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Tarfaya Basin

The Tarfaya Basin is a structural basin located in southern Morocco that extends westward into the Moroccan territorial waters in the Atlantic Ocean. The basin is named for the city of Tarfaya located near the border of Western Sahara, a region governed by the Kingdom of Morocco; the Canary Islands form the western edge of the basin and lie 100 km to the west. Tarfaya Basin is characterized as a passive continental marginal basin. Other basins of northwestern Africa, along the Atlantic Ocean margin all formed in a similar manner. To the north, the Tarfaya Basin is bordered by the Agadir and Essaousoura Basins, to the south it is bordered by the Aauin Basin in Western Sahara. Additionally, the Tarfaya Basin and the other basins of northwestern Africa have been characterized as analogs and conjugates to the Nova Scotia Basin offshore from Canada; the initial rifting of Pangea began 260 million years before present during the Late Permian and persisted through the Triassic. Throughout this stage of rifting, the continental crust was thinned and separation of North America from northwestern Africa began.

Normal faulting in a northeast-southwest direction created a series of grabens and half-grabens developed as the thinned crust subsided. Subsidence led to the formation of a shallow basin without forming an ocean; the dimensions of the graben and half-graben basins range from 20–30 km in width, east to west and 50–100 km in length, north to south. Initial infilling of the basins began via transport of sediment from continental stream and river basins concurrently with the rifting during the Late Triassic as rivers transported red-brown sediment, characteristic of the geologic period. Up to 5,000 meters of these red-brown sediment beds were deposited through the Late Triassic. At 200 million years before the present, prior to the beginning of oceanic spreading, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province created igneous sills and dykes that overlay the late Triassic sedimentary rocks. At the beginning of the Jurassic, the early basin remained narrow but was subject to transgression by seawater; this resulted in the creation of a shallow sea, subject to large changes in water depth.

As saltwater filled the shallow sea, evaporation caused the loss of seawater while leaving salt in the basin. Over the course of 1 million years, upwards of 1,500 meters of salt was deposited. Salt migration began during Jurassic with sediment loading. However, the main mechanisms for the salt migration developed later. Oceanic spreading began in the Early Jurassic, allowing for the stabilization of the water levels in the Atlantic Ocean. Spreading rates have been variably calculated at 20 mm/year. What can be agreed is that initial oceanic spreading proceeded at a slow rate and increased significantly; the spreading rate doubled through the Middle Jurassic allowing for accommodation space in a wider basin. Another factor that affected accommodation space was subsidence rates of 150 mm/year that resulted from seafloor spreading. Through the Jurassic, the Atlantic margin along the coast of Morocco developed large carbonate ramps; these ramps grew thicker and wider throughout the Jurassic through periods of oceanic spreading and subsidence.

As the crust thinned and subsided, additional space in the shallow early Atlantic Ocean allowed for the development of new layers on the carbonate ramp. Carbonate reefs developed as Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian platforms grew into reef mounds; as the Jurassic ended, carbonate platform growth slowed. A late Jurassic regression exposed the carbonate platforms; this exposure of the carbonates led to severe creation of karsts on the carbonate ramp. As sea levels began to rise again during the early Cretaceous, the exposed Jurassic shelf was flooded. Increased temperatures during the Cretaceous, along with increased erosion inland, resulted in the transport of large amounts of clastic materials. Fine-grained clastics formed the basis of deltaic complexes along the coastal margin. Increased accommodation space during highstands allowed for the deposition of silty material over the carbonates of the former Jurassic shelf; these silty materials buried the carbonates as prograding deltas developed in the Early Cretaceous.

Within these deltaic sequences, a number of shale units were deposited. Near the end of the Cretaceous and the beginning of the Tertiary, the African and Eurasian continental plates converged and collided, the Atlas Mountains were created by uplift; this caused compression. As the Atlas Mountains increased in elevation, sedimentation rates increased; these sediments were transported throughout the Tertiary to the Atlantic Ocean deep basin during early Cenozoic lowstands. As the Atlantic Ocean has continued its spreading to modern times, sedimentation has occurred via clastic deposition of fine-grain aeolian clastics and hemipelagic sediment; the result has been thinly bedded shale deposits. Onshore studies of outcrops associated with the rift zone have identified Silurian shales and Devonian limestones as potential sources for hydrocarbons; the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic red-brown conglomerates and sandstones have been identified as the potential reservoir. However, wells have not targeted these intervals due to current depths, there is a high probability that potential sources of hydrocarbons have matured past the point of oil and gas generation.

