Small pearl-bordered fritillary
The small pearl-bordered fritillary, called the silver-bordered fritillary in North America, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. The small pearl-bordered fritillary is found across Europe and North America, feeds on violets in its larval stages; this species prefers wet grassland habitats, where its larval food source, are found. It overwinters in its larval stage, eggs hatch in the late summer to early autumn. Members of this species are prey for multiple types of other insects. Due to modern agriculture, most of the grassland habitats that sustain Boloria selene are fragmented or lost all together in favor of farmland; because of this, the small pearl-bordered fritillary has seen a serious drop in population across Europe, in some places as much as 80%. Factors including limited habitat range, low dispersal rate, strong food specialization contribute to population loss. Despite modern conservation efforts, the number of small pearl-bordered fritillaries is still declining; the North American populations appear to be affected in the same way, at least in the continental United States.
The small pearl-bordered fritillary is similar to pearl-bordered fritillary but has black chevrons on the edge of its wings, a large central black dot on each wing, white pearls on the underside. Males tend to be smaller with a wingspan of 35 to 41 mm. Females are 38 to 44 mm in length. Though the small pearl-bordered fritillary is similar to the pearl-bordered fritillary it is much brighter in color because the pearl-bordered fritillary emerges from its pupa earlier; the species is widespread across central and northern Europe, North America, through Asia to Korea. It can be found in places like Germany, the United Kingdom, Sweden and in the Midwestern United States in places like Iowa and the Dakotas. In the United Kingdom, Boloria selene is widespread across upland and western Britain, but is not found in central, eastern England or Ireland, its range appears to be stable through much of Europe but declines have been reported in at least nine countries, such as England. This species is found across Europe and North America in grassland environments where native violets grow.
It occurs in damp, grassy habitats, woodland clearings and moorland, but has been found in dune slacks and coastal cliffs. The larvae of this species hatch in the late summer to early fall, they feed on violets and are active at night. In drier areas, dog violets are used while in wetter areas the species feeds on bog violets or marsh violets growing among purple moor-grass or tufted hair-grass, they prefer the damper areas. They occur among bracken, which provides shade for the appropriate violet species; the caterpillars overwinter by hibernating, reemerge in the spring to finish growth and pupate. However, recent studies have shown that times of laying and reemerging vary by temperature, all life cycle stages appear to be linked to the timing of the seasons; this effect is a suspected form of plastic behavior seen in many species of insects ones in temperate climates that experience large temperature changes due to a change in seasons. Caterpillars pupate between mid August; when the larvae forms the pupa, or chrysalis, it is formed with its head down.
This transformative stage lasts about two to three weeks. Adults lay eggs in the spring on or in the near vicinity of violets. A common violet selected for oviposition is the Marsh Violet. Adult Boloria selene have been observed to fly in a brood once a year sometime in the summer. Adult Small pearl-bordered fritillaries feed on the following plants: Bramble Thistle Bugle This species is well known to migrate short distances during its reproductive stage, but does not appear to make any long distance migrations that cross over unsuitable habitats such as farmland and urban areas. Small birds appear to be major predators of both larval and adult stages, including introduced ground birds such as pheasants that were introduced in the UK for sport hunting. However, no major decline was detected from the introduced predators alone, as there was no significance between reduced adult emergence and increased ground birds. In a study of ambush bugs, Boloria selene was identified as a prey, although predation rates were not studied.
A study using North American populations found that sibling mating events of this species always result in unviable offspring. Hybrids that were crossed with individuals from parent populations had unviable offspring; this indicates that this species requires non-kin mating to survive, which may help with decreasing inbreeding events. Certain larvae did better in their home environments and struggled in foreign environments, indicating potential local adaptation. There were slight coloration changes between males in Massachusetts and males in South Dakota, indicating potential genetic differences between the two populations, which are separated by unsuitable habitat and by a distance of 2000 miles. However, due to the age of the study, more work is needed to confirm that local adaptation is indeed taking place in North American populations of small pearl-bordered fritillaries instead of individual plasticity. Another study found Boloria selene are quite plastic in their response to temperature variation, will adjust much of their life cycle in response to temperature changes such as an earlier warming that comes with an early spring.
