Kensington Church Street
Kensington Church Street is a shopping street in Kensington, England, designated the A4204, traditionally known for it art and antiques shops. Buildings at the southern end date back to the early 1700s, it is named after Kensington's original church of St Mary Abbots. The south part was called Church Lane, the north part, Silver Street; until 1864 there was a toll gate at Campden Street. The street runs north to south from Notting Hill Gate to Kensington High Street. There are several Grade II listed Victorian buildings. Time Out calls it "eccentrically posh". Notable residents include the composer Muzio Clementi who lived at no 128 from 1820 to 1823, is commemorated with a blue plaque. Media related to Kensington Church Street at Wikimedia Commons
Janus Films is an American film distribution company. The distributor is credited with introducing numerous films, now considered masterpieces of world cinema, to American audiences, including the films of Michelangelo Antonioni, Sergei Eisenstein, Ingmar Bergman, Federico Fellini, Akira Kurosawa, François Truffaut, Yasujirō Ozu and many other well-regarded directors. Ingmar Bergman's The Seventh Seal was the film responsible for the company's initial growth. Janus has a close business relationship with The Criterion Collection regarding the release of its films on DVD and Blu-ray and is still an active theatrical distributor; the company's name and logo come from Janus, the two-faced Roman god of transitions, passages and endings. Janus Films was founded in 1956 by Bryant Haliday and Cyrus Harvey, Jr. in the historic Brattle Theater, a Harvard Square landmark in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Prior to the conception of Janus and Harvey began screening both foreign and American films at the Brattle and proceeded to fill the 300-seat venue.
Having purchased the theater, together with Harvey, converted the Brattle into a popular movie house for the showing of art films. Perceiving potential in the film business and Harvey moved into the New York City market and commenced running the 55th Street Playhouse. Janus Films was subsequently launched in March 1956 and the Playhouse was used as the primary location for exhibiting Janus-distributed films; the two owners sold Janus Films in 1965 following a decline in the American art film market, in 1966 Haliday sold the Brattle, whilst Harvey continued to manage the theater into the 1970s. Janus was acquired by Saul J. Turell and William J. Becker, their sons, Jonathan B. Turell and Peter Becker, who own The Criterion Collection, are still involved in the business, with Turell serving as company director in 2006. On October 24, 2006, in celebration of 50 years of business, the Criterion Collection released 50 of the films that Janus distributed in a large boxset containing 50 DVDs and a 200-page essay on the history of art house films.
The package was called Essential Art House: 50 Years of Janus Films. A. O. Scott chose the set as his DVD pick when he co-hosted At the Movies with Roeper; as part of its 44th Festival in 2006, the New York Film Festival presented a series called 50 Years of Janus Films, a tribute to the company. In 2009, Janus Films released its first first-run theatrical release in 30 years. In 2010, Janus acquired domestic theatrical and home video rights to the Charlie Chaplin library under license from the Chaplin estate and worldwide distribution agent MK2; the Criterion division handles the Chaplin library for re-issue on DVD and Blu-ray, in addition to theatrical release. Janus currently manages part of the Caidin Film Company library for Westchester Films, the Faces Distribution/John Cassavetes library for Jumer Productions, both companies' successors-in-interest to Castle Hill Productions. Janus Films Homepage Janus Films, the Face of Art and Foreign Film
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food vegetables. However, different varieties of salad may contain any type of ready-to-eat food. Salads are served at room temperature or chilled, with notable exceptions such as south German potato salad, served warm. Garden salads use a base of leafy greens such as arugula/rocket, kale or spinach. Other types include bean salad, tuna salad, Greek salad, sōmen salad; the sauce used to flavor a salad is called a salad dressing. Salads may be served at any point during a meal: Appetizer salads—light, smaller-portion salads served as the first course of the meal. Side salads—to accompany the main course as a side dish. Main course salads—usually containing a portion of a high-protein food, such as meat, eggs, legumes, or cheese. Dessert salads—sweet versions containing fruit, sweeteners or whipped cream; the word "salad" comes from the French salade of the same meaning, from the Latin salata, from sal. In English, the word first appears as "salad" or "sallet" in the 14th century.
Salt is associated with salad because vegetables were seasoned with brine or salty oil-and-vinegar dressings during Roman times. The phrase "salad days", meaning a "time of youthful inexperience", is first recorded by Shakespeare in 1606, while the use of salad bar, referring to a buffet-style serving of salad ingredients, first appeared in American English in 1976; the Romans and ancient Greeks ate mixed greens with a type of mixed salad. Salads, including layered and dressed salads, have been popular in Europe since the Greek and Roman imperial expansions. In his 1699 book, Acetaria: A Discourse on Sallets, John Evelyn attempted with little success to encourage his fellow Britons to eat fresh salad greens. Mary, Queen of Scots, ate boiled celery root over greens covered with creamy mustard dressing, truffles and slices of hard-boiled eggs. Oil used on salads can be found in the 17th century colony of New Netherland. A list of common items arriving on ships and their designated prices when appraising cargo included "a can of salad oil at 1.10 florins" and "an anker of wine vinegar at 16 florins".