Thick dolomites and carbonates deposited during the Jurassic contain low total organic content, below 5%, have reached the proper maturity for gas generation. This gas has migrated into sandstone reservoirs of Albian age; the Cenomanian-Turonian anoxic event in the mid Cretaceous deposited shale

Joseph S. Fruton

Joseph Stewart Fruton, born Joseph Fruchtgarten, was a Polish-American biochemist and historian of science. His most significant scientific work involved synthetic peptides and their interactions with proteases. From 1970 until his death, Fruton worked extensively on the history of science the history of biochemistry and molecular biology. Joseph Fruchtgarten was born in Poland. Like many other Polish Jews, the Fruchtgartens immigrated to the United States shortly before the outbreak of World War I, they lived in New York City from 1913 to 1917, in April 1917 they moved to Minsk. Between 1917 and 1923, Fruchtgarten attended school intermittently, moving from Minsk to Siedlce to Warsaw to Berlin, learning French and Latin. In 1923, the Fruchtgartens returned to New York and changed their name to Fruton to avoid being targets of anti-Semitism. Joseph Fruton followed his father in rejecting religion, but learned early on "not to advertise either Jewishness or atheism."After a few months at De Witt Clinton High School, Fruton joined the first class of students at James Madison High School.

He graduated summa cum laude in 1927, excelling in chemistry. He applied to Columbia University, after an initial rejection—possibly because he was only 15 at the time because the school had admitted the quota of New York Jews—his mother convinced an admissions official to reverse the decision. Inspired by the character Max Gottlieb from the Sinclair Lewis novel Arrowsmith, Fruton planned his Columbia education around becoming a scientist; the lectures and lab-work of organic chemist John M. Nelson turned Fruton on to biochemistry, he received his degree in chemistry in 1931, entered graduate school in the Department of Biological Chemistry in the Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, working under Hans Thacher Clarke. Fruton's PhD work focused on "the lability of cystine in alkali", although he developed a broad interest in the range of biochemistry-related research being pursued at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. During graduate school Fruton became active politically, opposing fascism and anti-Semitism.

In 1933 he met Sophia "Topsy" Simmonds, whom he married in 1936. Upon completing his PhD in May 1934, Fruton became a research assistant to Max Bergmann at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Fruton was a researcher at the Rockefeller Institute from 1934 to 1945, part of Max Bergmann's long-term and successful research program in protein chemistry. In his earliest work there, Fruton tested the stereochemical specificity of dipeptidase. Under the tutelage of fellow Bergmann lab researcher Leonidas Zervas, a pioneer in peptide synthesis, Fruton synthesized stereospecific dipeptides and other small peptides as enzyme substrates. Fruton and his colleagues found significant instances of specificity in a range of proteases—observations that were relevant to the ongoing theoretical discussions of protein structure, his most significant discovery at the Rockefeller Institute was a synthetic peptide substrate for pepsin, contrary to the common idea that pepsin would not act on short synthetic peptides.

As a side project, he worked on applications of Bergmann and Zervas's carbobenzoxy method of peptide synthesis and some of the associated side reactions. Between December 1941 and the end of World War II, research in Bergmann's lab shifted from basic protein chemistry to war-related research under the National Defense Research Committee, part of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Fruton studied the chemistry of nitrogen mustards. In 1943, Fruton won the American Chemical Society's Eli Lilly Award. In 1945, after Max Bergmann's death, Fruton joined the Yale University Department of Physiological Chemistry —headed by C. N. Hugh Long—where he taught biological chemistry to medical students. Fruton joined a growing science faculty, which included the editor of the Journal of Biological Chemistry, Rudolph Anderson. In addition to research and teaching at Yale, in 1948 Fruton visited the laboratories of several eminent biochemists: Kaj Linderstrøm-Lang's chemistry department at the Carlsberg Laboratory.