The same study analyzed among and between population data, suggested that these animal
Cowes is an English seaport town and civil parish on the Isle of Wight. Cowes is located on the west bank of the estuary of the River Medina, facing the smaller town of East Cowes on the east bank; the two towns are linked by a chain ferry. The population was 9,663 in the 2001 census; the population at the 2011 census was 10,405. Charles Godfrey Leland's 19th century verses describe the towns poetically as "The two great Cowes that in loud thunder roar/This on the eastern, that the western shore". Cowes has been seen as a home for international yacht racing since the founding of the Royal Yacht Squadron in 1815, it gives its name to the world's oldest regular regatta, Cowes Week, which occurs annually in the first week of August. Powerboat races are held. Much of the town's architecture is still influenced by the style of ornate building that Prince Albert popularised; the name Westcowe was attested in 1413 as the name of one of two sandbanks, on each side of the River Medina estuary, so-called after a supposed likeness to cows.
The name was subsequently transferred to fortifications built during the reign of Henry VIII on the east and west banks of the river to dispel a French invasion, referred to as cowforts or cowes. They subsequently gave their names to the towns of Cowes and East Cowes, replacing the earlier name of Shamblord; the town's name has been subject to dispute in the past, sometimes being called Cowes, West Cowes. For example, a milestone from the 17th century exists, calling the town Cowes, but up until the late 19th Century the Urban District Council bore the name West Cowes. In 1895 West Cowes Urban District Council applied for permission to change the name of the town to Cowes and this was granted on 21 August 1895. Whilst the name Cowes has become well established on infrastructure related to the town, the name West Cowes remained on Admiralty charts, used by sailors, until 2015, when it was corrected following a letter from a Cowes resident. Red Funnel, the Southampton-based ferry company that provides routes from Southampton to both Cowes and East Cowes, has continued to use the name West Cowes for the town in information and publicity and as the name for the town's terminal.
In earlier centuries the two settlements were much smaller and known as East and West Shamblord or Shamelhorde, the East being the more significant settlement. The Isle of Wight was a target of attempted French invasions, there were notable incursions. Henrician Castles were built in both settlements in the sixteenth century; the west fort in Cowes still survives to this day, albeit without the original Tudor towers, as Cowes Castle. The fort built in East Cowes is believed to have been similar but was abandoned c. 1546 and since destroyed. The seaport at Cowes, Isle of Wight was the first stop on English soil before crossing the Atlantic Ocean with many ships loaded with Germans and Swiss passengers leaving from Rotterdam going to the New World destination of the port City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; these Germans and Swiss passengers where going to become British subjects in Colonial America, the English Captain's made a written record of the stop in Cowes, England. It is believed that the building of an 80-ton, 60-man vessel called Rat o' Wight on the banks of the river Medina in 1589 for the use of Queen Elizabeth I sowed the seed for Cowes to grow into a world-renowned centre of boat-building.
However, seafaring for recreation and sport remained the exception rather than the rule until much later. It was not until the reign of keen sailor George IV that the stage was set for the heyday of Cowes as'The Yachting Capital of the World.' In 1826 the Royal Yacht Squadron organised a three-day regatta for the first time and the next year the king signified his approval of the event by presenting a cup to mark the occasion. This became known as Cowes Regatta and it soon grew into a four-day event that always ended with a fireworks display; the opium clippers Nina and Wild Dayrell were built in Cowes. In Cowes the 18th-century house of Westbourne was home to a collector of customs whose son, born there in 1795, lived to become Dr Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby School. Northwood House was the home of the Ward family, it was donated under trust to the town in the grounds becoming Northwood Park. William George Ward was a close friend of the poet Tennyson and in whose memory the poet wrote six lines.
Cowes and East Cowes became a single urban district in 1933. During an air raid of World War II on 4/5 May 1942, the local defences had been fortuitously augmented by the Polish destroyer Błyskawica, which put up such a determined defence that, in 2002, the crew's courage was honoured by a local commemoration lasting several days to mark the 60th anniversary of the event. In 2004 an area of Cowes was named Francki Place in honour of the ship's commander; the Friends of the ORP Błyskawica Society is active in Cowes. There is a Błyskawica Memorial. Industry in both Cowes and East Cowes has always centred on the building and design of marine craft and materials associated with boat-making, including the early flying boats, sail-making, it is the place. Major present-day employers include BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies, which occupies the site of the old Somerton Aerodrome at Newport Road, Cowes; the population of the town increases during Cowes Week, the busiest time of the year for local businesses.
