A naval ship is a military ship used by a navy. Naval ships are differentiated from civilian ships by purpose. Naval ships are damage resilient and armed with weapon systems, though armament on troop transports is light or non-existent. Naval ships designed for naval warfare are termed warships, as opposed to support or shipyard operations. Naval ship classification is a field that has changed over time, is not an area of wide international agreement, so this article uses the system as used by the United States Navy. Aircraft carrier – ships that serve as mobile seaborne airfields, designed for the purpose of conducting combat operations by Carrier-based aircraft which engage in attacks against airborne, sub-surface and shore targets. Surface combatant – large armed surface ships which are designed to engage enemy forces on the high seas, including various types of battleship, cruiser, destroyer and corvette. Submarine – self-propelled submersible types regardless of whether they are employed as combatant, auxiliary, or research and development vehicles which have at least a residual combat capability.
Patrol combatant – combatants whose mission may extend beyond coastal duties and whose characteristics include adequate endurance and sea keeping providing a capability for operations exceeding 48 hours on the high seas without support. Amphibious warfare – ships having organic capability for amphibious assault and which have characteristics enabling long duration operations on the high seas. Combat logistics – ships that have the capability to provide underway replenishment to fleet units. Mine warfare – ships whose primary function is mine warfare on the high seas. Coastal defense – ships whose primary function is coastal patrol and interdiction. Sealift – ships that have the capability to provide direct material support to other deployed units operating far from home base. Support – ships, such as oilers, designed to operate in the open ocean in a variety of sea states to provide general support to either combatant forces or shore based establishments.. Service type craft – navy-subordinated craft designed to provide general support to either combatant forces or shore-based establishments.
In rough order of tonnage, modern surface naval ships are divided into the following different classes. The larger ships in the list can be classed as capital ships: Aircraft carrier Helicopter carrier Battleship Battlecruiser Heavy cruiser Light cruiser Destroyer Frigate Corvette Patrol boat Fast attack craftSome classes above may now be considered obsolete as no ships matching the class are in current service. There is much blurring / gray areas between the classes, depending on their intended use and interpretation of the class by different navies. List of naval ship classes in service List of auxiliary ship classes in service List of submarine classes in service List of ship classes of the Second World War Media related to Naval ships at Wikimedia Commons "US Navy Ships". Official Website of the United States Navy. Retrieved 26 March 2017. Jordan, Valinsky. "Here's the Entire U. S. Navy Fleet in One Chart". Official Website of the United States Navy. Retrieved 26 March 2017.*"United States Naval Recognition Training Slides-Grand Valley State University Archives and Special Collections".
Archived from the original on 2017-04-18. Retrieved 2019-01-01
Royal Canadian Sea Cadets
The Royal Canadian Sea Cadets is a Canadian national youth program sponsored by the Canadian Armed Forces and the civilian Navy League of Canada. Administered by the Canadian Forces, the program is funded through the Department of National Defence, with the civilian partner providing support in the local community. Cadets are not members of the Canadian Forces. Along with the Royal Canadian Army Cadets and Royal Canadian Air Cadets, the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets form part of the Canadian Cadet Organizations. Although the RCSCC and the other cadet programs are sponsored by the Canadian Forces and the civilian Leagues, cadets are not members of the Forces and are not expected to join. In keeping with Commonwealth custom, the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets stand first in the order of precedence, before the Army Cadets and Air Cadets; this is in keeping with the Royal Navy's status as the Senior Service, a tradition common to most Commonwealth navies. Boys and girls aged 12 to 18 may join the RCSCC. There is no enrollment fee, uniforms are loaned at no charge.
