La lupa (1953 film)
La lupa is a 1953 Italian drama film directed by Alberto Lattuada. It is based on the novella with the same name by Giovanni Verga. Kerima: The'She-Wolf' Ettore Manni: Nanni Lasca May Britt: Maria Maricchia Ignazio Balsamo: Don Antonio Malerba Mario Passante: Imbornone Giovanna Ralli: Agnese Salvo Libassi: Raffaele Anna Arena: Giovanna Vasilio Maurizio Arena La lupa on IMDb
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Ninfa plebea, internationally released as The Nymph, is a 1996 Italian comedy-drama film directed by Lina Wertmüller. It is based on the Premio Strega winning novel with the same name by Domenico Rea. Raoul Bova: Pietro Lucia Cara: Miluzza Stefania Sandrelli: Nunziata Isa Danieli: Gesummia Peppe De Rosa: Don Peppe Lorenzo Crespi: Dino Simona Patitucci: Rosinella Giuditta del Vecchio: Annuzza Lola Pagnani: Lucia The Nymph on IMDb
Alberto Lattuada was an Italian film director. Lattuada was born in the son of composer Felice Lattuada, he was interested in literature, while still a student, a member of the editorial staff of the antifascist fortnightly "Camminare..." and part of the artists' group Corrente di Vita. Before entering into the film business, Lattuada's father made him complete his studies as an architect though he recognized his desire to make movies. In 1940 he started his cinema career as a screenwriter and assistant director on Mario Soldati's Piccolo mondo antico. In 1943 he directed Giacomo l'idealista. Luci del Varietà, co-directed with Federico Fellini, was the latter's first directorial endeavour, his 1962 film La steppa was entered into the 12th Berlin International Film Festival. In 1970, he was a member of the jury at the 20th Berlin International Film Festival. In 1979, New Line Cinema released his erotic film Stay, he was married to actress Carla Del Poggio. He died at 90 years old of Alzheimer's disease.
He was buried in his family's chapel in the cemetery of Morimondo. Alberto Lattuada on IMDb "Alberto Lattuada". Find a Grave. Retrieved September 3, 2010
Francesco Rosi was an Italian film director. His film The Mattei Affair won the Palme d'Or at the 1972 Cannes Film Festival. Rosi's films those of the 1960s and 1970s appeared to have political messages. While the topics for his films became less politically oriented and more angled toward literature, he continued to direct until 1997, his last film being the Primo Levi book adaptation The Truce. At the 2008 Berlin International Film Festival 13 of his films were screened, in a section reserved for film-makers of outstanding quality and achievement, he received the Honorary Golden Bear for Lifetime Achievement, accompanied by the screening of his 1962 film Salvatore Giuliano. In 2012 the Venice Biennale awarded Rosi the Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement. Rosi was born in Naples in 1922, his father worked in the shipping industry, but was a cartoonist and had, at one time, been reprimanded for his satirical drawings of Benito Mussolini and King Vittorio Emmanuel III. During the Second World War Rosi went to college alongside Giorgio Napolitano, to become Italian President.
He studied law and embarked on a career as an illustrator of children's books. At the same time he began working as a reporter for Radio Napoli. There he became friendly with Raffaele La Capria, Aldo Giuffrè and Giuseppe Patroni Griffi, with each of whom he would often collaborate, his show business career began in 1946 as an assistant to Ettore Giannini for the stage production of a work by Salvatore Di Giacomo. He entered the film industry and worked as an assistant to Luchino Visconti on La Terra Trema and Senso, he wrote several screenplays, including Bellissima and The City Stands Trial, shot a few scenes of the film Red Shirts by Goffredo Alessandrini. In 1956 he co-directed, with Vittorio Gassman, the film Kean – Genio e sregolatezza, about the Shakespearean actor Edmund Kean, his emergence as a director is considered to be his 1958 film La sfida, based on the story of Camorra boss Pasquale Simonetti, known as Pasquale'e Nola, Pupetta Maresca. The realist nature of this film caused a stir in alluding to mafia control of the government.
Of the film, Rosi himself said, "A director makes his first film with passion and without regard for what has gone before". But David Shipman comments "... but this is in fact a reworking of La Terra Trema, with the Visconti arias replaced by Zavattini's naturalism."The following year he directed The Magliari, in which the main character, an Italian immigrant in Germany, travels between Hamburg and Hanover and clashes with a Neapalitan mafioso boss over control the fabric market. Shipman writes: I magliari concerns racketeers, they are rival con-men preying on their compatriots, immigrant workers in Germany. Sordi, like the protagonist in La sfida, manages to antagonise his colleagues more than his rivals – and this was to be a continuing theme in Rosi's films. For the moment it means that both films end dispiritedly, they are further weakened by an uncertain grasp of narrative – though, hidden in the vigorous handling of individual scenes and the photography of Gianni Di Venanzo. Rosi was one of the central figures of the politicised post-neorealist 1960s and 1970s of Italian cinema, along with Gillo Pontecorvo, Pier Paolo Pasolini, the Taviani brothers, Ettore Scola and Valerio Zurlini.