At the end of his five-year appointment as assistant professor, Fruton was promoted to full professor received a joint appointment in the Chemistry department—at the time, the only Jewish full professor in the medical school. By 1952, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, that year he became chairman of the Department of Physiological Chemistry. Most of Fruton's early research at Yale was funded by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. Fruton headed a growing lab that included doctoral students, postdoctoral researchers, technical assistants; the two main areas of research were the action of proteolytic enzymes and the chemical synthesis of peptides. Members of Fruton's lab studied cathepsin C and several other peptidases, as well as proteinases that catalyzed transpeptidation, which

1996 in basketball

The following are the basketball events of the year 1996 throughout the world. Men: United States of America 96, Yugoslavia 69 Women: United States of America 111, Australia 87 Men 1996 NBA Finals: Chicago Bulls over the Seattle SuperSonics 4-2. MVP: Michael Jordan 1996 NBA Playoffs 1995-96 NBA season 1996 NBA Draft Eurobasket: None. Women Eurobasket Women: None Men NCAA Division I: Kentucky 76, Syracuse 67 NIT: University of Nebraska def. St. Joseph's University Division II: Fort Hays State University 70, Northern Kentucky University 63 Division III: Rowan University 100, Hope College 93 NAIA Division I Oklahoma City University 86, Georgetown 80 Division II Albertson 81, Whitworth 72 OT NJCAA Division I Sullivan College, Louisville, KY 103, Allegany CC, Cumberland, MD 98 O/T Division II Penn Valley CC, Mo. 93, Kishwukee CC, Ill. 88 Division III Sullivan County CC 74, Gloucester County College 63 Women NCAA Division I: University of Tennessee 83, University of Georgia 65 Division II: North Dakota State 104, Shippensburg 78 Division III: Wis.-Oshkosh 66 Mount Union 50 NAIA Division I: Southern Nazarene 80, Southeastern Oklahoma State University 79 Division II Western Oregon 80, Huron 77 NJCAADivision I Trinity Valley CC 69, Independence CC 55 Division II Lansing CC 74, Kankakee CC 68 Division III Central Lakes College-Brainerd 71, Monroe CC 57 Men NBA Most Valuable Player Award: Michael Jordan NBA Rookie of the Year Award: Damon Stoudamire, Toronto Raptors NBA Defensive Player of the Year Award: Gary Payton, Seattle SuperSonics NBA Coach of the Year Award: Phil Jackson, Chicago Bulls Men John R. Wooden Award: Marcus Camby, Massachusetts Naismith College Coach of the Year: John Calipari, Massachusetts Frances Pomeroy Naismith Award: Eddie Benton, Vermont Associated Press College Basketball Player of the Year: Marcus Camby, UMass NCAA Basketball Tournament Most Outstanding Player: Miles Simon, Arizona Associated Press College Basketball Coach of the Year: Gene Keady, Purdue Naismith Outstanding Contribution to Basketball: Boris Stankovic Women Naismith College Player of the Year: Saudia Roundtree, Georgia Naismith College Coach of the Year: Andy Landers, Georgia Wade Trophy: Jennifer Rizzotti, Connecticut Frances Pomeroy Naismith Award: Jennifer Rizzotti, Connecticut Associated Press Women's College Basketball Player of the Year: Jennifer Rizzotti, Connecticut NCAA Basketball Tournament Most Outstanding Player: Michelle Marciniak, Tennessee Basketball Academic All-America Team: Jennifer Rizzotti, UConn Basketball Academic All-America Team: Katie Smith, Ohio State Basketball Academic All-America Team: Tricia Wakely, Drake Carol Eckman Award: Joann Rutherford, Missouri Associated Press College Basketball Coach of the Year: Angie Lee, Iowa Class of 1996:Krešimir Ćosić George Gervin Gail Goodrich Nancy Lieberman David Thompson George Yardley The WNBA formed.

Celtic Pride Space Jam Sunset Park January 13 — Dean Kelley, American national college champion at Kansas, Olympic gold medalist May 18 — Chet Forte, All-American college player June 14 — Jack Ragland, American Olympic gold medalist July 16 — Harold E. Foster, Hall of Fame player and Wisconsin Badgers men's basketball head coach July 29 — Lauren "Laddie" Gale, Hall of Fame player for the Oregon Ducks men's basketball and early professional August 10 — Derek Smith, American NBA player September 25 — Red Mihalik, Hall of Fame NBA, NCAA and Olympic referee Timeline of women's basketball

Cerrophidion tzotzilorum

Common names: Tzotzil montane pitviper. Cerrophidion tzotzilorum is a venomous pit viper species endemic to southern Mexico. No subspecies are recognized; the specific name, tzotzilorum, is in honor of the Tzotzil people. C. tzotzilorum is moderately stout. Adults do not exceed 50 cm in total length. C. tzotzilorum is found in the Meseta Central of Mexico. The type locality given is "10.9 km ESE San Cristobal de Las Casas, Mexico, elevation 2,320 m ". The species C. tzotzilorum is classified as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Species are listed as such due to their wide distribution, presumed large population, or because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category; the population trend is stable. Year assessed: 2007. List of crotaline species and subspecies Crotalinae by common name Crotalinae by taxonomic synonyms Snakebite Campbell JA. "A New Species of Highland Pitviper of the Genus Bothrops from Southern Mexico". Journal of Herpetology 19: 48-54..