The organization and rank system is similar to that of the Royal Canadian Navy. Adult leadership is provided by members of the Canadian Forces Reserve Subcomponent Cadet Organization Administration and Training Service, composed of officers of the Cadet Instructor Cadre Branch, supplemented, if necessary, by contracted Civilian Instructors, authorized adult volunteers, and, on occasion and non-commissioned members of other CF branches; the CIC Branch is trained to serve the Royal Canadian Sea and Air Cadet training programs, like all reservists, they come from all walks of life and all parts of the community. Some are former cadets, many have former regular or reserve force service; the aim of the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets is to develop in youth the attributes of good citizenship and leadership. The RCSC shares this aim with the Air Cadets. In 1895, due to concern over the Royal Navy's ability to provide adequate naval defence, concerned citizens formed the Navy League, to promote interest in the problems of maritime trade and defense.
The League formed local branches throughout the United Kingdom and in other countries of the British Empire. The earliest Canadian branch was formed in Toronto, its warrant is dated December 10, 1895, hangs in the Navy League of Canada's National Office. At that time, Canadian branches supported a cadet program called the Boys’ Naval Brigades, aimed at encouraging young men to consider a seafaring career and provide basic training in citizenship and seamanship; these are the uniforms of the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets. The uniforms are classified by a number system which lays them out as uniforms C1, C4, C4B, etc.. Uniforms C1, C3, C3A, C4, C4A are issued upon joining, along with Winter Accoutrements. Order of Dress C1: White-top Corps title cap tally Gunshirt Trousers Trousers belt Tunic Tunic Belt Lanyard Wool socks Parade boots Medals and pins, if the cadet has earned themOrder of Dress C2: C1, but instead of the gunshirt, a white shirt and bowtie is worn by male cadets and a white shirt with crossover tie is worn by female cadets.
However, this order of dress is optional and the white shirt and tie are not purchased at public expense. Order of Dress C3: C1. Order of Dress C3A: C3, minus the tunic Order of Dress C4: Black ball cap with Corps title Black undershirt'Postman's blue' shirt Trousers Trousers belt Wool socks Parade bootsOrder of Dress C4A: C4, minus the Postman's blue shirt. Order of Dress C4B: Sports shorts T-shirt Running shoes Tilley hatOrder of Dress C4C Black beret with RCSC cap badge OR tan tilley hat OR black ball cap Olive drab field jacket Olive drab field pants Field belt Wool socks Combat bootsOrder of Dress C5: RCN Naval Combat Dress, but with cadet rank insignia. Includes NCD jacket. Order of Dress C5A: C5, minus the NCD jacket. Winter Accoutrements: Cadet Parka with outer shell and removable liner Black gloves Black toque with white anchor insignia and the word CADET These orders of dress are only used on particular occasions, or by cadets in a Highland pipes and drums band. Order of Dress T1: RCN Uniform RCSC Shoulder flashes, traditional or current Seaman's cap with appropriate cap tally Chains may replace the lanyard if applicableOrder of Dress T1A: T1 minus the jumper Order of Dress H1: Glengarry Headdress with Sea Cadet metal headdress insignia Gunshirt Lanyard Tunic Kilt Maple leaf tartan Boots Hosetops Flashes, garter Spats White belt Sgian Dubh Sporran, hair Kilt Pin Medals PinsOrder of Dress H2: This order of dress does not exist.
Order of Dress H3: H1, except that Oxford shoes may replace the boots Hosetops shall not be worn Ribbons replace medals. With the formation of the Canadian Naval Service in May 1910, the organisation was renamed from "Boys’ Naval Brigade" to "Navy League Sea Cadets," to permit closer liaison with the Navy. In 1942, King George VI graciously consented to be Admiral of the Navy League’s Sea Cadets, granted the "Royal" prefix, causing another name change, to the current "Royal Canadian Sea Cadets." Queen Elizabeth continued this Royal patronage and named His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh as the Admiral o
Kingston-class coastal defence vessel
The Kingston class consists of 12 coastal defence vessels operated by the Royal Canadian Navy. The class is the name for the Maritime Coastal Defence Vessel Project; these multi-role vessels were built and launched from the mid- to late-1990s and are crewed by a combination of Naval Reserve and Regular-Force personnel. Their main missions are counter narcotics, coastal surveillance, sovereignty patrol, route survey, training, they were designed with a minesweeping role in mind and are classified as mechanical minesweepers. The possibility of acquiring the gear necessary to undertake a more appropriate mine-hunting role continues to be examined; the Kingston-class patrol vessels were conceived to advance the use of commercial off-the-shelf equipment and construction techniques in a ship designed to military specifications. While the Z-drive thrusters make the Kingston-class vessels manoeuvrable and the engines are quite powerful and fuel-efficient, the hull shape, with a blunt stern and "hard" chine designed for minesweeping, prevents the ship from achieving a "sprint" speed and the patrol vessels of other nations are faster.
