods of parkas. Before the European colonization of the Americas, Russia was a major supplier of fur pelts to Western Europe and parts of Asia, its trade developed in the Early Middle Ages, first through exchanges at posts around the Baltic and Black seas. The main trading market destination was the German city of Leipzig. Kievan Russia, the first Russian State, was the first supplier of the Russian Fur Trade.
Russia exported raw furs, consisting in most cases of the pelts of martens, wolves, foxes and hares. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Russians began to settle in Siberia, a region rich in many mammal fur species, such as Arctic fox, sable, sea otter and stoat. In a search for the prized sea otter pelts, first used in China, for the northern fur seal, the Russian Empire expanded into North America, notably Alaska. From the 17th through the second half of the 19th century, Russia was the world's largest supplier of fur; the fur trade played a vital role in the development of Siberia, the Russian Far East and the Russian colonization of the Americas. As recognition of the importance of the trade to the Siberian economy, the sable is a regional symbol of the Ural Sverdlovsk Oblast and the Siberian Novosibirsk and Irkutsk Oblasts of Russia; the European discovery of North America, with its vast forests and wildlife the beaver, led to the continent becoming a major supplier in the 17th century of fur pelts for the fur felt hat and fur trimming and garment trades of Europe.
Fur was relied on to make warm clothing, a critical consideration prior to the organization of coal distribution for heating. Portugal and Spain played major roles in fur trading after the 15th century with their business in fur hats. From as early as the 10th century and boyars of Novgorod had exploited the fur resources "beyond the portage", a watershed at the White Lake that represents the door to the entire northwestern part of Eurasia, they began by establishing trading posts along the Volga and Vychegda river networks and requiring the Komi people to give them furs as tribute. Novgorod, the chief fur-trade center prospered as the easternmost trading post of the Hanseatic League. Novgorodians expanded farther east and north, coming into contact with the Pechora people of the Pechora River valley and the Yugra people residing near the Urals. Both of these native tribes offered more resistance than the Komi, killing many Russian tribute-collectors throughout the tenth and eleventh centuries.
As Muscovy gained more power in the 15th century and proceeded in the "gathering of the Russian lands", the Muscovite state began to rival the Novgorodians in the North. During the 15th century Moscow began subjugating many native tribes. One strategy involved exploiting antagonisms between tribes, notably the Komi and Yugra, by recruiting men of one tribe to fight in an army against the other tribe. Campaigns against native tribes in Siberia remained insignificant until they began on a much larger scale in 1483 and 1499. Besides the Novgorodians and the indigenes, Muscovites had to contend with the various Muslim Tatar khanates to the east of Muscovy. In 1552 Ivan IV, the Tsar of All the Russias, took a significant step towards securing Russian hegemony in Siberia when he sent a large army to attack the Kazan Tartars and ended up obtaining the territory from the Volga to the Ural Mountains. At this point the phrase "ruler of Obdor and all Siberian lands" became part of the title of the Tsar in Moscow.
So, problems ensued after 1558 when Ivan IV sent Grigory Stroganov to colonize land on the Kama and to subjugate and enserf the Komi living there. The Stroganov family soon came into conflict with the Khan of Sibir. Ivan told the Stroganovs to hire Cossack mercenaries to protect the new settlement from the Tatars. From ca 1581 the band of Cossacks led by Yermak Timofeyevich fought many battles that culminated in a Tartar victory and the temporary end to Russian occupation in the area. In 1584 Ivan’s son Fyodor sent military governors and soldiers to reclaim Yermak conquests and to annex the land held by the Khanate of Sibir. Similar skirmishes with Tartars took place across Siberia. Russian conquerors treated the natives of Siberia as exploited enemies who were inferior to them; as they penetrated deeper into Siberia, traders built outposts or winter lodges called zimovya where they lived and collected fur tribute from native tribes. By 1620 Russia dominated the land from the Urals eastward to the Yenisey valley and to the Altai Mountains in the south, comprising about 1.25 million square miles of land.