The town was reported to be doing well despite the economic downturn. Cowes has a Non-League football club Cowes Sports F. C. wh
South East England
South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Berkshire, East Sussex, the Isle of Wight, Oxfordshire and West Sussex; as with the other regions of England, apart from Greater London, the south east has no elected government. It is the third largest region of England, with an area of 19,096 km2, is the most populous with a total population of over eight and a half million; the headquarters of the region's governmental bodies are in Guildford, the region contains seven cities: Brighton and Hove, Chichester, Portsmouth and Winchester, though other major settlements include Reading and Milton Keynes. Its proximity to London and connections to several national motorways have led to South East England becoming an economic hub, with the largest economy in the country outside the capital, it is the location of Gatwick Airport, the UK's second-busiest airport, its coastline along the English Channel provides numerous ferry crossings to mainland Europe.
The region is known for its countryside, which includes the North Downs and the Chiltern Hills as well as two national parks: the New Forest and the South Downs. The River Thames flows through the region and its basin is known as the Thames Valley, it is the location of a number of internationally known places of interest, such as HMS Victory in Portsmouth, Cliveden in Buckinghamshire, Thorpe Park and RHS Wisley in Surrey, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, Windsor Castle in Berkshire, Leeds Castle, the White Cliffs of Dover and Canterbury Cathedral in Kent, Brighton Pier and Hammerwood Park in East Sussex, Wakehurst Place in West Sussex. The region has many universities. South East England is host to various sporting events, including the annual Henley Royal Regatta, Royal Ascot and The Derby, sporting venues include Wentworth Golf Club and Brands Hatch; some of the events of the 2012 Summer Olympics were held in the south east, including the rowing at Eton Dorney and part of the cycling road race in the Surrey Hills.
At Eartham Pit, Boxgrove near Halnaker in West Sussex in December 1993, the oldest human remains in the UK – a tibia bone and a pair of lower incisor teeth – were found. An Acheulean hand axe was found. Bones of a Megalosaurus were found at a slate quarry at Stonesfield in Oxfordshire and named in 1824: it is now at Oxford University Museum of Natural History. In 1822 an Iguanodon was found at Whitemans Green near West Sussex; the Meonhill Vineyard, near Old Winchester Hill in east Hampshire on the South Downs south of West Meon on the A32, was the site of where the Romano-British grew Roman grapes. The Ridgeway runs through Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire and is Britain's oldest road; the post office at Shipton-under-Wychwood in Oxfordshire, in the Cotswolds, is the oldest still in use in England, built in 1845. The first British Grand Prix was held in 1926 at Brooklands, the world's first purpose-built motor circuit built in 1907 by Sir Hugh F. Locke-King, the land owner. Much of the Battle of Britain was fought in this region in Kent.
RAF Bomber Command was based at High Wycombe. RAF Medmenham at Danesfield House, west of Marlow in Buckinghamshire, was important for aerial reconnaissance. Operation Corona, based at RAF Kingsdown, was implemented to confuse German night fighters with native German-speakers, coordinated by the RAF Y Service. Bletchley Park in north Buckinghamshire was the principal Allied centre for codebreaking; the Colossus computer, arguably the world's first, began working on Lorentz codes on 5 February 1944, with Colossus 2 working from June 1944. The site was chosen, among other reasons, because it is at the junction of the Varsity Line and the West Coast Main Line; the Harwell computer, now at the National Museum of Computing at Bletchley, was built in 1949 and is believed to be the oldest working digital computer in the world. John Wallis of Kent, introduced the symbol for infinity, the standard notation for powers of numbers in 1656. Thomas Bayes was an important statistician from Tunbridge Wells. Sir David N. Payne at the University of Southampton's Optoelectronics Research Centre invented the erbium-doped fibre amplifier, a type of optical amplifier, in the mid-1980s, which became essential for the internet.
Henry Moseley at Oxford in 1913 discovered his Moseley's law of X-ray spectra of chemical elements that enabled him to be the first to assign the correct atomic number to elements in periodic table. Carbon fibre was invented in 1963 at the RAE in Farnborough by a team led by William Watt; the Apollo LCG space-suit cooling system originated from work done at RAE Farnborough in the early 1960s. Donald Watts Davies, who went to grammar school in Portsmouth, took over from Alan Turing in developing Britain's early computers, invented packet switching in the late 1960s at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington. Packet-switching was taken up by the Americans to form the ARPANET. The
Sandown is a seaside resort and civil parish on the south-east coast of the Isle of Wight, with the town of Shanklin to the south and the settlement of Lake in between. Sandown is the northernmost town of Sandown Bay, known for its long stretches of accessible, sandy beach; the outer Bay is used as a sheltered anchorage, with ships requiring salvage periodically towed there. The wreck of a salvage tug could be seen until at low tide under Culver Cliff, assisting the stricken tanker Pacific Glory in the 1970s. Together with Shanklin, Sandown forms a built-up area of 21,374 inhabitants. Sandown is a Victorian seaside resort surrounded by a wealth of natural features. To the north is Culver Down, a chalk down accessible to the public owned and managed by the National Trust, it supports typical chalk downland wildlife, along with seabirds and birds of prey which nest on the adjoining cliffs. Nearby are Sandown Levels in the flood plain of the River Yar, one of the few freshwater wetlands on the Isle of Wight, where Alverstone Mead Local Nature Reserve is a popular spot for birdwatching.