However, the Kingstons' top speed is faster than that of most mine warfare vessels and is comparable to some small civilian seagoing vessels. The hull has been designed to minimize steel weight; the construction involved initial production of outfitted steel modules which were made into sub-assemblies and integrated into the ship. The decks were assembled upside down with pre-outfitting of the underside of the deck prior to installation on the ship. In contrast to many modern mine warfare vessels, which have hulls made of non-magnetic glass-reinforced plastic or similar material, the Kingston class have conventional steel hulls; the vessels are no longer equipped with a magnetic degaussing system that allows the ship's magnetic signature to be manipulated in three dimensions to minimize vulnerability to magnetic mines Kingston-class vessels are designed to carry up to three 20-foot ISO containers with power hookups on the open deck aft in order to embark mission-specific payloads. As of 2009, the available modules included: 2 × Indal Technologies AN/SLQ 38 deep mechanical minesweeping systems 4 × MDA Ltd.
AN/SQS 511 heavy-weight high-definition route survey systems 1 × ISE Ltd. Trailblazer 25 bottom object inspection vehicle 1 × ISE Ltd. HYSUB 50 deep seabed intervention system 2 × Fullerton and Sherwood Ltd. 6-man, 2-compartment containerized diving systems 6 × naval engineered 6-person accommodation modules 1 × MDA Ltd. Interim Remote Minehunting and Disposal System The ships were built with a Bofors 40 mm Model 60 Mk 5C rapid fire gun, two 12.7 mm machine guns. The Bofors gun was mounted on the forecastle deck and the arc of fire extends forwards by ±120°, until their removal in 2014; the machine guns are mounted on either side at the front of the bridge deck. In a depressed position each machine gun fires in a 118° arc; the main armament was a Second World War Bofors design, manually loaded and lacks modern targeting capability. The 40 mm gun was removed from the vessels; some of them ended up on display at naval reserve installations across Canada. In October 2006, Maritime Command experimented with mounting a remote controlled heavy machine gun station, the OTO Melara 12.7 mm RCHMG, in place of the 40 mm Bofors cannon aboard HMCS Summerside.
The navigation equipment includes a Sperry Marine Bridge Master E I-band navigation radar and a Global Positioning System. The surface search radar is the E to F-band Sperry Marine Bridge Master E. A towed high-frequency sidescan sonar can be fitted for bottom route surveys; the ship is equipped with four main Wärtsilä UD 23V12 diesel engines which are coupled to four alternators. Two Jeumont electric motors provide power to the two LIPS Z-drive azimuth thrusters which are fitted with fixed-pitch reversing propellers; the propulsion system provides 15 knots maximum continuous speed. The range at the economical cruising speed of 9 knots using two engines is 5,000 nautical miles with a 20% margin in tank capacity. Mechanical minesweeping is carried out at 8 knots; the crash stop length is five ship lengths from a speed of 15 knots. The ships are evenly distributed between the west coasts. One vessel on each coast is maintained for rapid deployment: this responsibility is rotated amongst the ships.