Dealing with a corrupt postwar Italy, Rosi's movies take on controversial issues, such as Salvatore Giuliano, a film that won the Silver Bear for Best Director at the 12th Berlin International Film Festival in 1962. The film examined the life of the Sicilian gangster Giuliano, using the technique of a long series of flashbacks, one that became popular thereafter. Shipman suggests that the film, with a "superb unity of the landscape and people of Sicily"... "made Rosi's international reputation."In 1963 he directed Rod Steiger in the film Hands over the City, in which he courageously denounced the collusion between the various government departments and the crooked urban reconstruction programmes in Naples. The film was awarded the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival; the film, together with Salvatore Giuliano, is considered the first of his films concerning political issues to be expressed in the flexible and spontaneous acting of Gian Maria Volontè. Rosi himself explained the film's purpose: "What interests me passionately is how a character behaves in the relation to the collectivity of society.
I'm not making a study of character but of society. To understand what a man is like in his private drama you must begin to understand him in his public life". In The Moment of Truth, Rosi changed what was planned as a documentary about Spain in to a film about bullfighter Miguel Marco Miguelin. Shipman comments: "The wide screen and colour footage of the corrida were incomparably superior to those seen outside Spain hitherto."After this Rosi moved into the unfamiliar world of the movie fable with More Than a Miracle. The film starred Sophia Loren and Omar Sharif, fresh from the success of the 1966 film Doctor Zhivago, although Rosi had asked for the part to be played by Marcello Mastroianni, his 1970 film Many Wars Ago dealt with the absurdity of war in the context of the Trentino Front of 1916–17 during World War One, where Italian army officers demanded far too much of their men. It was bas
World Monuments Fund
World Monuments Fund is a private, non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of historic architecture and cultural heritage sites around the world through fieldwork, grantmaking and training. Founded in 1965, WMF is headquartered in New York, has offices and affiliates around the world, including Cambodia, Peru, Portugal and the United Kingdom. In addition to hands-on management, the affiliates identify and manage projects, negotiate local partnerships, attract local support to complement funds provided by donors; the International Fund for Monuments was an organization created by Colonel James A. Gray after his retirement from the U. S. Army in 1960. Gray had conceived of a visionary project to arrest the settlement of the Leaning Tower of Pisa by freezing the soil underneath, formed the organization in 1965 as a vehicle for the implementation of this idea. Though this project did not materialize, an opportunity arose for the young organization to participate in the conservation of the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela in Ethiopia.
In 1966 Gray secured the support of philanthropist Lila Acheson Wallace, who offered $150,000 to the International Fund for Monuments and UNESCO for this project. The project continued until the Communist overthrow of Haile Selassie I and the subsequent expulsion of foreigners from Ethiopia. After Ethiopia, Gray's interests shifted to Easter Island in Chile. Gray formed the Easter Island Committee, with Norwegian ethnographer and adventurer Thor Heyerdahl as its honorary chairman. Gray arranged to have one of the monolithic human figures known as moai exhibited in the United States. With the help of anthropologist William Mulloy, Gray selected an 8-foot-tall, five-ton head, exhibited in front of the Seagram Building in New York and in the Pan American Union building in Washington, D. C. An important chapter for the organization started with its involvement in the broad international effort led by UNESCO for the protection of the city of Venice, Italy from catastrophic flooding. After the high tide of 4 November 1966, the city, including the historic Piazza San Marco, was inundated for more than twenty-four hours.
The International Fund for Monuments set up a Venice Committee, with Professor John McAndrew of Wellesley College as chairman and Gray as executive secretary. On the part of the Committee, appeals were made to the American public, local chapters set up in American cities; this early initiative led to the formation of the independent organization Save Venice in 1971. These efforts helped establish a reputation for IFM. In Spain, the organization formed a Committee for Spain under the leadership of American diplomat and U. S. Ambassador to Spain in 1965–67 Angier Biddle Duke. At the invitation of UNESCO in the 1970s IFM became involved in architectural conservation in Nepal, where the organization adopted the Mahadev temple complex in Gokarna, in Nepal's Kathmandu Valley; the 14th-century temple building was surveyed, rotten timbers were replaced, the foundations were strengthened. Sculpted wooden architectural elements were painstakingly cleaned of layers of a motor oil coating, applied annually for protection.
At the request of UNESCO, IFM launched a project for the preservation of the Citadelle Laferrière, a large mountaintop fortress near Milot, Haiti. The site was the keystone of a defensive system constructed in the early period of Haitian independence to protect the young state from French attempts to reclaim it as a colony. Local artisans reconstructed wooden and tile roofs over the grand gallery and batteries using traditional carpentry methods, consolidated the stone galleries of the fortress. IFM sponsored a traveling exhibition and a film about the history of the Citadelle, used for educational purposes in the United States. Through donations and matching funds, WMF has worked with local community and government partners worldwide to safeguard and conserve places of historic value for future generations. To date, WMF has worked at more than 500 sites in 91 countries, including many UNESCO World Heritage Sites. WMF has worked at internationally famous tourist attractions as well as lesser-known sites.
