Ferry Road is one of the major roads of Edinburgh, deriving its name from being the road from Queensferry to Leith. It runs from the eastern end of Davidson's Mains village in the west, to Leith in the east, passing through Drylaw, Crewe Toll and Goldenacre on the way, it is classified as the A902 from Leith to Crewe Toll. Notable features along the route include, in the west, the former Northern General Hospital's site, the playing fields of Fettes College, Stewarts Melville and other private schools to the south, a geriatric home of the Salvation Army, Goldenacre stadium etc. Drylaw Police Station is situated on Ferry Road. Leith public library is located shortly before where Ferry Road meets North Junction Street and Great Junction Street
The Cowgate is a street in Edinburgh, located about 550 yards southeast of Edinburgh Castle, within the city's World Heritage Site. The street is part of the lower level of Edinburgh's Old Town, which lies below the elevated streets of South Bridge and George IV Bridge; the Cowgate can be quite gloomy and dark in sections. It meets the Grassmarket at Holyrood Road to the east; the street's name is recorded from 1428, in various spellings, as Cowgate and in 1498 as Via Vaccarum. It is derived from the medieval practice of herding cattle down the street on market days. Gate is a Scots language word for "way" or "road", a cognate of similar words in other Germanic languages. Describing the street in the 1581 edition of their atlas of major cities Civitates orbis terrarum, Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg said the Cow Gate was where "...the noble families and city councillors have their residences, together with other princely houses and palaces most handsome to behold."Between the mid 18th and mid 20th centuries the Cowgate was a poor overcrowded slum area.
In the 19th century it was home to much of the city's Irish immigrant community and nicknamed "Little Ireland". In the evening of 7 December 2002, a fire started above the Belle Angele nightclub off the Cowgate, it swept up through the eight storey structure to other buildings on Cowgate and above it on South Bridge. The complicated nature of the buildings, with narrow alleys and entrances from the same building onto streets at different heights, complicated efforts to fight the fire, was called a "rabbit warren" by Lothian and Borders Fire Brigade, it took. 150 people were forced to flee the flames. The University of Edinburgh School of Informatics on South Bridge was badly damaged. Little current research data was lost in the fire due to offsite backups. In 2005 work began on a new building, the Informatics Forum, occupied mid-2008. Destroyed was the Gilded Balloon, a major venue for the Edinburgh Fringe, offices for both the Gilded Balloon and Underbelly venues housed in an 1823 listed warehouse by Thomas Hamilton.
The Gilded Balloon moved to premises in Teviot Row House. The First Minister of Scotland appealed to the UNESCO World Heritage Fund for money to assist in the redevelopment of the site; the site has been temporarily used as a Fringe venue again, becoming the C venues' Urban Garden during the 2007 and 2008 Festival. The gap site was acquired by the property developer Whiteburn, who were granted planning permission in January 2009 to build a new mixed-use development using the site and existing adjacent buildings. Construction began in 2012 and was completed in late 2013; the main components of the development are a small Sainsbury's supermarket, a 259-bed Ibis Hotel, restaurants, a nightclub and a vennel. In 2016, protesters camped out in Cowgate to prevent the building of luxury hotel by Jansons Property; the protesters argued that the development might damage Edinburgh's UNESCO status, would displace homeless people, would remove a medical facility for the homeless and would block the natural light of the Edinburgh Central Library.
MSP Andy Wightman offered his support to the campaign. The oldest building lies to the west end, but is sandwiched between other larger buildings and missed, it stands on the south side of the street, just west of where George IV Bridge crosses over the Cowgate. This is the Magdalen Chapel, a 16th-century almshouse chapel built with monies left by Michael MacQueen in 1537. Work was completed in 1544 and it operated as a hospital almshouse under the control of MacQueen's widow, Janet Rynd until her death in 1553, when it passed to the Incorporation of Hammermen; the entrance as seen from the Cowgate was rebuilt in 1613. The spire was added in 1620. St Cecilia's Hall by Robert Mylne was built for the Musical Society of Edinburgh in 1763, it now houses a small Georgian concert space and an important collection of early keyboard instruments owned by Edinburgh University. St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church stands at the east end of the Cowgate, it dates from 1772 but was extensively remodelled in 1929 following demolition of the tenements along the north side of the Cowgate which obscured its frontage.