The Royal Canadian Navy is discarding a $100-million mid-life refit plan for the twelve vessels in this class. Instead, MCDVs will be replaced by new vessels to enter service in 2020, it had been intended to retain the "mid-lifed" vessels through 2045–2055. The RCN review listed low speed and small size as reasons for the MCDV being inadequate for patrol duties. Notwithstanding the success of the ships in their deployment, critics suggest that patrol and training were tacked onto the mine-countermeasures role and that the platform lacks serious armament for a sovereignty enforcement role. On May 13, 2010, it was announced that six of the twelve MCDVs would be placed in extended readiness due to lack of funds and the inability of the naval reserve to provide sufficient personnel to man the ships. On May 14 however that order was rescinded. In October 2011, L-3 MAPPS was awarded a contract to supply degaussing systems for the Kingston-class ships; the advanced degauss
A warrant officer is an officer in a military organisation, designated an officer by a warrant, as distinguished from a commissioned officer, designated an officer by a commission, a non-commissioned officer, designated an officer by virtue of seniority. The rank was first used in the 13th century in the Royal Navy and is today used in most services in many countries, including the Commonwealth nations and the United States. Outside the United States, warrant officers are included in the "other ranks" category, equivalent to the US "E" category and rank between non-commissioned officers and commissioned officers; the warrant officers in Commonwealth navies rank between chief petty officer and sub-lieutenant, in Commonwealth air forces between flight sergeant and pilot officer, in Commonwealth armies between staff sergeant and second lieutenant. Warrant officers in the United States are in the "W" category. Chief warrant officers are commissioned by the President of the United States and take the same oath as regular commissioned officers.
They may be technical experts with a long service as enlisted personnel, or direct entrants, notably for U. S. Army helicopter pilots; the warrant officer corps began in the nascent Royal Navy. At that time, noblemen with military experience took command of the new navy, adopting the military ranks of lieutenant and captain; these officers had no knowledge of life on board a ship—let alone how to navigate such a vessel—and relied on the expertise of the ship's master and other seamen who tended to the technical aspects of running the ship. As cannon came into use, the officers required gunnery experts. Literacy was one thing that most warrant officers had in common, this distinguished them from the common seamen: according to the Admiralty regulations, "no person shall be appointed to any station in which he is to have charge of stores, unless he can read and write, is sufficiently skilled in arithmetic to keep an account of them correctly". Since all warrant officers had responsibility for stores, this was enough to debar the illiterate.
In origin, warrant officers were specialist professionals whose expertise and authority demanded formal recognition. In the 18th century they fell into two clear categories: on the one hand, those privileged to share with the commissioned officers in the wardroom and on the quarterdeck. Somewhere between the two, were the standing officers; these classes of warrant officer messed in the wardroom with the commissioned officers: the master: the senior warrant officer, a qualified navigator and experienced seaman who set the sails, maintained the ship's log and advised the captain on the seaworthiness of the ship and crew. In the early 19th century, they were joined in the wardroom by naval chaplains, who had warrant officer status; the standing officers were: the boatswain: responsible for maintenance of the ship's boats, rigging and cables. Other warrant officers included surgeon's mates, boatswain's mates and carpenter's mates, armourers and clerks. Masters-at-arms, who had overseen small-arms provision on board, had by this time taken on responsibility for discipline.
By the end of the century, the rank structure could be illustrated as follows: In 1843, the wardroom warrant officers were given commissioned status, while in 1853 the lower-grade warrant officers were absorbed into the new rate of chief petty officer, both classes thereby ceasing to be warrant officers. On 25 July 1864 the standing warrant officers were divided into two grades: warrant officers and chief warrant officers. By the time of the First World War, their ranks had been expanded with the adoption of modern technology in the Royal Navy to include telegraphists, shipwrights, artificer engineers, etc. Both warrant officers and commissioned warrant officers messed in the warrant officers' mess rather than the wardroom. Warrant officers and commissioned warrant officers carried swords, were saluted by ratings, ranked between sub-lieutenants and midshipmen. In 1949, the ranks of warrant officer and commissioned warrant officer were changed to "commissioned officer" and "senior commissioned officer", the latter ranking with but after the rank of lieutenant, they were admitted to the wardroom, the warrant officers' messes closing down.