Cerrophidion tzotzilorum at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 14 September 2007

Politics of Moldova

The politics of Moldova take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, wherein the prime minister is the head of the government, a multi-party system. The government exercises executive power; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. The position of the breakaway region of Transnistria, relations with Romania and with Russia, integration into the EU dominate political discussions; the Economist Intelligence Unit rated Moldova a "hybrid regime" in 2019. The Moldovan Parliament has 101 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation; the president is elected for a four-year term by the citizens. The seat of the legislature is known as the Parliament Building; the president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term. According to the Moldovan constitution, the president, on consulting with the Parliament, will designate a candidate for the office of prime minister; the cabinet is selected by prime minister-designate, subject to approval of Parliament.

The cabinet meets at the Government House on Stephen the Great Boulevard in Central Chișinău. The 9 ministries of the Government of Moldova are: Ministry of Internal Affairs of Moldova Ministry of Defence Ministry of Finance Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration Ministry of Justice Ministry of Economy and Infrastructure Ministry of Education and Research Ministry of Health and Social Protection Ministry of Agriculture, Regional Development and Environment Moldova is divided into 32 raions, or raioane, three municipalities, one autonomous region, the breakaway region of Transnistria, the status of, disputed; the underlying issue in the Republic of Moldova revolves around ethnicity and whether the country should re-unite with Romania, with which it shares a common ethnicity, language and history. The Republic of Moldova represents the eastern half of what is known as the Principality of Moldova; as a result of the Treaty of Bucharest, ending the Russo-Turkish War of 1806, it was separated from the western part of the principality along the Prut river and annexed by the Russian Empire, which named it Bessarabia.

The western half of the former Principality of Moldova, not annexed by Russia, united with Wallachia in 1859 to form the basis for modern day Romania. The eastern half united with Romania in 1918, but was re-annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940 as a result of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact. Russian and Soviet-era identity politics focused on Russification in the colonial sense as well as on stressing artificial differences between the Moldovans and the Romanians in an attempt to create a uniquely "Moldovan" identity, including indoctrination against Romania and Romanians; as a result, Moldovan ethnic identity is complicated and divided between those who consider themselves Moldovan and those who consider themselves Romanian. Although Moldovans comprise a sizeable ethnic majority of the population, they are fragmented in terms of degree of Russification and cultural indoctrination; the more pro-Russian the Moldovan, the more it is that s/he will call his/her language and ethnicity Moldovan rather than Romanian.

Today, Moldova is bilingual, with a Romanian-speaking majority and a sizable and influential, Russian-speaking minority, with the Russian language still dominating the media. The Russophile population is hostile to the idea of unification with Romania and votes for left-wing parties; the Moldovan majority is divided between pro-Russian nostalgia and growing pro-Romanian and pro-EU sympathies, with a growing number of people supporting the idea of re-unification with Romania among the youth. Transnistria is a strip of land running along Moldova's eastern border with Ukraine, named after the Nistru river; the Transnistrian region is majority Slavic and russophone, in contrast with the rest of the country, it was industrialized during USSR rule. The Moldovan Declaration of Independence claims continuity of Moldovan sovereignty over the territory of Transnistria as it is "a component part of the historical and ethnic territory of our people". However, the Moldovan Declaration of Independence is itself used as an argument against Moldovan sovereignty over Transnistria as it denounces the Ribbentrop-Molotov agreement of 23 August 1939 between the government of the Soviet Union and the government of Nazi Germany "null and void" being the only formal union between the two territories.

After failing to establish control over the breakaway region in the War of Transnistria, Moldova offered a broad cultural and political autonomy to the region. The dispute has strained Moldova's relations with Russia; the July 1992 cease-fire agreement established a tripartite peacekeeping force composed of Moldovan and Transnistrian units. Negotiations to resolve the conflict continue, the cease-fire is still in effect; the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe can is trying to facilitate a negotiated settlement and has had an observer mission in place for several years. The country remains divided, with the Transnistrian region controlled by separatist forces, supported de facto by a contingency of Russian troops posing as a peacekeeping mission. Due to the high rate of poverty, Moldova remains a large source-country of illegal sex wor