Catalan cuisine is the cuisine from Catalonia. It may refer to the shared cuisine of Roussillon and Andorra, the second of which has a similar cuisine to that of the neighbouring Alt Urgell and Cerdanya comarques and, referred to as "Catalan mountain cuisine", it is considered a part of western Mediterranean cuisine. It relies on ingredients popular along the Mediterranean coast, including fresh vegetables, wheat products, Arbequina olive oils, legumes, all sorts of pork preparations, all sorts of cheese, poultry and many types of fish like sardine, anchovy and cod; the traditional Catalan cuisine is quite diverse, ranging from pork-intensive dishes cooked in the inland part of the region to fish-based recipes along the coast. The cuisine includes many preparations that mix sweet and savoury and stews with sauces based upon botifarra and the characteristic picada. Catalan-style cod Escalivada Escudella Ollada Esqueixada Mongetes amb botifarra Pa amb tomàquet Tonyina en escabetx Suquet de peix Savoury Coca Mar i Muntanya dishes, which combine meat and seafood Embotits, a generic name for different kinds of cured pork meat, including Fuet and Salchichón or Llonganissa.
Calçot Cargols a la llauna Sonsos Allioli, a thick sauce made of garlic and olive oil, used with grilled meats or vegetables, some dishes. Allioli means oil in Catalan. Samfaina called tomacat or pebrots amb tomàquet. It's a variety of Spanish Pisto. Salvitxada from Valls. Xató, a variety of Salvitxada without tomatoes. Crema catalana, the famous yellow cream made with egg yolk and sugar, whose denseness is between a crème pâtissière or natillas and a flan. Mató de Pedralbes or mató de monja is another kind of Catalan cream, similar to crema catalana, originating in Barcelona. Menjablanc or menjar blanc, typical of Reus but eaten all over Catalonia, is a kind of white cream made with almonds, from which a sort of milk is first obtained, followed by a cream to be eaten with a small spoon. Peres de Lleida is a typical dessert originated in Lleida composed of peeled pears cooked in a kind of lighter crema catalana and served cold, covered by meringue and decorated with cherries. Xuixos are fried pastries stuffed with crema catalana.
Mel i mató, a dessert of mató cheese with honey Pastissets, or casquetes, de cabell d'àngel are sweet half-circle shaped pastries stuffed with cabell d'àngel and covered with white crystal sugar which are eaten at coffee time. Carquinyolis are little crunchy almond biscuits eaten at coffee time. Catànies are Catalan marcona almonds covered with white chocolate and powdered black chocolate to be eaten with the coffee. Pets de monja are small nipple-shaped and -sized biscuits eaten at coffee time. At first they were called pits de monja but time has changed their name to the current pets de monja. Sweet coques were at first eaten only on holidays. Catalans have at least one type of traditional coca for each feast day of the year. Orelletes are thin fried pastries eaten during Carnival, they exist in nearby regions in Spain or France. Sweet bunyols as bunyols de vent, bunyols stuffed with crema catalana or bunyols de l'Empordà are done and eaten on Wednesdays and Fridays during Lent. Mona de Pasqua is a pastry richly covered with almonds, yolk jam, chocolate eggs and coloured decoration that the godfather and godmother give as a present every year to their godchildren on Easter.
It is an ancient pre-Christian tradition. At first, it has one egg for each year of the children's age, continuing to add one egg each year until twelve, as at thirteen they are no longer considered children. Panellets are small pastries made of pine nuts and sugar with different shapes and flavors, eaten during la Castanyada, which Catalans celebrate on 1 November instead of Halloween, their origin is Jewish, before the Middle Ages. Tortell called torta or roscó in Northern and Southern dialects, it is round, it can be made of puff pastry or a mixture similar to lionesas and palos, stuffed with trufa or with crema catal
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose and galactose. "Table sugar" or "granulated sugar" refers to a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into glucose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but sucrose is concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar. Sugarcane originated in tropical Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, is known of from before 6,000 BP, sugar beet was first described in writing by Olivier de Serres and originated in southwestern and Southeast Europe along the Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea, in North Africa, Macaronesia, to Western Asia. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes. Other disaccharides include lactose. Longer chains of sugar molecules are called polysaccharides.
Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar. Sucrose is used in prepared foods, is sometimes added to commercially available beverages, may be used by people as a sweetener for foods and beverages; the average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, or 33.1 kilograms in developed countries, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century, researchers began to examine whether a diet high in sugar refined sugar, was damaging to human health. Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, cardiovascular disease and tooth decay. Numerous studies have tried to clarify those implications, but with varying results because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that consume little or no sugar. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended that adults and children reduce their intake of free sugars to less than 10%, encouraged a reduction to below 5%, of their total energy intake.
The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. From Sanskrit शर्करा, meaning "ground or candied sugar," "grit, gravel", came Persian shakar, whence Arabic سكر, whence Medieval Latin succarum, whence 12th-century French sucre, whence the English word sugar. Italian zucchero, Spanish azúcar, Portuguese açúcar came directly from Arabic, the Spanish and Portuguese words retaining the Arabic definite article; the earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις. The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin: Portuguese jágara from the Malayalam ചക്കരാ, itself from the Sanskrit शर्करा. Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and its cultivation spread from there into modern-day Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, it was not plentiful or cheap in early times, in most parts of the world, honey was more used for sweetening. People chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness. Sugarcane was a native of Southeast Asia.
Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating to 8th century BCE, which state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. In the tradition of Indian medicine, the sugarcane is known by the name Ikṣu and the sugarcane juice is known as Phāṇita, its varieties and characterics are defined in nighaṇṭus such as the Bhāvaprakāśa. Sugar remained unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport. Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century CE. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda, the source of the word candy. Indian sailors, who carried clarified butter and sugar as supplies, introduced knowledge of sugar along the various trade routes they travelled.
Traveling Buddhist monks took sugar crystallization methods to China. During the reign of Harsha in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after Emperor Taizong of Tang made known his interest in sugar. China established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, to obtain technology for sugar refining. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts. Nearchus, admiral of Alexander of Macedonia, knew of sugar during the year 325 B. C. because of his participation in the campaign of India led by Alexander. The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides in the 1st century CE described sugar in his medical treatise De Materia Medica, Pliny the Elder, a 1st-century CE Roman, described sugar in his Natural History: "Sugar is made in Arabia as well, but Indian sugar is better, it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, it crunches between the teeth.
It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut. Sugar is used only for medical purposes." Crusaders brought sugar back to Europe after their campaigns in the Hol
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
A ramekin is a small glazed ceramic or glass bowl used for cooking and serving various dishes. The term is derived from a cheese - or meat-based dish baked in a small mold; the French term is derived from early modern Flemish rammeken, which translated to'toast' or'roasted minced meat', itself from ram'battering ram' + -kin'diminutive', but it is unclear why. With a normal capacity of 50ml-250ml, ramekins are used for preparing and serving individual portions of a variety of dishes, including crème brûlée, French onion soup, molten chocolate cake, moin moin, cheese or egg dishes, poi and cheese, potted shrimps, ice cream, soufflé, baked cocottes, crumbles, or scallops, or used to serve side garnishes and condiments alongside an entrée. Traditionally circular with a fluted exterior, ramekins can be found in novelty shapes like flowers and stars. Ramekins are designed to resist high temperatures, as they are used in ovens or, in the case of crème brûlée, exposed to the flame of a cooking torch
A branding iron is used for branding, pressing a heated metal shape against an object or livestock with the intention of leaving an identifying mark. The history of branding is much tied to the history of using animals as a commodity; the act of marking livestock with fire-heated marks to identify ownership begins in ancient times with the ancient Egyptians. The process continued with Romans using the process to brand slaves as well. In the English lexicon, the Germanic word "brand" meant anything hot or burning, such as a fire-brand, a burning stick. By the European Middle Ages it identified the process of burning a mark into a stock animals with thick hides, such as cattle, so as to identify ownership under animus revertendi. In England, the rights of common including the common pasture system meant that cattle could be grazed on certain land with commoner's rights and the cattle were branded to show ownership with the commoner's or Lord of the manor's mark; the practice was widespread in most European nations with large cattle grazing regions, including Spain.