Collectively, these officers were known as "branch officers", being retitled "special duties" officers in 1956. In 1998, the special dutie
Royal Canadian Navy
The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Armed Forces; as of 2017, Canada's navy operates 12 frigates, 4 patrol submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels and 8 unarmed patrol/training vessels, as well as several auxiliary vessels. The Royal Canadian Navy consists of 8,500 Regular Force and 5,100 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 5,300 civilians. Vice-Admiral Ron Lloyd is the current Commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and Chief of the Naval Staff. Founded in 1910 as the Naval Service of Canada and given royal sanction on 29 August 1911, the Royal Canadian Navy was amalgamated with the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Canadian Army to form the unified Canadian Armed Forces in 1968, after which it was known as "Maritime Command" until 2011. In 2011, its historical title of "Royal Canadian Navy" was restored. Over the course of its history, the RCN has served in the First and Second World Wars, the Korean War, the Persian Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan and numerous United Nations peacekeeping missions and NATO operations.
Established following the introduction of the Naval Service Act by Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier, the Naval Service of Canada was intended as a distinct naval force for Canada, should the need arise, could be placed under British control. The bill received royal assent on 4 May 1910. Equipped with two former Royal Navy vessels, HMCS Niobe and HMCS Rainbow, King George V granted permission for the service to be known as the Royal Canadian Navy on 29 August 1911. During the first years of the First World War, the RCN's six-vessel naval force patrolled both the North American west and east coasts to deter the German naval threat, with a seventh ship, HMCS Shearwater joining the force in 1915. Just before the end of the war in 1918, the Royal Canadian Naval Air Service was established with the purpose of carrying out anti-submarine operations. After the war, the Royal Canadian Navy took over certain responsibilities of the Department of Transport's Marine Service, started to build its fleet, with the first warships designed for the RCN being commissioned in 1932.
At the outbreak of the Second World War, the Navy had 145 officers and 1,674 men. During the Second World War, the Royal Canadian Navy expanded ultimately gaining responsibility for the entire Northwest Atlantic theatre of war. By the end of the war, the RCN had become the fifth-largest navy in the world after the United States Navy, the Royal Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy, the Soviet Navy, with over 900 vessels and 375 combat ships. During the Battle of the Atlantic, the RCN sank 31 U-boats and sank or captured 42 enemy surface vessels, while completing 25,343 merchant crossings; the Navy lost 1,797 sailors in the war. In 1940–41, the Royal Canadian Navy Reserves scheme for training yacht club members developed the first central registry system. From 1950 to 1955, during the Korean War, Canadian destroyers maintained a presence off the Korean peninsula, engaging in shore bombardments and maritime interdiction. During the Cold War, the Navy developed an anti-submarine capability to counter the growing Soviet naval threat.
In the 1960s, the Royal Canadian Navy retired most of its Second World War vessels, further developed its anti-submarine warfare capabilities by acquiring the Sikorsky CH-124 Sea King, pioneered the use of large maritime helicopters on small surface vessels. At that time, Canada was operating an aircraft carrier, HMCS Bonaventure, flying the McDonnell F2H Banshee fighter jet until 1962, as well as various other anti-submarine aircraft. From 1964 through 1968, under the Liberal government of Lester B. Pearson, the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army were amalgamated to form the unified Canadian Forces; this process was overseen by then–Defence Minister Paul Hellyer. The controversial merger resulted in the abolition of the Royal Canadian Navy as a separate legal entity. All personnel and aircraft became part of Maritime Command, an element of the Canadian Armed Forces; the traditional naval uniform was eliminated and all naval personnel were required to wear the new Canadian Armed Forces rifle green uniform, adopted by former Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army personnel.
Ship-borne aircraft continued to be under the command of MARCOM, while shore-based patrol aircraft of the former Royal Canadian Air Force were transferred to MARCOM. In 1975 Air Command was formed and all maritime aircraft were transferred to Air Command's Maritime Air Group; the unification of the Canadian Forces in 1968 was the first time that a nation with a modern military combined its separate naval and air elements into a single service. The 1970s saw the addition of four Iroquois-class destroyers, which were updated to air defence destroyers, in the late 1980s and 1990s the construction of twelve Halifax-class frigates and the purchase of the Victoria-class submarines. In 1990, Canada deployed three warships to support Operation Friction. In the decade, ships were deployed to patrol the Adriatic Sea during the Yugoslav Wars and the Kosovo War. More Maritime Command provided vessels to serve as a part of Operation Apollo and to combat piracy off the coast of Somalia. Following the Official Languages Act enshrinement in 1969, MARCOM instituted the French Language Unit, which constituted a francophone unit with the navy.
