Edgware, Highgate and London Railway
The Edgware and London Railway was a railway in north London. The railway was a precursor of parts of London Underground's Northern line and was, in the 1930s the core of an ambitious expansion plan for that line, thwarted by the Second World War. Parts of the line have since been removed; the company was established by a private act of parliament passed on 3 June 1862. The route, measuring 8.75 miles, ran through parts of rural Middlesex from Finsbury Park through Stroud Green, Crouch End, Highgate and Mill Hill to Edgware. Additional acts in 1864 and 1866 granted powers to construct branch lines from Highgate to Muswell Hill and from Finchley to High Barnet respectively; the railway was sponsored by the larger Great Northern Railway, whose main line from King's Cross ran through Finsbury Park on its way to Potters Bar and the north. Before the line to Edgware was opened, it was purchased in July 1867 by the GNR and was opened as a single track line on 22 August 1867. At first, services ran from Edgware to Finsbury Park, King's Cross and, via Snow Hill tunnel, to Ludgate Hill and Loughborough Road on the south of the Thames.
After 1869, trains terminated at Moorgate. Services could run from Finsbury Park via the North London Railway to Broad Street after the Canonbury-Finsbury Park link opened in 1875. 21 trains a day ran to Finchley in 24 minutes from Kings Cross, 14 continued to Edgware. In 1870 the track between Finsbury Park and Finchley & Hendon was doubled in preparation for the opening of the High Barnet branch and Muswell Hill branch; because of the rapid rise and fall of the terrain in the area traversed by the railway, the line made extensive use of cuttings and viaducts. Notable were the cutting in Highgate Hill in which Highgate station was constructed with tunnels on either side, the viaducts over the Dollis Brook and at Muswell Hill; the High Barnet branch opened on 1 April 1872 with two intermediate stations at Woodside Park and Totteridge & Whetstone. The line to Barnet stopped short at Underhill, south of the main village located at the top of the hill; as Barnet was a larger village than Edgware and new residential development at Finchley grew at a faster pace than on the original line, the branch line became the dominant route.
Direct services from London ran to High Barnet and a shuttle service was operated between Finchley and Edgware for most passenger journeys on that section, which remained a single track. The Muswell Hill branch from Highgate to Alexandra Palace was constructed by a separate company, the Muswell Hill Railway Company and opened on 24 May 1873 along with the Palace. However, when the Palace burned down only two weeks after opening, the service was reduced and closed for two years whilst the Palace was rebuilt, it reopened in May 1875. Another separate company, the Watford and Edgware Railway, was established in the 1860s and had various plans to build a link from the EH&LR near Edgware to Watford in Hertfordshire; the W&ER was unable to attract sufficient funds for the project and the company and the right of way that it had obtained passed through the ownership of a number of other railway companies until plans were made in the 1930s to make use of its route. By the 1900s the whole line was under pressure from overcrowding.
The populations of areas along the line at Hornsey, Muswell Hill, Finchley, had increased with the rapid Victorian expansion of London, but the GNR service had not been expanded to cope. The line was congested with goods traffic coal and building materials. By 1903 the morning trains from Barnet were full by the time; as the doors of the compartments in the carriages were in those days locked with aid of a simple square key, some passengers took to purchasing these keys from local ironmongers, locking the doors from the inside. It was not unknown for harsh words and on odd occasions, for blows to be exchanged. New stations were opened at Mill Hill. In 1905 tram services were established in both Hendon and Finchley, extended shortly after to Barnet; this combined with motor transport alleviated some of the problem. This relief was competition, the GNR introduced new engines, specially designed to manage the steep inclines on the routes which slowed up the services. Further competition came from the opening of the new underground Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway to Archway and Golders Green in June 1907 a move that stimulated large scale house building to the south of the Edgware branch spreading out from Golders Green.