With colonialism, many cattle branding traditions and techniques were spread via the Spanish Empire to South America and to countries of the British Empire including the Americas, Australasia & South Africa where distinct sets of traditions and techniques developed respectively. In the Americas these European systems continued with English tradition being used in the New England Colonies and spread outwards with the western expansion of the U. S; the Spanish system evolved from the south with the vaquero tradition in what today is the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The branding iron consisted of an iron rod with a simple symbol or mark, heated in a fire. After the branding iron turned red-hot, the cowhand pressed the branding iron against the hide of the cow; the unique brand meant that cattle owned by multiple owners could graze together on the commons or open range. Drovers or cowboys could separate the cattle at roundup time for driving to market. Branding Irons come in a variety of styles, designed by their method of heating.
The traditional fire-heated method is still in use today. While they require longer lengths of time to heat, are inconsistent in temperature and all around inferior to more advanced forms of branding, they are inexpensive to produce and purchase. Fire-heated branding irons are used to brand wood, leather and plastics. Electric branding irons utilize an electric heating element to heat a branding iron to the desired temperature. Electric branding irons come in many variations from irons designed to brand cattle, irons designed to mark wood and leather and models designed to be placed inside a drill press for the purposes of manufacturing. An Electric Branding Iron's temperature can be controlled by increasing or decreasing the flow of electricity. Propane Branding Irons use a continuous flow of propane to heat the iron head, they are used where electricity is not available. Utilizing the flow of propane, the temperature can be adjusted for varying branding environments. A commercially built branding iron heater fired with L.
P. gas is a common method of heating several branding irons at once. In contrast to traditional hot-iron branding, freeze branding uses a branding iron, chilled with a coolant such as dry ice or liquid nitrogen. Rather than burning a scar into the animal, a freeze brand damages the pigment-producing hair cells, causing the animal's hair to grow white where the brand has been applied. To apply a freeze brand, the hair coat of the animal is shaved so that the bare skin is exposed the frozen iron is applied to the bare area for a period of time that varies with both the species of animal and the color of its hair coat: Shorter times are used on dark-colored animals causing the hair follicles to lose all color and regrow as white hairs. Longer times are needed on animals with white hair coats, as the brand is applied long enough to permanently stop the hair from growing in the branded area and only epidermis remains. Livestock branding is the most prevalent use of a branding iron. Modern use includes gas heating, the traditional fire-heated method, an iron heated by electricity or an iron super cooled by dry ice.
Cattle and other livestock are branded today for the same reason they were in Ancient times, to prove ownership. Woodworkers will use Electric or Fire-Heated Branding Irons to leave their maker's mark or company logo. Timber pallets and other timber export packaging is marked in this way in accordance with ISPM 15 to indicate that the timber has been treated to prevent it carrying pests. Steak branding irons are used by barbecue enthusiasts and professional chefs to leave a mark indicating how well done a steak is or to identify the chef or grill master. Branding Irons are used by makers of horse tack in place of a steel leather stamp to indicate craftsmanship. Cattle race Human branding Horse markings Livestock branding Ranch Squeeze chute Tattoo
Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla. The word vanilla, derived from vainilla, the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina, is translated as "little pod". Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlīlxochitl by the Aztecs. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s. Pollination is required to set the vanilla fruit from. In 1837, Belgian botanist Charles François Antoine Morren discovered this fact and pioneered a method of artificially pollinating the plant; the method was not deployed commercially. In 1841, Edmond Albius, a slave who lived on the French island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, discovered at the age of 12 that the plant could be hand-pollinated. Hand-pollination allowed global cultivation of the plant. Three major species of vanilla are grown globally, all of which derive from a species found in Mesoamerica, including parts of modern-day Mexico.
They are V. planifolia, grown on Madagascar, Réunion, other tropical areas along the Indian Ocean. The majority of the world's vanilla is the V. planifolia species, more known as Bourbon vanilla or Madagascar vanilla, produced in Madagascar and neighboring islands in the southwestern Indian Ocean, in Indonesia. Combined and Indonesia produce two-thirds of the world's supply of vanilla. Vanilla is the second-most expensive spice after saffron because growing the vanilla seed pods is labor-intensive. Despite the expense, vanilla is valued for its flavor; as a result, vanilla is used in both commercial and domestic baking, perfume manufacture, aromatherapy. According to other popular belief, the Totonac Aztec-age people, who inhabit the east coast of Mexico in the present-day state of Veracruz, were among the first people to cultivate vanilla in the 15th century. Aztecs invading from the central highlands of Mexico conquered the Totonacs, developed a taste for the vanilla pods, they named the fruit tlilxochitl, or "black flower", after the matured fruit, which shrivels and turns black shortly after it is picked.