The first was HMCS Ottawa. In the 1980s and 1990s, women were accepted into the fleet, with the submarine service the last to allow them, beginning in 2001; some of the c
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, it is sometimes used or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, they were adopted by several navies. Submarines were first used during World War I, are now used in many navies large and small. Military uses include attacking enemy surface ships, attacking other submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, conventional land attack, covert insertion of special forces. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage and facility inspection and maintenance. Submarines can be modified to perform more specialized functions such as search-and-rescue missions or undersea cable repair. Submarines are used in tourism, for undersea archaeology.
Most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical ends and a vertical structure located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes. In modern submarines, this structure is the "sail" in American usage and "fin" in European usage. A "conning tower" was a feature of earlier designs: a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller at the rear, various hydrodynamic control fins. Smaller, deep-diving and specialty submarines may deviate from this traditional layout. Submarines use diving planes and change the amount of water and air in ballast tanks to change buoyancy for submerging and surfacing. Submarines have one of the widest ranges of capabilities of any vessel, they range from small autonomous examples and one- or two-person vessels that operate for a few hours, to vessels that can remain submerged for six months—such as the Russian Typhoon class, the biggest submarines built.
Submarines can work at greater depths than are practical for human divers. Modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell. Whereas the principal meaning of "submarine" is an armed, submersible warship, the more general meaning is for any type of submersible craft; the definition as of 1899 was for any type of "submarine boat". By naval tradition, submarines are still referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size. In other navies with a history of large submarine fleets they are "boats". According to a report in Opusculum Taisnieri published in 1562: Two Greeks submerged and surfaced in the river Tagus near the City of Toledo several times in the presence of The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, without getting wet and with the flame they carried in their hands still alight. In 1578, the English mathematician William Bourne recorded in his book Inventions or Devises one of the first plans for an underwater navigation vehicle.
A few years the Scottish mathematician and theologian John Napier wrote in his Secret Inventions the following: "These inventions besides devises of sayling under water with divers, other devises and strategems for harming of the enemyes by the Grace of God and worke of expert Craftsmen I hope to perform." It's unclear whether he carried out his idea. The first submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in 1620 by Cornelis Drebbel, a Dutchman in the service of James I of England, it was propelled by means of oars. By the mid-18th century, over a dozen patents for submarines/submersible boats had been granted in England. In 1747, Nathaniel Symons patented and built the first known working example of the use of a ballast tank for submersion, his design used leather bags. A mechanism was used to cause the boat to resurface. In 1749, the Gentlemen's Magazine reported that a similar design had been proposed by Giovanni Borelli in 1680. Further design improvement stagnated for over a century, until application of new technologies for propulsion and stability.
The first military submarine was the Turtle, a hand-powered acorn-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single person. It was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, the first to use screws for propulsion. In 1800, France built a human-powered submarine designed by the Nautilus; the French gave up on the experiment in 1804, as did the British when they considered Fulton's submarine design. In 1864, late in the American Civil War, the Confederate navy's H. L. Hunley became the first military submarine to sink an enemy vessel, the Union sloop-of-war USS Housatonic. In the aftermath of its successful attack against the ship, the Hunley sank because it was too close to its own exploding torpedo. In 1866, the Sub Marine Explorer was the first submarine to dive, cruise underwater, resurface under the control of the crew; the design by German American Julius H. Kroehl incorporated elements that are still used in modern submarines.