The GNR took over the Muswell Hill Railway in September 1911 and merged it with the rest of the line. Further developments were halted by the First World War. In 1923 as a consequence of the railway grouping instigated by the 1921 Railways Act, the GNR became part of the London and North Eastern Railway. In January 1924 the newly enlarged company announced that the line would be electrified, although little was done. Meanwhile, the CCE&HR, now part of the London Electric Railway, was using plans dating back to 1901 for the Edgware and Hampstead Railway to construct an extension of its line from Golders Green through Hendon to a new station at Edgware where it would be in direct competition with the LNER line; the Underground Group had bought up the rights of the W&ER and published proposals to further extend the l
The Parkland Walk is a 2.5-mile linear green pedestrian and cycle route in London, which follows the course of the railway line that used to run between Finsbury Park and Alexandra Palace, through Stroud Green, Crouch End and Muswell Hill. It is mistakenly described as 4.5 miles long, but taking in the gap between the two sections it still only totals 3.1-miles. The route follows the bridges and cuttings of the line, but avoids the closed surface section of Highgate station and its adjoining tunnels, which are closed to walkers for safety reasons; the walk is all in Haringey, but a short stretch between Crouch Hill and Crouch End Hill is in Islington, this section incorporates Crouch Hill Park. The walk is a Site of Metropolitan Importance for Nature Conservation, it is London's longest such reserve. Between Finsbury Park and Highgate, the path forms part of the Capital Ring strategic walking route; the route of the path between Finsbury Park and Highgate was constructed by the Edgware and London Railway in the 1860s as part of its railway line from Finsbury Park to Edgware.
Before the line was opened on 22 August 1867, it was purchased by the larger Great Northern Railway. Branch lines from Finchley to High Barnet, from Highgate to Alexandra Palace, opened in 1872 and 1873; the GNR became part of the London & North Eastern Railway in 1923. Plans were published by London Underground in the 1930s for the incorporation of these lines into the Northern line, but the onset of World War II stopped the work at an advanced stage. After the war the development plan was abandoned but passenger trains continued to run on this line until 3 July 1954, when British Railways ended such services permanently; the Alexandra Palace branch closed in 1957, but the link from Finsbury Park to Highgate and East Finchley remained open to freight traffic until 1964. After freight traffic had ceased, the line continued to be used to transfer empty tube stock between lines; this ceased in 1970 because of the poor condition of some of the intermediate bridges, the track was lifted in 1972. After the track was lifted, most of the platforms and station buildings were demolished.
The sections of the line from Finsbury Park to Highgate, from Highgate to Alexandra Palace, were converted into the Parkland Walk. This was opened in 1984 following extensive re-surfacing and improvements to access. In the late 1980s the park was threatened by a plan to build a road along its route, but the plan was withdrawn following local opposition, coordinated by The Friends of the Parkland Walk; the walk was declared a local nature reserve in 1990. From the Finsbury Park end the route starts from the western side of the existing East Coast Main Line beside a foot overbridge that gives access from the eastern end of Oxford Road to Finsbury Park itself; the route rises on an embankment overlooking the back gardens of the Victorian suburban houses. The route bridges Upper Tollington Park; the next bridge takes the walk over Stapleton Hall Road at a point where the Gospel Oak to Barking rail line passes beneath the road. Stroud Green station once stood at this point, with its platforms cantilevered out over the sides of the bridge over Stapleton Hall Road.
The station master's house still survives at road level, but there are no traces of the track- or road-side station buildings, which were destroyed in a fire in 1967. The embankment gives way to a cutting as the land rises north-westwards; the route continues beneath overbridges carrying Mount Pleasant Villas, Mount View Road, Crouch Hill. After passing under Crouch Hill to the left can be seen a large block house built to house switching gear for the Northern Heights as part of the plans to incorporate the line into the tube system; this has been redeveloped by adding extensions, cantilevered off the north and west sides of the existing building, extending a short distance over the Parkland Walk. Now known as The Cape, it is managed directly by Islington Council and houses a community energy centre, a youth centre, a new ecology centre and Ashmount School's "after School Club". There is a public cafe in the building. Passing the blockhouse, the walk enters Crouch Hill Park, which spreads to the south of the old railway line.
The new park has a triangular form covering an area of 25,730 square metres, bounded by the walkway to the north and housing on the other sides, is home to birds and bats, including some species locally uncommon or declining. It can be accessed from a number of access points on the Parkland Walk, from a public footpath called the Vicarage Path and from pedestrian entrances to the South and West of the park. A new building within the park contains Ashmount School, a community primary school, Bowlers Community Nursery, a separate charity-run voluntary nursery. Beyond the site of the new school building, just before Crouch End Station is a footbridge across the Parkland Walk dating back to the original railway, retained and now connects Hazelemere Road, in Haringey, to the Crouch Hill Park in Islington. At this point the still intact but overgrown platforms of Crouch End Station remain at the end of which the route passes under the site of the former station building and the road bridge over the cutting carrying Crouch End Hill.