Both the National Library of Scotland and the Edinburgh Central Library have their lower floors on the Cowgate, with public access being on George IV Bridge above. Janet Boyman, executed for witchcraft on 29 December 1572. James Connolly, Irish revolutionary was born in 1868 at number 107 Cowgate. Football club Hibernian F. C. was founded by congregants of St Patrick's Roman Catholic Church in the Cowgate in August 1875 - the club was based at St Patrick's until the early 1890s, cups the club won from this period are still displayed in the church. Canon John Gray and priest was a curate at St. Patrick's. Venerable Margaret Sinclair lived at Blackfriars Street, just off the Cowgate. Map showing the Cowgate Chapter XXXI - The Cowgate in Old and New Edinburgh by James Grant, published by Cassell in the 1880s'SoCo' proposal for the Cowgate fire gap site
Canonmills is a district of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. It lies to the south east of the Royal Botanic Garden at Inverleith, east of Stockbridge and west of Bellevue, in a low hollow north of Edinburgh's New Town; the area was a loch, drained in three phases in the 18th and 19th centuries, disappearing in 1865. A small village, Canonmills owes its origins and name, in the same way as the Canongate, to the Augustinian canons of Holyrood Abbey who operated a mill here from the 12th century, it is shown pictorially as a cluster of buildings, three of which have waterwheels, on the 1560 Siege of Leith map. At a period a mill lade from the Water of Leith reached the area via the village of Silvermills to the east; the Incorporation of Baxters in the Canongate were compelled by law to have their corn ground at the Canonmills, during demolition work carried out in 1964 to enlarge a local filling station a stone was unearthed bearing the inscription, "The Baxters Land 1686". It is now incorporated into a wall of the Canonmills Service Station.
The only surviving building of the original village is a pantile-roofed former mill building on the corner of Eyre Place and Canon Street. Until c.1995 further remnants existed on Eyre Terrace. The George V Park, occupying the old Canon Mill Haugh to the south east, used to be a popular sporting arena. With the final draining of the loch in 1865 it became the site of the Royal Patent Gymnasium, described by James Grant as "...one of the most remarkable and attractive places of its kind in Edinburgh", created "at considerable expense for the purpose of affording healthful and exhilarating recreation in the open air". The principal feature was the circular Great Sea Serpent which could seat 600 rowers embarking and disembarking at four separate piers. Other attractions were the Self-Adjusting Trapeze enabling up to 100 patrons at a time to swing by the hands "over a distance of 130 feet from one trapeze to the other", the Giant's Sea-Saw, 100 feet long by 7 wide, which could elevate 200 people to a height of 50 feet, the Patent Velocipede Paddle Merry-go-Round propelled by the feet of 600 passengers.
At the southern edge of the Park, in the cliff-like drop from the streets of the New Town, lies the northern end of the Scotland Street Tunnel which once provided an underground rail link to Canal Street Station on the site of present-day Waverley Station. The tunnel, built under Scotland Street in 1847 by the Edinburgh and Newhaven Railway, is three quarters of a mile long and descends a 1 in 27 gradient. Trains descended the tunnel under gravity, controlled by two men operating handbrakes in two front wagons. Robert Louis Stevenson described the appearance in his'Edinburgh: Picturesque Notes': "The Scotland Street Station, the sight of the train shooting out of its dark maw with the two guards upon the brake, the thought of its length and the many ponderous edifices and thoroughfares above, were things of paramount impressiveness to a young mind." For the return journey, 150mm steel cables were attached to the trains which were pulled up the slope by a stationary winding-engine at the Waverley end.