Prominent projects are many temples at Angkor, starting in 1990, including Preah Khan and Phnom Bakheng. WMF has participated in projects in the United States, including Ellis Island, Taos Pueblo, Mesa Verde National Park, the Mount Lebanon Shaker Society, many sites in New Orleans and the Gulf Coast; every two years WMF publishes the World Monuments Watch. Since the first list was compiled in 1996, this program has drawn international attention to cultural heritage sites around the world threatened by neglect, armed conflict, commercial development, natural disasters, climate change. Through the World Monuments Watch, WMF fosters community support for the protection of endangered sites, attracts technical and financial support for the sites; the sites are nominated by international and local preservation groups and professionals, including local authorities. Sites of all types, including secular and religious architecture, archaeologic
Brigandage in Southern Italy after 1861
Brigandage in Southern Italy had existed in some form since ancient times. However its origins as outlaws targeting random travellers would evolve vastly on in the form of the political resistance movement. During the time of the Napoleonic conquest of the Kingdom of Naples, the first signs of political resistance brigandage came to public light, as the Bourbon loyalists of the country refused to accept the new Bonapartist rulers and fought against them until the Bourbon monarchy had been reinstated; some claim. In the upheaval of Sicily's transition out of feudalism in 1812, the resulting lack of an effective government police force banditry became a serious problem in much of rural Sicily during the 19th century. Rising food prices, the loss of public and church lands, the loss of feudal common rights pushed many desperate peasants to banditry. With no police to call upon, local elites in countryside towns recruited young men into "companies-at-arms" to hunt down thieves and negotiate the return of stolen property, in exchange for a pardon for the thieves and a fee from the victims, a development, seen as the genesis of the Mafia.
These companies-at-arms were made up of former bandits and criminals the most skilled and violent of them. While this saved communities the trouble of maintaining their own policemen, this may have made the companies-at-arms more inclined to collude with their former brethren rather than destroy them. After the conquest of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies in 1861 by the Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia, the most famous and well known form of brigandage in the area emerged. According to Marxist theoretician Nicola Zitara, social unrest among the lower classes, occurred due to poor conditions, the fact that the Risorgimento benefited in the "Mezzogiorno" only the bourgeoisie vast-land owning classes. Many turned to brigandage in the mountains of Basilicata, Campania and Abruzzo, but the brigands were not a homogeneous group, nor did they operate with any common cause. Amongst the brigands were a mixture of people, with motives, they launched attacks not only against the Italian authorities and the land owning upper-classes, but against common people looting villages and farms, committing armed robberies against both individuals and groups, including farmers and rival brigand bands.
Robberies by brigand bands were accompanied by other acts of violence and vandalism, such as arsons, rapes, kidnappings and crop burnings. In 1863, an strong handed repression of the brigands by the Italian authorities picked up with the passing of the Pica Laws, which permitted the arrest of relatives and those suspected of collaborating or helping a brigand; the villages of Pontelandolfo and Casalduni in the Province of Benevento became the site of a massacre of thirteen brigands by Italian Bersaglieri, conducted as a reprisal following the massacre of forty-five soldiers of the Italian army by local brigands. In total several thousand brigands were arrested and executed, while many more were deported or fled the country. In Palermo in 1866, 40,000 Italian soldiers were needed to put down The Seven and a Half Days Revolt. After the Italian Unification in 1861, unlike Southern Italy, brigandage was non-existent in the other annexed states of northern and central Italy such as: Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, Duchy of Parma, Duchy of Modena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Papal States, because the situation of Southern Italy was different, owing to the previous centuries of history and the Italian southern historian and politician Francesco Saverio Nitti, describes how brigandage was endemic in Southern Italy before 1860, using the following words from his book Eroi e briganti, translated into English: « … every part of Europe has had brigands and criminals, that in war and misfortune time dominated the countryside, put themselves out of the law but there was only one country in Europe where brigandage has existed we can say always a country where brigandage for many centuries can look like a huge river of blood and hates a country where for centuries monarchy based itself on brigandage, that became like a historical agent: this is the country of Midday ».
In relation to the thesis which regards brigandage in southern Italy as a popular revolt against Italian unification or the House of Savoy, it is to be observed that after 1865-1870, when brigandage in the South ended, it was never followed up by any anti-Savoy or anti-unification movement. Many southern Italians held high positions in the new Italian government, such as the 11th Prime Minister of Italy Francesco Crispi. Italians from southern Italy would go on to play a key role in the ultra-nationalist Fascist movement, most notably the so-called'philosopher of Fascism' Giovanni Gentile; the thesis which regards the South as hostile to Savoy after the unification does not explain the fact that with the birth of the Italian Republic, after the referendum of June 2, 1946, the south voted overwhelmingly in favor of the Savoy monarchy, while the north voted for a republic, from 1946 to 1972 the monarchist