Furs would become Russia's largest source of wealth during the seventeenth centuries. Keeping up with the advances of Western Europe required significant capital and Russia did not have sources of gold and silver, but it did have furs, which became known as "soft gold" and provided Russia with hard cur
The Kalama River is a 45-mile tributary of the Columbia River, in the U. S. state of Washington. It flows within Cowlitz County, Washington. Calama River is an old variant name. Gabriel Franchere in 1811 wrote of the Indian village at the mouth of the Kalama River, adding that it was called Thlakalamah; the Kalama River originates in the Cascade Range just south of Mount St. Helens, it flows west, joining the Columbia River near Kalama, 73 miles upstream of the larger river's mouth on the Pacific Ocean. List of rivers of Washington Tributaries of the Columbia River
Eastern Washington is the portion of the US state of Washington east of the Cascade Range. The region contains the city of Spokane, the Tri-Cities, the Columbia River and the Grand Coulee Dam, the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and the fertile farmlands of the Yakima Valley and the Palouse. Unlike in Western Washington, the climate is dry, including some desert environments. A significant difference between Eastern Washington and the western half of the state is its climate. While the west half of the state is located in a rainy oceanic climate, the eastern half receives little rainfall due to the rainshadow created by the Cascade Mountains. Due to being farther from the sea, the east side has both hotter summers and colder winters than the west. Most communities in Eastern Washington, for example, have significant yearly snowfall, while in the west snowfall is minimal and not seen every year; the east and west do still have some climatic traits in common, though: more rainfall in winter than summer, a lack of severe storms, milder temperature ranges than more inland locations.
There is some variation in both rainfall throughout Eastern Washington. Lower elevations are both hotter and drier than higher elevations; this is seen in the comparison between low-elevation Richland with higher elevation Spokane. Other terms used for Eastern Washington or large parts of it include: Columbia Basin Eastside or east side of the state Inland Empire/Inland Northwest The following cities and towns in Eastern Washington have over 10,000 inhabitants. Spokane Spokane Valley Yakima Kennewick Pasco Richland Wenatchee Walla Walla Pullman Moses Lake Ellensburg Sunnyside West Richland East Wenatchee Cheney Grandview Hanford Reach National Monument Juniper Dunes Wilderness Salmo-Priest Wilderness Wenaha-Tucannon Wilderness Colville National Forest Idaho Panhandle National Forest Kaniksu National Forest Okanogan National Forest Umatilla National Forest Wenatchee National Forest Columbia National Wildlife Refuge Conboy Lake National Wildlife Refuge Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge McNary National Wildlife Refuge Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Toppenish National Wildlife Refuge Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge Eastern Washington is composed of Adams, Benton, Columbia, Ferry, Garfield, Kittitas, Lincoln, Pend Oreille, Stevens, Walla Walla and Yakima counties.
Some definitions include part of Skamania County that lies east of the ridge line of the Cascade Mountains. Compared to Western Washington, Eastern Washington has twice the land area and one-fourth the population. According to the U. S. Census Bureau the population estimate as of July 2014 was 1,547,303; the population growth rate between the two is the same. Of Washington's ten Congressional districts, Eastern Washington encompasses two, aside from a small portion of the 3rd in Skamania County. Eastern Washington hosts a number of world-renowned universities including three of the state's five public universities. Central Washington University Eastern Washington University Washington State University A number of local community colleges including: Big Bend Community College Columbia Basin College Spokane Community College Spokane Falls Community College Walla Walla Community College Wenatchee Valley College Yakima Valley College Gonzaga University Heritage University Pacific Northwest University of Health Sciences Walla Walla University Whitman College Whitworth University Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute at Central Washington University There have been sporadic movements to create a 51st state out of Eastern Washington by splitting the current state down the Cascades, but proposals have progressed out of the state legislature's committees.
Bills in the Washington State Legislature which would have requested the United States Congress to take up the question were proposed in 1996, 1999, 2005, 2017. Proposed names for the new state have included Lincoln, Liberty, or Eastern Washington. Many of these proposals would include the Idaho Panhandle as part of the proposed state of Lincoln. Eastern Washington tends to vote Republican, whereas Western Washington supports the Democrats
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, the Crown dependencies. British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, which can be acquired, for instance, by descent from British nationals; when used in a historical context, "British" or "Britons" can refer to the Celtic Britons, the indigenous inhabitants of Great Britain and Brittany, whose surviving members are the modern Welsh people, Cornish people, Bretons. It may refer to citizens of the former British Empire. Though early assertions of being British date from the Late Middle Ages, the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 triggered a sense of British national identity; the notion of Britishness was forged during the Napoleonic Wars between Britain and the First French Empire, developed further during the Victorian era. The complex history of the formation of the United Kingdom created a "particular sense of nationhood and belonging" in Great Britain and Ireland.
Because of longstanding ethno-sectarian divisions, British identity in Northern Ireland is controversial, but it is held with strong conviction by Unionists. Modern Britons are descended from the varied ethnic groups that settled in the British Isles in and before the 11th century: Prehistoric, Roman, Anglo-Saxon and Normans; the progressive political unification of the British Isles facilitated migration and linguistic exchange, intermarriage between the peoples of England and Wales during the late Middle Ages, early modern period and beyond. Since 1922 and earlier, there has been immigration to the United Kingdom by people from what is now the Republic of Ireland, the Commonwealth, mainland Europe and elsewhere; the British are a diverse, multinational and multilingual society, with "strong regional accents and identities". The social structure of the United Kingdom has changed radically since the 19th century, with a decline in religious observance, enlargement of the middle class, increased ethnic diversity since the 1950s.
The population of the UK stands at around 66 million, with a British diaspora of around 140 million concentrated in Australia and New Zealand, with smaller concentrations in the United States, Republic of Ireland, South Africa and parts of the Caribbean. The earliest known reference to the inhabitants of Great Britain may have come from 4th century BC records of the voyage of Pytheas, a Greek geographer who made a voyage of exploration around the British Isles. Although none of his own writings remain, writers during the time of the Roman Empire made much reference to them. Pytheas called the islands collectively αἱ Βρεττανίαι, translated as the Brittanic Isles, the peoples of what are today England, Wales and the Isle of Man of Prettanike were called the Πρεττανοί, Pritani or Pretani; the group included Ireland, referred to as Ierne "inhabited by the different race of Hiberni", Britain as insula Albionum, "island of the Albions". The term Pritani may have reached Pytheas from the Gauls, who used it as their term for the inhabitants of the islands.
Greek and Roman writers, in the 1st century BC and the 1st century AD, name the inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland as the Priteni, the origin of the Latin word Britanni. It has been suggested that this name derives from a Gaulish description translated as "people of the forms", referring to the custom of tattooing or painting their bodies with blue woad made from Isatis tinctoria. Parthenius, a 1st-century Ancient Greek grammarian, the Etymologicum Genuinum, a 9th-century lexical encyclopaedia, mention a mythical character Bretannus as the father of Celtine, mother of Celtus, the eponymous ancestor of the Celts. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia, although the people of Caledonia and the north were the self same Britons during the Roman period, the Gaels arriving four centuries later.
Following the end of Roman rule in Britain, the island of Great Britain was left open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors such as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Jutes from Continental Europe, who gained control in areas around the south east, to Middle Irish-speaking people migrating from what is today Northern Ireland to the north of Great Britain, founding Gaelic kingdoms such as Dál Riata and Alba, which would subsume the native Brittonic and Pictish kingdoms and become Scotland. In this sub-Roman Britain, as Anglo-Saxon culture spread across southern and eastern Britain and Gaelic through much of the north, the demonym "Briton" became restricted to the Brittonic-speaking inhabitants of what would be called Wales, North West England, parts of Scotland such as Strathearn, Morayshire and Strathclyde. In addition the term was applied to Brittany in what is today France and Britonia in north west Spain, both regions having been colonised by Britons in the 5th century fleeing the Anglo-Saxon invasions.
Weyerhaeuser Company, is one of the world's largest private owners of timberlands, owning or controlling nearly 12.4 million acres of timberlands in the U. S. and managing additional 14.0 million acres timberlands under long-term licenses in Canada. The company manufactures wood products. Weyerhaeuser is a real estate investment trust. In 1904, after years of successful Mississippi River-based lumber and mill operations with Frederick Denkmann and others, Frederick Weyerhäuser moved west to fresh timber areas and founded the Weyerhäuser Timber Company. Fifteen partners and 900,000 acres of Washington timberland were involved in the founding, the land was purchased from James J. Hill of the Great Northern Railway. In 1929, the company built what was the world's largest sawmill in Longview, Washington. Weyerhäuser's pulp mill in Longview, which began production in 1931, sustained the company financially during the Great Depression. In 1959, the company eliminated the word "Timber" from its name to better reflect its operations.
In 1965, Weyerhäuser built its first bleached kraft pulp mill in Canada. Weyerhäuser implemented its High Yield Forestry Plan in 1967 which drew upon 30 years of forestry research and field experience, it called for the planting of seedlings within one year of a harvest, soil fertilization, rehabilitation of brushlands, genetic improvement of trees. In 1975 the company bought the 3,200 acres of land of the Northwest Landing and developed the town of DuPont using a New Urbanism model. Weyerhäuser consolidated its core businesses in the late 1990s and ended its services in mortgage banking, personal care products, financial services, information systems consulting. Weyerhäuser expanded into South America and Asia. In 1999, Weyerhäuser purchased a large Canadian forestry company. In 2002 after a protracted hostile buyout, the company acquired Willamette Industries, Inc. of Portland, Oregon. On August 23, 2006, Weyerhäuser announced a deal which spun off its fine paper business to be combined with Domtar, a $3.3 billion cash and stock deal leaving Weyerhauser stock holders with 55 percent ownership of the new Domtar company.
In March 2008, Weyerhäuser Company announced the sale of its Containerboard Packaging and Recycling business to International Paper for $6 billion in cash, subject to post closing adjustments. The transaction included nine containerboard mills, 72 packaging locations, 10 specialty-packaging plants, four kraft bag and sack locations and 19 recycling facilities; the transaction affected 14,300 employees. The deal closed on August 4, 2008. Weyerhäuser converted into a real estate investment trust to avoid all federal income taxes, when it filed its 2010 tax return. In 2013, Weyerhäuser purchased Longview Timber for $2.65 billion including debt from Brookfield Asset Management. The acquisition added 645,000 acres of timberland to Weyerhaeuser's holdings in Oregon and Washington. In 2014, Weyerhäeuser spun off its home building unit to TRI Pointe Homes in a $2.8 billion transaction. The company announced its intention to sell its Federal Way headquarters and relocate to Seattle's Pioneer Square in 2016.
The sale and move were completed in 2016. On November 8, 2015, it was announced that Weyerhäuser would buy Plum Creek Timber for $8.4 billion, forming the largest private owner of timberland in the United States. The transaction closed on February 19, 2016. At the time of the merger the combined companies own about 13 million acres of timberlands. In 2018, it won its case in the Supreme Court regarding whether private land can be classified as critical habitat if the land is not suitable as habitat for the protected species; the company's operations are divided into three major business segments: Timberlands—growing and harvesting trees in renewable cycles. Wood products—manufacturing and distribution of building materials for homes and other structures. Real estate and natural resources—all surface and subsurface resources in timberlands that are worth more than the timber itself. Devin Stockfish is the president of Weyerhaeuser Company; the Weyerhaeuser board of directors consists of: Mark Emmert, Sara Grootwassink Lewis, Rick Holley, John Morgan Sr. Nicole Piasecki, Marc Racicot, Lawrence Selzer, D. Michael Steuert, Devin Stockfish, Kim Williams and Charles Williamson.
Hidy, Ralph W. Timber and Men: The Weyerhaeuser story. New York: Macmillan. Weyerhaeuser Weyerhaeuser Company EDGAR Filing History Inventory of the Weyerhaeuser Company Records, 1864-2010 Historical Annual Reports for Weyerhaeuser