The bridge linking Canonmills to Inverleith Row was built in 1767, its single arch replaced by three arches in 1840. It was widened in 1896; the deep elliptical crescent of Eyre Crescent was built around Canonmills House, replaced in 1880-1 by a United Presbyterian Church which in turn has been replaced by a modern medical centre. A little lodge-type building on Rodney Street is the old school, where Sir Walter Scott's father was educated; the sculptor Stewart McGlashen had his granite yard at Canonmills Bridge and lived opposite, at 5 Brandon Street. Bartholomew's Chronological map of Edinburgh Photos of Canonmills Google Map Royal Patent Gymnasium
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
The Canongate is a district of Edinburgh, the capital city of Scotland. The name is inherited from the burgh of the Canongate founded by David I of Scotland c.1143. It was bought by the adjacent city of Edinburgh in 1636 but it remained a semi-autonomous burgh under its own administration of bailies chosen by Edinburgh magistrates, until its formal incorporation into the city in 1856; the burgh gained its name from the route that the canons of Holyrood Abbey took to Edinburgh - the canons' way or the canons' gait, from the Scots word gait meaning "way". In more modern times, the eastern end is sometimes referred to as part of the Holyrood area of the city; as well as Queensberry House, now incorporated in the new Scottish Parliament Building complex, the Canongate contains other historic buildings including Huntly House, the Canongate Tolbooth and the Canongate Kirk, opened in 1691 replacing Holyrood Abbey as the parish church of the Canongate. The church is still used for Sunday services as well as weekday concerts.
The Canongate owes its existence to the establishment of Holyrood Abbey in 1128. King David I, who established the Abbey, gave the surrounding area to the Augustinian canons resident at Edinburgh Castle in the form of a regality; the King gave leave to the canons to establish a burgh between the abbey and Edinburgh, as it was the only burgh within the regality it was given the status of burgh of regality of Canongate. The area controlled by the abbey included the lands of Broughton, areas around the Pleasance and North Leith, giving the canons access to a port. Holyrood Palace was developed from the 14th Century onwards as successive monarchs made increasing use of the Abbey for political events such as parliaments and royal councils; the word "Pallais" appears in a reference to the royal lodgings in the reign of James IV, but they were first converted to palace buildings by James V in 1525. The burgh of Canongate had a sometimes turbulent relationship with Edinburgh; the main reason for this was the continual battle over their exact boundaries up until their unification in 1856, an event which proved unpopular with the former's townsfolk.
King James VI of Scotland's accession to the throne of England in 1603 began the long and slow decline of the Canongate. The loss of the royal court from the Holyrood Palace affected the wealth of the surrounding area; this was compounded by the union of the parliaments in 1707, as up until Edinburgh had been the location of the Parliament of Scotland with the Canongate providing a fashionable suburb for the dwellings of the political class. The North Bridge opened in 1772, provided a new and more convenient route to Leith bypassing the Canongate which had until been the main route from Edinburgh to its port of Leith via Easter Road causing more neglect to the residential area, taken over by industrial premises including breweries and a large gasworks; the Canongate was an important district during the Scottish Enlightenment because of the presence of the Canongate Theatre, of which one of the proprietors was Lord Monboddo. The philosopher David Hume performed in a play staged there. Writing in 1824, Robert Chambers said of the Canongate, "As the main avenue from the palace into the city, it has borne upon its pavements the burden of all, beautiful, all, gallant, all that has become interesting in Scotland for the last six or seven hundred years".
Sir Walter Scott writing in 1827 stated. Such is the ancient motto attached to the armorial bearings of the Canongate, and, inscribed, with greater or less propriety, upon all the public buildings, from the church to the pillory, in the ancient quarter of Edinburgh which bears, or rather once bore, the same relation to the Good Town that Westminster does to London"; the area has seen various attempts at improvements and slum clearance, including various schemes by Ebenezer James MacRae in the 1930s and Sir Robert Hurd in the 1950s in traditional style replicating original facades. Another scheme, completed in 1969, by the Basil Spence practice was in modern style but in proportion to surrounding buildings. Due to the redevelopment of the 1950s/60s the once overcrowded and poverty-stricken area suffered from serious depopulation. From the 1960s onwards the Canongate area became notably less industrial, with all of the breweries closing. Residential redevelopment began on former industrial sites in the 1990s and 2000s with flats and other commercial operations being built south of the main road, reversing the decline in population.