In 1866, the Flach was built at the request of the Chilean government, by Karl Flach, a German engineer and immigrant
"Underofficer" redirects here, although it can mean non-commissioned officer when translated from certain other languages. Under officer is an appointment held by the most senior cadets at some Commonwealth officer training establishments and in University Officers' Training Corps in the United Kingdom, a rank used in some Commonwealth cadet forces; the Royal Military College, Duntroon uses the appointments of senior under officer and under officer for senior Staff Cadets. In the Australian Army Cadets and Australian Air Force Cadets, the rank of Cadet Under Officer is the highest cadet rank, they are saluted and addressed as "Sir" or "Ma'am" by their subordinates but not by adult officers or instructors or members of the Australian Defence Force. AAC cadet under officers may be assigned as national, regional, or battalion under officer, as quartermaster, or as the commander of a company or platoon; the rank badge is a lozenge. The national cadet under officer has red in the centre of the lozenge.
Regional cadet under officers have blue in the centre of the lozenge. To become a cadet under officer, a cadet must have completed the senior leaders course module two, otherwise known as the CUO/WO course held either at a mid or end of year session; the course runs for one week on a military base, during this course a prospective cadet under officer will learn platoon and company level command. To gain entry to the course the cadet must have completed the senior leaders course module one or the sergeant course, which entitles them to bear ranks up to staff sergeant; the insignia for an Australian Air Force Cadet cadet under officer is a thick white stripe. To achieve the rank of cadet under officer, an AAFC cadet sergeant, cadet flight sergeant or cadet warrant officer must complete the cadet under officer course, which takes 3 weeks at a Royal Australian Air Force base in their home state. Upon successful completion of the cadet under officer course, cadet under officers are given full Officer privileges, which includes the right to use the officers' mess on military establishments.
The Indian National Cadet Corps appoints one senior under officer and three junior under officers in a company. The Indian Military Academy and Officers Training Academy gentlemen cadets have similar appointments; the Army Medical College has the appointments of "company senior under officer" and "company junior under officer" for senior cadets of each of the six companies, two appointments of "battalion senior under officer" and "battalion junior under officer". Under Officer is a rank in the New Zealand Air Training Corps and the New Zealand Cadet Corps. In 2012 the rank was bought into the New Zealand Sea Cadet Corps, it ranks between cadet warrant officer and ensign NZCF pilot officer NZCF or second lieutenant NZCF, thus making it the highest rank a cadet can reach, although not itself a cadet rank. Under officers are aged between 17 and 21, to be eligible for a commission one must be at least 20 years of age. Under officers are cadets who have received the necessary training and have the desire to become NZCF officers.
Hence, under officers are treated as understudy officers. There are 2 under officers' courses run each year, provide the training that under officers require to be efficient understudy officers within their cadet units, skills which will be useful as a commissioned officer, they perform roles similar to commissioned officers, but do not have nearly the same legal responsibilities and are not to be saluted, but are referred to as "Sir/Ma'am". Cadet under officers wear insignia similar to that worn by officer cadets, except that the thin blue braid is replaced by a piece of NCO chevron cloth; this emphasises their official status as cadets rather than adult leaders. The abbreviation for the rank of Under Officer is UO for all three corps. To become an under officer, cadets are required to: Spend 6 months at the minimum rank of staff sergeant/flight sergeant Have completed at least 3 years of Cadet Forces training Have completed SNCO course Be at least 17 years of age Have the desire, commitment & potential to become an NZCF officer Be recommended by their unit commander and have the approval of AC CFTSU.
Under officer is an appointment held by senior officer cadets at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and in the University Officers Training Corps, is the highest rank that can be held by cadets in the Combined Cadet Force and Army Cadet Force. There are senior under officer, they are addressed as "JUO" or "SUO" as appropriate, but are not saluted as they do not hold the Queen's commission. RMAS appoints two JUOs per platoon in the final term of the commissioning course. At RMAS and in the UOTCs, JUOs wear an Austrian knot above a single bar on their rank slide and SUOs wear an Austrian knot above two bars; the use of the term in CCF contingents is inconsistent, with some having JUOs and sometimes SUOs, others having under officers. The ACF has the single appointment of cadet under officer; the rank badge is a white bar on the rank slide