Until the mid-19th century, Mexico was the chief producer of vanilla. In 1819, French entrepreneurs shipped vanilla fruits to the islands of Réunion and Mauritius in hopes of producing vanilla there. After Edmond Albius discovered how to pollinate the flowers by hand, the pods began to thrive. Soon, the tropical orchids were sent from Réunion to the Comoros Islands and Madagascar, along with instructions for pollinating them. By 1898, Madagascar, Réunion, the Comoros Islands produced 200 metric tons of vanilla beans, about 80% of world production. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Indonesia is responsible for the vast majority of the world's Bourbon vanilla production and 58% of the world total vanilla fruit production; the market price of vanilla rose in the late 1970s after a tropical cyclone ravaged key croplands. Prices remained high through the early 1980s despite the introduction of Indonesian vanilla. In the mid-1980s, the cartel that had controlled vanilla prices and distribution since its creation in 1930 disbanded.
Prices dropped 70 % to nearly US$20 per kilogram. The cyclone, political instability, poor weather in the third year drove vanilla prices to an astonishing US$500/kg in 2004, bringing new countries into the vanilla industry. A good crop, coupled with decreased demand caused by the production of imitation vanilla, pushed the market price down to the $40/kg range in the middle of 2005. By 2010, prices were down to $20/kg. Cyclone Enawo caused in similar spike to $500/kg in 2017. Madagascar accounts for much of the global production of vanilla. Mexico, once the leading producer of natural vanilla with an annual yield of 500 tons of cured beans, produced only 10 tons in 2006. An estimated 95% of "vanilla" products are artificially flavored with vanillin derived from lignin instead of vanilla fruits. Vanilla was unknown in the Old World before Cortés. Spanish explorers arriving on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in the early 16th century gave vanilla its current name. Portuguese sailors and explorers brought vanilla into Africa and Asia that century.
They called it vainilla, or "little pod". The word vanilla entered the English language in 1754, when the botanist Philip Miller wrote about the genus in his Gardener’s Dictionary. Vainilla is from the Latin vagina to describe the shape of the pods; the main species harvested for vanilla is V. planifolia. Although it is native to Mexico, it is now grown throughout the tropics. Indonesia and Madagascar are the world's largest producers. Additional sources include V. pompona and V. tahitiensis, although the vanillin content of these species is much less than V. planifolia. Vanilla grows as a vine, climbing up pole, or other support, it can be grown in a plantation, or in a "shader", in increasing orders of productivity. Its growth environment is referred to as its terroir, includes not only the adjacent plants, but the climate and local geology. Left alone, it will grow as h
A butane torch is a tool which creates an intensely hot flame using butane, a flammable gas. Consumer air butane torches are claimed to develop flame temperatures up to 1,430 °C; this temperature is high enough to melt many common metals, such as aluminum and copper, hot enough to vaporize many organic compounds as well. Brazing, plumbing Often used as daily task tools, butane torches work great for home improvement and work to solve problems with plumbing and brazing. Most of the times copper and other metals are used for home repairs of tubes and other house things. Butane torches are employed as kitchen gadgets to caramelize sugar in cooking, such as when making crème brûlée, they may be marketed as cooking torches, or culinary torches. Use of the butane torch in the kitchen is not limited to caramelizing sugar. Pocket butane torches are used as lighters for cigars, capitalizing on the intensity of the flame to light and evenly the large damp, burning surface of a cigar. Many bartenders and mixologists use butane torches in their recipes.
Smoked and flaming cocktails are now a trend. Butane torches are sometimes used in vaporizing cocaine free base, methamphetamine or hash oil for inhalation. Propane torch Lighter Blow torch List of cooking appliances Oxy-fuel welding and cutting