Whilst much of this development has a modern appearance, some attempt has been made in terms of layout to retain the "fishbone" pattern characteristic of the Royal Mile. As of 2006, the redevelopment of former industrial land to the north of the Canongate, once occupied by Victorian gasworks and a bus garage, has proved controversial due to the original proposal, now abandoned, to demolish some of the replacement buildings from the 1930s. Above all, the construction of the new Scottish Parliament Building on the site of the old Younger's Abbey Brewery has led to a resurgence of the area's vitality with the Canongate becoming the centre of Scottish political life; the Royal Mile Primary School known as Milton House Public School, is a non-denominational state school that provides primary education for 5- to 11-year-old children. It was designed in 1886 by architect for the Edinburgh Board of Education. Within the school, there is a nursery which caters for 3- to 5-year-old children; as the school is so central to the Canongate community, its pu
Crewe Toll is an area in Edinburgh, the Scottish capital. The area takes its name from the Toll house which once stood at the junction of Ferry Road and Crewe Road North and South; the name Crewe, or a variation thereof, can be identified on maps as early as those from John Adair's 17th century survey, indicating that a farm stood southeast of the present Crewe Toll. "Toll" is shown on Gellatly's "New Map of the country 12 miles round Edinburgh" published in 1834. The 1853 and 1913 OS maps show a'smithy' at the junction. All buildings on the junction disappeared when it was enlarged at some point in the 1920s to take the additional traffic from the newly-constructed Telford Road; the Western General Hospital is in the vicinity. Another hospital, the Northern General, was in the area but this is now the site of a Morrisons supermarket. Edinburgh's Telford College has moved to a site at Granton. Fettes College is close by. A major aerospace facility is situated in the Leonardo S.p.. A. facility that dates to a 1943 Ferranti factory set up to produce gyro gunsights for the Supermarine Spitfire that became a major radar development site.
The site changed hands from Ferranti to GEC-Ferranti GEC-Marconi BAE Systems SELEX Sensors and Airborne Systems SELEX Galileo and Leonardo. The location was the site of a junction on the Caledonian Railway; this junction was spelled'Crew' up until closure in the 1960s, long after the spelling'Crewe' was settled as the area built up. Some nearby Edinburgh districts include Craigleith, Pilton and Silverknowes
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds form visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are composed of sandstone allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are better able to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Quartz-bearing sandstone can be changed into quartzite through metamorphism related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.
Sandstones are clastic in origin. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a pre-existing rock or be mono-minerallic crystals; the cements binding these grains together are calcite and silica. Grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye, including siltstones and shales, are called argillaceous sediments; the formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. First, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. Once it has accumulated, the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by the pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains; the most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried.
Colors will be tan or yellow. A predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe and Mongolia; the regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a primary building material or as a facing stone, over other forms of construction. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone, which, in finer detail, include its grain size and composition and, in more general detail, include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine, as illustrated by the following broad groupings: Terrestrial environmentsRivers Alluvial fans Glacial outwash Lakes Deserts Marine environmentsDeltas Beach and shoreface sands Tidal flats Offshore bars and sand waves Storm deposits Turbidites Framework grains are sand-sized detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a sandstone.
These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition: Quartz framework grains are the dominant minerals in most clastic sedimentary rocks. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events, while allowing the grains to display some degree of rounding. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock, which are felsic in origin and from older sandstones that have been recycled. Feldspathic framework grains are the second most abundant mineral in sandstones. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: plagioclase feldspars; the different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8, this represents a complete solid solution. Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8.
Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, called lithic fragments or clasts. Lithic fragments can be any fine-grained or coarse-grained igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock, although the most common lithic fragments found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. Common accessory minerals include micas, olivine and corundum. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that