Beyond this the cutting opens out on the northern side as the route skirts a hill, parallel to Horn
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Muswell Hill is a suburban district of north London. It is in the London Borough of Haringey with a small part in the London Borough of Barnet, it is between Hampstead Garden Village, East Finchley and Crouch End. It has many streets with Edwardian architecture. Muswell Hill is in the N10 postcode district and in the Hornsey and Wood Green constituency. Muswell Hill, as defined by its postcode district, had a population of 27,992 in 2011; the earliest records of Muswell Hill date from the 12th century. The Bishop of London, the Lord of the Manor of Haringey, owned the area and granted 65 acres, located to the east of Colney Hatch Lane, to a newly formed order of nuns; the nuns called it Our Lady of Muswell. The name Muswell is believed to come from a natural spring or well, said to have miraculous properties. A traditional story tells that Scottish king Malcolm IV was cured of disease after drinking the water; the area became a place of pilgrimage for healing during medieval times. The River Moselle, which has its source in Muswell Hill and Highgate, derives its name from this district.
In the 18th century Muswell Hill was a scattered village consisting of detached villas with large gardens. In 1787 one commentator wrote that nowhere within 100 miles of London was there a village so pleasant or with such varied views. Little had changed by the middle of the 19th century. One of the houses of the time was The Limes; this house occupied the angle of Muswell Hill Road with Colney Hatch Lane and was a three-storeyed house with portico and two-storeyed wing approached by a double carriage drive through impressive gateways. The large grounds of the house included a lake. Opposite The Limes was Muswell Hill beyond that the Green Man inn, built of stone. Further down the hill past the Green Man was The Elms, a squat three-storeyed house improved by Thomas Cubitt standing in 11 acres, part of the grounds of which were laid out by Joseph Paxton. A short distance down the north side of Muswell Hill was The Grove, three storeys high and had nine bays with pedimented projections at each end.
It stood in 8 acres of grounds. In 1774 the house was occupied by Topham Beauclerk. A little farther down the hill stood Grove Lodge in wooded grounds. Altogether there were eight properties in Muswell Hill worthy of note in 1817. Parallel with Muswell Hill was a track known as St James's Lane which ran across a triangle of wasteland. By the middle of the 19th century houses were dispersed along the lane at the foot of, Lalla Rookh, a two-storeyed villa with a wide verandah. Other buildings there were cottages or huts, both single and in terraces, it was not until the end of the 19th century that Muswell Hill began to be developed more densely from a collection of country houses to the London village that it is today. The development was spurred by the opening in 1873 of Alexandra Palace, a massive pleasure pavilion built on the most easterly of north London's gravel hills and intended as the counterpart to the Crystal Palace on Sydenham Hill in south London. Alexandra Palace was served by a branchline railway from Highgate, with an intermediary station at Muswell Hill.
The foot of Alexandra Palace was served by another rail network with connecting services to Finsbury Park and Kings Cross stations. Most development was initiated in the early 20th century when the current street pattern was set out and elegant Edwardian retail parades were constructed; the shopping centre is based on roads that form three sides of a square: Fortis Green Road, Muswell Hill Broadway and the extension of the Broadway into Colney Hatch Lane. At each node point is a church: United Reformed, Church of England and Roman Catholic. One of the nodes, opposite St James's CoE, was the site of the Athenaeum music hall, opposite which a surviving art deco Odeon cinema was built in the 1930s; the site of the Ritz, a cinema at the top of Muswell Hill on the next node to the east, has been redeveloped as offices. Until the mid-20th century there was a rail branch line, the Muswell Hill Railway, from Highgate which passed through Muswell Hill, terminating at a station at Alexandra Palace, it was intended under the Northern Heights plan to integrate this into the London Underground Northern line.