In a 1665 letter to the Director of New Netherland from the Island of Curaçao there is a request to send greens: "I request most amicably that your honors be pleased to send me seed of every sort, such as cabbage, lettuce, etc. for none can be acquired here and I know that your honor has plenty...". Salads may be sold at restaurants and at fast food chains. In the United States, restaurants will have a "salad bar" with salad-making ingredients, which the customers will use to put together their salad. Salad restaurants were earning more than $300 million in 2014. At-home salad consumption in the 2010s was rising but moving away from fresh-chopped lettuce and toward bagged greens and salad kits, with bag sales expected to reach $7 billion per year. A salad can be tossed. A green salad or garden salad is most composed of leafy vegetables such as lettuce varieties, spinach, or rocket. If non-greens make up a large portion of the salad it may be called a vegetable salad instead of a green salad. Common raw vegetables used in a salad include cucumbers, tomatoes, carrots, radishes, avocado, artichoke hearts, heart of palm, parsley, garden beets, green beans.
Nuts, berries and flowers are less common components. Hard-boiled eggs, bacon and cheeses may be used as garnishes, but large amounts of animal based foods would be more in a dinner salad. A wedge salad is made from a head of lettuce quartered, with other ingredients on top. Bound salads are assembled with thick sauces such as mayonnaise. One portion of a true bound salad will hold its shape when placed on a plate with an ice-cream scoop. Examples of bound salad include tuna salad, chicken salad, egg salad, potato salad. Bound salads are used as sandwich fillings, they are popular at barbecues. Main course salads may contain seafood, or sliced steak. Caesar salad, Chef salad, Cobb salad, Chinese chicken salad and Michigan salad are dinner salads. Fruit salads are canned. Examples include fruit cocktail. Note that "fruit" here refers to culinary fruits, many common components of vegetable salads are botanical fruits but culinary vegetables. Dessert salads include leafy greens and are sweet. Common variants are made with whipped cream.
Other forms of dessert salads include snickers salad, glorified rice, cookie salad. Sauces for salads are called "dressings"; the concept of salad dressing varies across cultures. Sometimes a dressing is not used. In Western culture, there are two basic types of salad dressing: Vinaigrettes based on a mixture of salad oil and vinegar flavored with herbs, salt, pepper and other ingredients. Creamy dressings based on mayonnaise or fermented milk products, such as yogurt, sour cream, or butte
Malus is a genus of about 30–55 species of small deciduous trees or shrubs in the family Rosaceae, including the domesticated orchard apple – known as the eating apple, cooking apple, or culinary apple. The other species are known as crabapples, crab apples, or wild apples; the genus is native to the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Apple trees are 4–12 m tall at maturity, with a dense, twiggy crown; the leaves are 3–10 cm long, simple, with a serrated margin. The flowers are borne in corymbs, have five petals, which may be white, pink or red, are perfect, with red stamens that produce copious pollen, a half-inferior ovary. Apples require cross-pollination between individuals by insects. Several Malus species, including domestic apples, hybridize freely, they are used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species. The fruit is a globose pome, varying in size from 1–4 cm diameter in most of the wild species, to 6 cm in M. sylvestris sieversii, 8 cm in M. domestica, larger in certain cultivated orchard apples.
The centre of the fruit contains five carpels arranged each containing one or two seeds. For the Malus pumila cultivars, the culinary, eating apples, see Apple. Crabapples are popular as compact ornamental trees, providing blossom in Spring and colourful fruit in Autumn; the fruits persist throughout Winter. Numerous hybrid cultivars have been selected; the following have won the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit:- Other varieties are dealt with under their species names. Some crabapples are used as rootstocks for domestic apples to add beneficial characteristics. For example, varieties of baccata called Siberian crab, rootstock is used to give additional cold hardiness to the combined plant for orchards in cold northern areas, they are used as pollinizers in apple orchards. Varieties of crabapple are selected to bloom contemporaneously with the apple variety in an orchard planting, the crabs are planted every sixth or seventh tree, or limbs of a crab tree are grafted onto some of the apple trees.
In emergencies, a bucket or drum bouquet of crabapple flowering branches are placed near the beehives as orchard pollenizers. See Fruit tree pollination; because of the plentiful blossoms and small fruit, crabapples are popular for use in bonsai culture. Crabapple fruit is not an important crop in most areas, being sour due to malic acid, in some species woody, for this reason is eaten raw. In some southeast Asian cultures they are valued as a sour condiment, sometimes eaten with salt and chili pepper, or shrimp paste; some crabapple varieties are an exception to the reputation of being sour, can be sweet, such as the'Chestnut' cultivar. Crabapples are an excellent source of pectin, their juice can be made into a ruby-coloured preserve with a full, spicy flavour. A small percentage of crabapples in cider makes a more interesting flavour; as Old English Wergulu, the crab apple is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in the 10th century. Apple wood gives off a pleasant scent when burned, smoke from an apple wood fire gives an excellent flavour to smoked foods.
It is easier to cut. It is a good wood for cooking fires because it burns slow, without producing much flame. Crab apple has been listed as one of the 38 plants whose flowers are used to prepare the Bach flower remedies. Malus x adstringens'Durleo' - Gladiator Crabapple Malus × moerlandsii Door.'profusion' - Profusion crabapple Germplasm Resources Information Network: Malus Flora of China: Malus Virginia Cooperative Extension - Disease resistant crabapples Archived 8 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine The PRI disease resistant apple breeding program: a cooperative among Purdue University, Rutgers University, the University of Illinois
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon