Essex County College
Essex County College is a community college in Essex County, New Jersey. In August 1966, the Board of Freeholders approved the creation of Essex County College and in September 1968, more than a year after the Newark riots, the college opened its doors to 3,400 students at 31 Clinton Street, Newark, NJ. In early 1970, after the college celebrated its first commencement, graduating 214 students, it was decided that the new main campus would be built in what is today called the University Heights district; the groundbreaking of the "Megastructure" began in June 1972 with the grand opening occurring a little under four years in April 1976. During this time, in June 1974, the College was given its accreditation by the Middles States Association of College and Schools' Commission on Higher Education; the main campus would see expansions in October 1985, in October 1996, in September 1999. In January 1979, the West Essex Extension Center, a former elementary school, opened in West Caldwell, NJ. In 1982 an additional eight acres was purchased and, in September 1985, the newly expanded and renovated Center was unveiled.
It would take another four years before the New Jersey State Department of Higher Education would grant the Center full branch campus status, transforming it into the West Essex Campus. The FOCUS Center and the Ironbound Center are two extension centers, located in Newark, which offer off-campus educational services. In December 1998, operations began at the Public Safety Academy in Cedar Grove, NJ. After the 2010 retirement of long-serving president Dr. A. Zachary Yamba, the college went through two separate presidencies in less than a handful of years which led to Yamba being brought back as an interim president in the spring of 2016. In November of that year the college was placed on warning by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education for failing to comply with standards involving institutional resources and governance. That, along with a former athletic coach having been found to have stolen $150,000.00 of college funds, led to a decline in enrollment. Dr. Anthony Munroe was hired by the college in May 2017 to succeed Yamba and help bring the institution back into compliance with the standards set by Middle States but internal issues, including the Board of Trustees rejecting several of the president's proposed appointees led to the college being placed on probation.
After a reshaping and reorganizing, Dr. Munroe and his administration were able to submit a monitoring report to Middle States on March 1, 2018, which led to a Small Team visit two weeks where the Middle States representatives reported that the institution appeared to be in compliance with the standards for which it was placed on probation; that same month, the college laid off 20 full-time staff and eliminated 14 vacant positions in an effort to save money. On July 2, 2018, in response to the college's actions and changes in its structure and governance, based upon the recommendation from the Small Team's visit, Middle States reaffirmed the institution's accreditation. May 1966 - Robert McCabe January 1969 - Dr. Ellis White May 1971 - J. Harry Smith July 1978 - Dr. George Harris May 1980 - Dr. A. Zachary Yamba April 2010 - Dr. Edythe Abdullah March 2013 - Dr. Gale E. Gibson October 2013 - Dr. Gale E. Gibson March 2016 - Dr. A. Zachary Yamba May 2017 - Dr. Anthony Munroe Essex County College offers A.
A. A. S. and A. A. S. degree programs in more than 50 different majors. It offers 26 academic certificate programs. 25,000 people enroll each year in the college's various degree and non-degree programs, including job training and enrichment programs. Day, evening and online courses are offered throughout the fall, semester winter intercession, spring semester, two summer sessions; the college's academic offerings are split up into six distinct divisions and one separate department: Division of Biology and Physics Division of Business Division of Health Sciences Division of Humanities and Bilingual Studies Division of Mathematics, Engineering Technologies, Computer Sciences Division of Social Sciences Department of Nursing Essex County College's students represent over 50 different countries. More Essex graduates transfer to Rutgers University-Newark, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Bloomfield College than any other two-year college in the state. In the fall of 1982 Phi Theta Kappa was chartered.
Dozens of student organized and run clubs exist at the college, including the Short Films Club and the Future Teachers Club. Over the last decade, over one dozen Essex graduates have received Jack Kent Cooke Foundation Undergraduate Transfer Scholarships, allowing them to attend a four-year institution or for free. Essex County College's athletic teams, dubbed the Wolverines, are represented in the Garden State Athletic Conference and Region 19 of the National Junior College Athletic Association. Men and women are able to participate in basketball, cross country and track & field. Essex athletes have gone on to become All-Americans; the college has produced more than two dozen athletes who have competed at the Summer Olympics, representing various countries around the world. Steven Corbin (19
Baruch College is a public research university in New York City. It is a constituent college of the City University of New York system. Named for financier and statesman Bernard M. Baruch, the college operates undergraduate, Ph. D. programs through its Zicklin School of Business, the Weissman School of Arts and Sciences, the Marxe School of Public and International Affairs. Baruch is one of CUNY's senior colleges, it traces its roots back to the 1847 founding of the Free Academy, the first institution of free public higher education in the United States. The New York State Literature Fund was created to serve students who could not afford to enroll in New York City’s private colleges; the Fund led to the creation of the Committee of the Board of Education of the City of New York, led by Townsend Harris, J. S. Bosworth, John L. Mason, which brought about the establishment of what would become the Free Academy, on Lexington Avenue in Manhattan; the Free Academy became the College of the City of New York, now The City College of New York.
In 1919, what would become Baruch College was established as City College School of Business and Civic Administration. On December 15, 1928, the cornerstone was laid on the new building which would house the newly founded school. At this point, the school did not admit women. At the time it opened it was considered the biggest such school for the teaching of business education in the United States. By the 1930s, women were allowed into the School of Business; the total enrollment at CCNY reached an all-time high of 40,000 students in 1935, the School of Business had an enrollment of more than 1,700 students in the day session alone. In 1953, it was renamed the Baruch School of Business in honor of Bernard Baruch, after an 1889 graduate of CCNY who went on to become a prominent financier and adviser to two presidents. In 1961, the New York State Education Law established the City University of New York system. In 1968, the Baruch School of Business was spun off as Baruch College, an independent senior college in the City University system.
The first president of the new college was the previous Federal Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Robert C. Weaver. In 1971, the college appointed a noted educator, as its president, he was succeeded by economist Joel Edwin Segall in 1977. Segall recruited several well-known faculty members to the School of Business and established the college's permanent home on Lower Lexington Avenue. Matthew Goldstein was president of the school from 1991 to 1998, he was responsible for raising admissions requirements and creating the School of Public Affairs in 1994. Edward Regan, former comptroller of New York state, served as president from 2000 to 2004. During his tenure, test scores rose, student retention rates increased, many new faculty members were hired. In 2001, the Vertical Campus opened and Baruch accepted its first students from the CUNY Honors College, now known as the Macaulay Honors College; the college implemented a common core curriculum for all undergraduates. Baruch received donations from alumni, the Vertical Campus, 23rd Street building, Performing Arts complex, respectively.
Alumni giving has increased under "Baruch Means Business," a $150 million capital campaign. In August 2009, Waldron resigned from her position to become a University Professor at the Graduate Center. Stan Altman, the former dean of the School of Public Affairs from 1999 to 2005, was named interim president. On February 22, 2010, Dr. Mitchel Wallerstein, Dean of the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University, was appointed as the next President of Baruch College, he took office on August 2, 2010. Baruch was the scene of student protests in 2011 as a result of tuition hikes; this resulted in arrests. Larry Zicklin, who endowed the Zicklin School of Business with an $18 million gift in 1997, is a Clinical Professor at Stern School of Business at New York University and teaches courses in Corporate Governance and the Management of a Financial Business at Stern. Zicklin is a Senior Fellow at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania; the college is composed of three academic schools, the Zicklin School of Business, the Weissman School of Arts & Science, the Marxe School of Public Affairs.
The Zicklin School of Business grants a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in 19 different business related areas, a Masters of Business Administration in 14 business related areas, a Masters of Science in 8 business related programs. The Weissman School of Arts and Sciences grants a Bachelor of Arts degree in over 26 different arts and science related areas, a Masters of Arts in Corporate Communications and Mental Health Counseling, a Masters of Science in Financial Engineering and Industrial Organizational Psychology; the Austin W. Marxe School of Public and International Affairs grants a Bachelor of Science degree in Public Affairs, a Masters of Public Administration in 5 different public affairs-related areas and a Masters of Science in Education in Higher Education Administration; the college houses several doctoral programs offered through the CUNY Graduate Center. They include Business as well as Organizational Psychology; as of June 2013, the CUNY Ph. D. in Business degree is offered jointly by the Graduate Center and Baruch College.
The Lawrence and Eris Field Building known as the 23rd Street Building, is still in use by the college today. According to Mr
Donald M. Payne
Donald Milford Payne was an American politician, the U. S. Representative for New Jersey's 10th congressional district from 1989 to 2012, he was a member of the Democratic Party. The district encompasses most of the city of Newark, parts of Jersey City and Elizabeth, some suburban communities in Essex and Union counties, he was the first African American. Payne was a 1952 graduate of Barringer High School, he did his undergraduate studies at Seton Hall University, graduating in 1957. After graduating he pursued post-graduate studies in Springfield College in Massachusetts. Before being elected to Congress in 1988, Payne was an executive at Prudential Financial, Vice President of Urban Data Systems Inc. and a teacher in the Newark Public Schools. In 1970, Payne became the first black president of the National Council of YMCAs. From 1973 to 1981 he was Chairman of the World Y. M. C. A. Refugee and Rehabilitation Committee. Payne's political career began in 1972, when he was elected to the Essex County Board of Chosen Freeholders, serving three terms.
In 1978, Payne ran against, came in third to, Peter Shapiro in the June primary selecting the Democratic candidate for the first Essex County Executive, with Sheriff John F. Cryan coming in second. In 1982, he was elected to the Newark Municipal Council and served three terms, resigning in 1988 shortly after his election to Congress. Payne ran against U. S. Congressman Peter Rodino in the 1980 and 1986 Democratic primaries but lost both times. Rodino retired in 1988 after 40 years in Congress. Payne defeated fellow Municipal Councilman Ralph T. Grant Jr. in the Democratic primary, the real contest in this Democratic, black-majority district. He was re-elected nine times with no substantive opposition. 1996 Results Don Payne 84.16% Vanessa Williams 14.62% Harley Tyler 0.79% Toni Jackson 0.43%1998 Results Don Payne 84% William Wnuck 11%2000 Results Donald M. Payne 87.5% Dirk B. Weber 12.1% Maurice Williams 0.4%In the 2002 general election, Payne was reelected with 84.5% of the vote, receiving a higher margin of the vote than in any other New Jersey Congressional race run that year.
In 2004, the Republicans didn't put up a candidate, Payne was reelected with 97% of the vote, against Green Party candidate Toy-Ling Washington and Socialist Workers Party candidate Sara J. Lobman. In 2006, Payne was unopposed in the primary and general elections. In 2008, he won 99% of the vote against Green candidate Michael Taber. In 2010, Payne defeated little-known candidate Micheal Alonso. Payne's voting record was considered to have been the most progressive of all New Jersey Congressmen at the time of his death, he was pro-choice and against the death penalty. He was a member, former chair, of the Congressional Black Caucus and was chosen in 2002 by House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi to serve on the Democratic Steering Committee; the Democratic Steering Committee chooses which House Committees each individual Democratic Congressmen will serve on and plays a crucial part in shaping the Democratic legislative agenda. In international issues, Payne was active on issues relating to Africa regarding the conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan and the Western Sahara conflict.
As a leading advocate of education, Payne was instrumental in the passage of key legislation, including the Goals 2000 initiative to improve elementary and secondary schools. Payne was a member of the U. S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs, where he served as Chairman of the United States House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health and as a member of the Subcommittee on the United States House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere and the United States House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on International Organizations, Human Rights, Oversight. Congressman Payne was at the forefront of efforts to restore democracy and human rights in nations throughout the globe, he was one of five members of Congress chosen to accompany President Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton on their historic six-nation tour of Africa. He headed a Presidential mission to war-torn Rwanda to help find solutions to that country's political and humanitarian crises. In addition, he was recognized as having the most supportive record in Congress on issues involving the Northern Ireland peace process.
On June 22, 2001 Payne was arrested after protesting against the Sudanese government at its embassy in Washington, D. C.. He endorsed the Genocide Intervention Network. In 2003, President George W. Bush appointed Payne as one of two members of Congress to serve as a Congressional delegate to the United Nations and reappointed him in 2005 to an unprecedented second term. In this role, he met with the U. N. Secretary General, the U. S. Ambassador to the U. N. and attended sessions of the U. N. General Assembly and other high level meetings, he was one of the 31 who voted in the House to not count the electoral votes from Ohio in the 2004 presidential election. Payne received an "A" on the liberal Drum Major Institute's 2005 Congressional Scorecard on middle-class issues. Payne served on the board of directors of the National Endowment for Democracy, TransAfrica, Discovery Channel Global Education Fund, the Congressional Award Foundation, the Boys and Girls Clubs of Newark, the Newark Day Center, the Fighting Back Initiative and the Newark YMCA.
He received numerous awards and honors from national and community-based or
Irvington, New Jersey
Irvington is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township had a total population of 53,926, having declined by 6,769 from the 60,695 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 323 from the 61,018 counted in the 1990 Census. Clinton Township, which included what is now Irvington and parts of Newark and South Orange, was created on April 14, 1834; the area was known as Camptown until the mid-1800s. In 1850, after Stephen Foster published his ballad, Camptown Races, residents were concerned that the activities described in the song would be associated with their community; the town was Irvingtown, in honor of Washington Irving. Irvington was incorporated as an independent village on March 27, 1874, from portions of Clinton Township. What remained of Clinton Township was absorbed into Newark on March 5, 1902. On March 2, 1898, Irvington was incorporated as a Town. In 1982, the town was one of four Essex County municipalities to pass a referendum to become a township, joining 11 municipalities that had made the change, of what would be more than a dozen Essex County municipalities to reclassify themselves as townships in order take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated townships a greater share of government aid to municipalities on a per capita basis.
The 1967 Newark riots hastened an exodus of families from that city, many of them moving a few short blocks into neighboring Irvington. Until 1965, Irvington was exclusively white. By 1980, the town was nearly 40% black. On July 1, 1980, Fred Bost, the first black person to serve on the Town Council, was sworn in as East Ward Councilman. Michael G. Steele, the town's first black mayor, was elected in 1990, followed by Sarah Brockington Bost in 1994; the current Mayor is Tony Vauss. Irvington was home to Olympic Park, an amusement park, from 1887 to 1965; the park property straddled the border of Irvington and Maplewood with the main entrance on Chancellor Avenue and a side entrance on 40th St. After the park closed, the merry-go-round was sold and transported to Disney World, in Orlando, FL; the book, Smile: A Picture History of Olympic Park, 1887–1965 written by Alan A. Siegel was published in 1983 by Rutgers University Press. According to the United States Census Bureau, Irvington had a total area of 2.930 square miles, including 2.928 square miles of land and 0.002 square miles of water.
The Elizabeth River |Elizabeth River]] runs through the city passing Civic Square and Clinton Cemetery. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Irving Place; the township is bordered by Maplewood to the west, Newark to the east, Hillside to the south, South Orange to the northwest, all in Essex County. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 53,926 people, 20,093 households, 12,839.427 families residing in the township. The population density was 18,417.0 per square mile. There were 23,196 housing units at an average density of 7,922.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 5.64% White, 85.41% Black or African American, 0.38% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, 2.21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.60% of the population. There were 20,093 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.6% were married couples living together, 27.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.1% were non-families.
31.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 6.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.33. In the township, the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 9.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.0 years. For every 100 females there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 84.2 males. The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $42,580, the median family income was $50,798. Males had a median income of $38,033 versus $36,720 for females; the per capita income for the township was $20,520. About 14.4% of families and 16.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 60,695 people, 22,032 households, 14,408 families residing in the township.
The population density was 20,528.3 people per square mile. There were 24,116 housing units at an average density of 8,156.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 81.66% Black or African American, 8.97% White, 0.24% Native American, 1.10% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 3.68% from other races, 4.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.38% of the population. As part of the 2000 Census, 81.66% of Irvington's residents identified themselves as being Black or African American. This was one of the highest percentages of African American people in the United States, the third-highest in New Jersey of all places with 1,000 or more residents identifying their ancestry. There were 22,032 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.2% were married couples living together, 27.6% had a female householder with
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air and rail hubs, the city had a population of 285,154 in 2017, making it the nation's 70th-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000. Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest cities in the United States, its location at the mouth of the Passaic River has made the city's waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark–Elizabeth is the primary container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal commercial airport in the United States, today is one of its busiest. Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible.com, IDT Corporation, Manischewitz. A number of important higher education institutions are in the city, including the Newark campus of Rutgers University.
The U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well. Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, the Prudential Center and the Newark Museum. Newark is divided into five political wards and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000. Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony, it was conceived as a theocratic assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31, 1693, it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713, it was incorporated on February 21, 1798 by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships.
During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, Caldwell Township, Orange Township, Bloomfield Township and Clinton Township. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836; the independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood; as a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known. The name of the city is thought to derive from Newark-on-Trent, because of the influence of the original pastor, Abraham Pierson, who came from Yorkshire but may have ministered in Newark, Nottinghamshire, but Pierson is supposed to have said that the community reflecting the new task at hand should be named "New Ark" for "New Ark of the Covenant and some of the colonists saw it as "New-Work", the settlers' new work with God. Whatever the origins, the name was shortened to Newark, although references to the name "New Ark" are found in preserved letters written by historical figures such as David Ogden in his claim for compensation, James McHenry, as late as 1787.
During the American Revolutionary War, British troops made several raids into the town. The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminating in the 1967 Newark riots; the city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. In 2018 the city passed legislation to protect residents from displacement brought about by gentrification. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 26.107 square miles, including 24.187 square miles of land and 1.920 square miles of water. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U. S. behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, Florida. The city's altitude ranges from 0 in the east to 230 feet above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods.
In the 19th century and early 20th century, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, Weequahic. Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop, as the marshes were wilderness, with a few dumps and cemeteries on their edges. During the 20th century, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was able to reclaim 68 acres of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands. Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west, the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north; the city is the largest in New Jersey's Gateway Region, said to have received its name from Newark's nickname as the "Gateway City"
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
New Jersey Legislative Districts, 2001 apportionment