However, this plan was cancelled after the Second World War, the railway line was abandoned in 1954. The line was converted to become the Parkland Walk; until the reorganisation of London's local government in 1965, Muswell Hill formed part of the Borough of Hornsey within the administrative county of Middlesex. The area subsequently became part of the London Borough of Haringey; the northern portion of Muswell Hill was part of the Friern Barnet Urban District in Middlesex, which subsequently became part of the London Borough of Barnet. In 1964, three young Muswell Hill residents, the brothers Ray and Dave Davies and Pete Quaiffe, formed The Kinks. Categorised in the United States as a British Invasion band, the Kinks are recognised as one of the most important and influential rock groups of the era; the Davies' parents' home at 6 Denmark Terrace, Fortis Green, remains a magnet for rock music tourists. In 1979 Wetherspoons opened their first pub, on Colney Hatch Lane. In March 2013 Muswell Hill was named one of the five most desirable places to live in London in the Sunday Times "Best Places To Live" guide.
Close to Alexandra Park and Highgate Wo
London Borough of Haringey
The London Borough of Haringey is a London borough in North London, classified by some definitions as part of Inner London, by others as part of Outer London. It was created in 1965 by the amalgamation of three former boroughs, it shares borders with six other London boroughs. Clockwise from the north, they are: Enfield, Waltham Forest, Islington and Barnet. Haringey covers an area of more than 11 square miles; some of the more familiar local landmarks include Alexandra Palace, Bruce Castle, Jacksons Lane, Highpoint I and II, Tottenham Hotspur Football Club. The borough has extreme contrasts: areas in the west, such as Highgate, Muswell Hill and Crouch End are among the most prosperous in the country. Haringey is a borough of contrasts geographically. From the wooded high ground around Highgate and Muswell Hill, at 426.5 feet, the land falls away to the flat, open low-lying land beside the River Lea in the east. The borough includes large areas of green space; the local authority is Haringey London Borough Council.
Haringey Council has been the subject of nationwide criticism over its handling of the welfare of young children in connection with the murder of Victoria Climbié in 2000 and the death of Peter Connelly in 2007. In March 2009, Haringey Council's performance was placed by the Audit Commission in the bottom four of the country and the worst in London. In December 2009, Haringey's performance was placed by Ofsted in the bottom nine in the country for children's services. A series of positive Ofsted inspections culminated in the service being taken out of'special measures' by the government in February 2013. In the ice age, Haringey was at the edge of a huge glacial mass that reached as far south as Muswell Hill. There is evidence of both Stone Bronze Age activity. Prior to the Romans' arrival, Haringey was part of a large area covering Essex and Middlesex, home to a Celtic tribe called Trinobantes; the Romans' presence is evidenced chiefly by the roads. Tottenham High Road was part of the main Roman thoroughfare of Ermine Street.
There have been Roman finds in the borough which suggests possible Roman settlement. In the 5th and 6th centuries the Saxon invasions brought Haering, the chieftain whose name still lives on today in local placenames. Haringey remained a rural area until the 18th century when large country houses close to London became common; the coming of the railways from the mid-nineteenth century onwards led to rapid urbanisation. The borough in its modern form was founded in 1965, from the former Municipal Borough of Hornsey, the Municipal Borough of Wood Green and the Municipal Borough of Tottenham which had all been part of Middlesex; the new borough became part of the new Greater London Council. However, some legacy of the historic municipal divisions survives to the present day, with the relative prosperity of the different parts of the borough still split broadly along the old boundary lines; the town hall is the Civic Centre on Wood Green High Road. It was opened in 1958, it is a listed building. Although much of the building is now unused, the Civic Centre is the official seat of Haringey Council and contains the council chambers.
The names Haringey and Hornsey in use today are all different variations of the same Old English: Hæringeshege. Hæring was a Saxon chief who lived in the area around Hornsey. Hæringeshege meant Hæring's enclosure and evolved into Haringey and Hornsey; the official heraldic arms were granted on 10 May 1965, after the mergers of the former Municipal Borough of Hornsey, the Municipal Borough of Wood Green and the Municipal Borough of Tottenham. Unlike most other London boroughs, it was decided not to create arms based on the charges in the coats of arms of the former boroughs; the coat of arms contains black and gold, representing stability, a cogwheel for industry and a rising sun for the new borough. The borough has a simple badge described as "Eight Rays". A flag is used which looks like a banner of arms but with the tinctures reversed, so that it has eight black rays on a yellow field; the arms is used in the mayoral regalia of the borough. The mayoral chain has the heraldic achievement hanging in a badge made out of 18 k gold and enamel, with the text "The London Borough of Haringey MCMLXV".
The chain has stylized hares sitting within laurel wreaths. The hares represent the name of the borough, since Haringey is believed to mean "a meadow of Hares". Haringey is a borough of contrasts geographically. From the wooded high ground around Highgate and Muswell Hill, at 426.5 feet, the land falls away to the flat, open low-lying land beside the River Lea in the east. 60 hectares within the borough are designated as part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. Haringey shares borders with six other London boroughs. Clockwise from the north, they are: Enfield, Waltham Forest, Islington and Barnet, it covers an area of more than 11 square miles. Some of the more familiar local landmarks include Alexandra Palace, Bruce Castle and Tottenham Hotspur Football Club. Haringey has 600 acres of parks, recreation grounds and open spaces which make up more than 25% of its total area, they include both smaller local areas and large green areas which provide an amenity for Londoners beyond the borough's boundaries.
Local Nature Reserves and a number of conservation areas can be found in the borough
The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The Underground has its origins in the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground passenger railway. Opened in January 1863, it is now part of the Metropolitan lines; the network has expanded to 11 lines, in 2017/18 carried 1.357 billion passengers, making it the world's 11th busiest metro system. The 11 lines collectively handle up to 5 million passengers a day; the system's first tunnels were built just below the surface. The system has 250 miles of track. Despite its name, only 45% of the system is underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, with fewer than 10% of the stations located south of the River Thames; the early tube lines owned by several private companies, were brought together under the "UndergrounD" brand in the early 20th century and merged along with the sub-surface lines and bus services in 1933 to form London Transport under the control of the London Passenger Transport Board.
The current operator, London Underground Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London, the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in Greater London. As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares; the Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003. Contactless card payments were introduced in 2014, the first public transport system in the world to do so; the LPTB was a prominent patron of art and design, commissioning many new station buildings and public artworks in a modernist style. The schematic Tube map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, was voted a national design icon in 2006 and now includes other TfL transport systems such as the Docklands Light Railway, London Overground and Tramlink. Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and Johnston typeface, created by Edward Johnston in 1916; the idea of an underground railway linking the City of London with the urban centre was proposed in the 1830s, the Metropolitan Railway was granted permission to build such a line in 1854.
To prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, was in 1861, filled up; the world's first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, borrowing trains from other railways to supplement the service; the Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground "inner circle" connecting London's main-line stations. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and cover method. Both railways expanded, the District building five branches to the west reaching Ealing, Uxbridge and Wimbledon and the Metropolitan extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street and the centre of London.
For the first deep-level tube line, the City and South London Railway, two 10 feet 2 inches diameter circular tunnels were dug between King William Street and Stockwell, under the roads to avoid the need for agreement with owners of property on the surface. This opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells; the Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, known as the "twopenny tube". These two ran electric trains in circular tunnels having diameters between 11 feet 8 inches and 12 feet 2.5 inches, whereas the Great Northern and City Railway, which opened in 1904, was built to take main line trains from Finsbury Park to a Moorgate terminus in the City and had 16-foot diameter tunnels. While steam locomotives were in use on the Underground there were contrasting health reports. There were many instances of passengers collapsing whilst travelling, due to heat and pollution, leading for calls to clean the air through the installation of garden plants.
The Metropolitan encouraged beards for staff to act as an air filter. There were other reports claiming beneficial outcomes of using the Underground, including the designation of Great Portland Street as a "sanatorium for asthma and bronchial complaints", tonsillitis could be cured with acid gas and the Twopenny Tube cured anorexia. With the advent of electric Tube services, the Volks Electric Railway, in Brighton, competition from electric trams, the pioneering Underground companies needed modernising. In the early 20th century, the District and Metropolitan railways needed to electrify and a joint committee recommended an AC system, the two companies
Highgate tube station
Highgate is a London Underground station and former railway station in Archway Road, in the London Borough of Haringey in north London. The station takes its name from nearby Highgate Village, it is on the High Barnet branch of the Northern line, between Archway and East Finchley stations and is in Travelcard Zone 3. The station was opened in 1867 as part of the Great Northern Railway's line between Finsbury Park and Edgware stations; as part of their only completed Northern Heights plan, the London Underground started serving the station in 1941, using new platforms in tunnels beneath the surface station. The platforms of the surface station remain, but were last used in 1954, the section of the line through them to Finsbury Park was closed in 1970 and lifted by 1972. One of the original 1867 station buildings still exists, is in use as a private house. Highgate station was constructed by the Edgware and London Railway in the 1860s on its line from Finsbury Park station to Edgware station. Before the line was opened it was purchased in July 1867 by the larger Great Northern Railway, whose main line from King's Cross ran through Finsbury Park on its way to Potters Bar and the north.
The station opened along with the railway to Edgware on 22 August 1867. Because of the hilly terrain, the station was built in a deep cutting excavated from Highgate Hill adjacent to Archway Road. Tunnels penetrated the hillside at each end of the station, leading towards East Finchley to the north and Crouch End to the south; when built, the station had two side platforms, with three tracks between them, a station building on the south side. A footbridge linked the two platforms. A branch line was constructed from Highgate to Alexandra Palace by the Muswell Hill Railway and opened on 24 May 1873; the new branch split from the original route north of the station in a wide arc around Highgate Wood. The next station on the branch line when it opened was Muswell Hill, in 1902 an intermediate station opened at Cranley Gardens. In the 1880s, the station was rebuilt, with two tracks flanking a central island platform instead of the two side platforms; the island platform was accessed from a ticket office in the middle of the footbridge.
In 1911, the MHR branch was taken over by the GNR. After the 1921 Railways Act created the Big Four railway companies, the GNR became part of the London & North Eastern Railway in 1923. At the start of the 1930s, the station had around 54 trains daily from High Barnet, 43 from Alexandra Palace and a few through trains from Edgware. Services ran to Finsbury Park and either King's Cross, Moorgate or Broad Street. In 1935, the London Passenger Transport Board announced a proposal, which became known as the Northern Heights project, to take over the LNER lines from Finsbury Park to Edgware, High Barnet and Alexandra Palace, link them to both the Northern line at East Finchley and the Northern City line at Finsbury Park; the construction of the first phase of this project involved extending tube train services from the Northern line's existing terminus at Archway station, through a new section of paired tunnels under Highgate station to emerge south of East Finchley station, where track connections to the LNER line were made.
To provide an interchange between the new deep-level platforms and the existing surface platforms, a subterranean concourse was constructed beneath the existing station. The concourse was connected to the deep-level platforms with escalators and to the existing platforms by stairs. Street entrances to the concourse were provided from the north. At the same time, the buildings on the surface platforms were reconstructed and the footbridge was removed. Northern line services through the new tunnels to East Finchley started operating on 3 July 1939 although they did not stop at Highgate until later. Following the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, works to complete the electrification of the LNER lines were slowed or halted; the line from Finchley Central to Edgware closed for reconstruction on 11 September 1939. Northern line services were extended from East Finchley to High Barnet on 14 April 1940, started serving the deep level platforms at Highgate on 19 January 1941, though not all of the new station buildings had been completed.
The surface platforms at Highgate continued to be served by LNER steam trains. The deep-level platforms were constructed 490 feet long to accommodate extra-long nine-car trains, which were planned for services on the Northern line, but never served Highgate, having been withdrawn at the start of the war. With the interchange between LNER and Northern line services available at Highgate from January 1941, LNER trains to East Finchley ended on 2 March 1941, after which they operated between Finsbury Park and Alexandra Palace only. In 1942, LNER services through Highgate were reduced to rush hour only operations. During the war, the deep-level platforms at Highgate were used, as many were, as a shelter from the bombing of London by the Luftwaffe, V-1 and V-2 missiles. After the war, plans to complete the Northern Heights project were reviewed. In early 1946, the conversion of the LNER line from Mill Hill East to Edgware was scheduled by the LPTB for completion between January 1947 and June 1948.
No work was carried out as maintenance works and reconstruction of war damage on the existing network had the greatest call on London Underground funds. Funds for new works were limited and priority was given to the completion of the western and eastern extensions of the Central line to West Ruislip and Hainault. Despite being shown as under construction on underground maps as late as 1950, work never restarted on t