The members of the New Jersey Legislature are chosen from 40 electoral districts. Each district elects two Assemblymen. New Jersey is one of only seven states with nested state legislative districts, in which the lower house's districts are coextensive with a single state Senate seat. In New Jersey, each district elects one Senator and two Assembly members.. Districts are reapportioned decennially by the New Jersey Apportionment Commission following each United States Census, as provided by Article IV, Section III of the state Constitution; the legislative districts listed below went into effect with the swearing in of the 210th Legislature in 2002. They were used for regular elections from 2001 through 2009, following the 2000 United States Census; the November 2011 elections were held for representatives of districts defined in the 2011 apportionment. Avalon Borough, Buena Borough, Buena Vista Township, Cape May City, Cape May Point Borough, Dennis Township, Lower Township, Maurice River Township, Middle Township, Millville City, North Wildwood City, Ocean City, Sea Isle City, Somers Point City, Stone Harbor Borough, Upper Township, Vineland City, West Cape May Borough, West Wildwood Borough, Wildwood City, Wildwood Crest Borough, Woodbine Borough Absecon City, Atlantic City, Brigantine City, Corbin City, Egg Harbor City, Egg Harbor Township, Estell Manor City, Galloway Township, Hamilton Township, Linwood City, Longport Borough, Margate City, Mullica Township, Northfield City, Pleasantville City, Port Republic City, Ventnor City, Weymouth Township Alloway Township, Bridgeton City, Carneys Point Township, Clayton Borough, Commercial Township, Deerfield Township, Downe Township, East Greenwich Township, Elk Township, Elmer Borough, Elsinboro Township, Fairfield Township, Greenwich Township, Greenwich Township, Harrison Township, Hopewell Township, Lawrence Township, Logan Township, Lower Alloways Creek Township, Mannington Township, Mantua Township, National Park Borough, Oldmans Township, Paulsboro Borough, Penns Grove Borough, Pennsville Township, Pilesgrove Township, Pittsgrove Township, Quinton Township, Salem City, Shiloh Borough, South Harrison Township, Stow Creek Township, Swedesboro Borough, Upper Deerfield Township, Upper Pittsgrove Township, Wenonah Borough, West Deptford Township, Woodstown Borough, Woolwich Township Clementon Borough, Franklin Township, Glassboro Borough, Gloucester Township, Laurel Springs Borough, Lindenwold Borough, Monroe Township, Newfield Borough, Pitman Borough, Washington Township Audubon Borough, Barrington Borough, Bellmawr Borough, Brooklawn Borough, Camden City, Deptford Township, Gloucester City, Haddon Heights Borough, Hi-Nella Borough, Lawnside Borough, Magnolia Borough, Mount Ephraim Borough, Runnemede Borough, Somerdale Borough, Stratford Borough, Westville Borough, Woodbury City, Woodbury Heights Borough, Woodlynne Borough Audubon Park Borough, Berlin Borough, Berlin Township, Cherry Hill Township, Chesilhurst Borough, Collingswood Borough, Gibbsboro Borough, Haddon Township, Haddonfield Borough, Oaklyn Borough, Pine Hill Borough, Pine Valley Borough, Tavistock Borough, Voorhees Township, Waterford Township, Winslow Township Beverly City, Burlington City, Burlington Township, Cinnaminson Township, Delanco Township, Delran Township, Edgewater Park Township, Florence Township, Maple Shade Township, Merchantville Borough, Mount Holly Township, Palmyra Borough, Pennsauken Township, Riverside Township, Riverton Borough, Westampton Township, Willingboro Township Eastampton Township, Evesham Township, Hainesport Township, Lumberton Township, Mansfield Township, Medford Lakes Borough, Medford Township, Moorestown Township, Mount Laurel Township, Pemberton Borough, Pemberton Township, Shamong Township, Southampton Township, Springfield Township, Tabernacle Township, Woodland Township, Wrightstown Borough Barnegat Light Borough, Barnegat Township, Bass River Township, Beach Haven Borough, Beachwood Borough, Berkeley Township, Eagleswood Township, Folsom Borough, Hammonton Town, Harvey Cedars Borough, Lacey Township, Lakehurst Borough, Little Egg Harbor Township, Long Beach Township, Manchester Township, Ocean Gate Borough, Ocean Township, Pine Beach Borough, Ship Bottom Borough, Stafford Township, Surf City Borough, Tuckerton Borough, Washington Township Bay Head Borough, Brick Township, Island Heights Borough, Lavallette Borough, Manasquan Borough, Mantoloking Borough, Point Pleasant Beach Borough, Point Pleasant Borough, Seaside Heights Borough, Seaside Park Borough, South Toms River Borough, Toms River Township Allenhurst Borough, Asbury Park City, Atlantic Highlands Borough, Avon-by-the-Sea Borough, Belmar Borough, Bradley Beach Borough, Brielle Borough, Deal Borough, Eatontown Borough, Highlands Borough, Interlaken Borough, Lake Como Borough, Loch Arbour Village, Long Branch City, Monmouth Beach Borough, Neptune City Borough, Neptune Township, Ocean Township, Rumson Borough, Sea Bright Borough, Sea Girt Borough, Spring Lake Borough, Spring Lake Heights Borough, Wall Township, West Long Branch Borough Colts Neck Township, East Windsor Township, Englishtown Borough, Fair Haven Borough, Freehold Borough, Freehold Township, Hightstown Borough, Little Silver Borough, Manalapan Township, Millstone Township, Oceanport Borough, Red Bank Borough, Shrewsbury Borough, Shrewsbury Township, Tinton Falls Borough Aberdeen Township, Hazlet Township, Holmdel Township, Keansburg Borough, Keyport Borough, Marlboro Township, Matawan Borough, Middletown Township, Old Bridge Township, Union Beach Borough Note: This district is not geographically contiguous, as Middletown Township is not geographically contiguous.
The Sandy Hook peninsu