Further inland the woodland of Borthwood provides delightful woodland walks, bluebells aplenty in the spring. The area's most significant wildlife designation is the Special Area of Conservation which covers the marine sub-littoral zone, including the reefs and seabed. At extreme low tide, a petrified forest is revealed in the northern part of the Bay, fragments of petrified wood are washed up on the beach; until the 19th century, Sandown was on the map chiefly for its military significance, with the beaches of the Bay feared to offer easy landing spots for invaders from the continent. It is the site of the lost Sandown Castle. While undergoing construction in 1545, the castle was attacked by a French force which had fought its way over Culver Down from Whitecliff Bay, resulting in the French being repelled, it was built too far into the sea and suffered erosion, until now reduced to a pile of rocks. Forts in the town include the Diamond Fort, built inshore to replace the castle and which fought off a minor attack from privateers in 1788, the present "Granite Fort" at Yaverland, now the zoo.
One of the first non-military buildings was "Villakin", a holiday home leased by the radical politician and one-time Mayor of London John Wilkes in the final years of the 18th century. The arrival of the railway in 1864 saw Sandown grow in size, with the town's safe bathing becoming popular. In the summer of 1874, the Crown Prince and Princess of Germany and their children rented several properties in the town and took regular dips in the Bay. Sandown's pier was built in the same decade, opening in May 1878; the town laid further claim to becoming a fashionable English resort when the Ocean Hotel opened in 1899. However, Sandown's destiny in the 20th century was to be a favourite bucket-and-spade destination for all classes; the Canoe Lake opened in 1929, followed by Brown's Golf Course in 1932 offering'Golf for Everybody'. The golf course and its ice cream factory were adapted in the 1940s to disguise pumping apparatus for Pipe Line Under the Ocean designed to pump oil to the D-Day beaches; the Art Deco Grand Hotel, now closed and awaiting demolition, was built next to Brown's in the late 1930s.
Today, Sandown esplanade has a mixture of Victorian and Edwardian hotels and their modern counterparts overlooking the beach and the Bay. Sandown Pier hosts an amusement centre with arcade games, children's play areas and places to eat and drink; the pier is used for sea fishing, with designated areas for anglers. Further north is the Isle of Wight Zoo. Nearby is the Dinosaur Isle geological museum and Sandham Grounds, offering a skate park, children's play park, crazy golf and bowls. Commissioned and built by the Local Government Board in 1869, Sandown's Grade-2 listed former Town Hall is situated in Grafton Street; the present-day Sandown Town Council no longer use the building and moved to new headquarters in 2018. The town's summer carnival has been entertaining visitors since 1889. Today's organisers put on a series of events including the popular Children's Carnival and Illuminated Carnival, as well as November Celebrations in the year with entertainment and fireworks. Since 2017, a further Sandown event called Hullabaloo has been held over two days in May, organised by Shademakers UK Carnival Club in collaboration with local businesses and charities.
Sandown offers an assortment of restaurants. The pubs range from the more traditional offering a selection of local ales and ciders, to more family-friendly'gastro-pubs' with a wider menu. Restaurants in the town offer a varied cuisine and there are a variety of traditional tea rooms on High Street. A full listing of places to eat and drink in Sandown is now available online. Sandown railway station is on the Island's one remaining public railway line from Ryde Pier Head to Shanklin; as well as the Island Line Railway, Sandown is served by regular buses run by Southern Vectis on routes 2, 3 and 8. Destinations which can be directly reached include Bembridge, Ryde and Ventnor. Night buses are run on Fridays and Saturdays, along route 3. Local bus services run by Wightbus have now been re-absorbed by Southern Vectis. Sandown is on the Isle between Niton and Ryde; the TV series Tiger Island chronicles the lives of the more than twenty tigers living at Isle of Wight Zoo. Sandown is twinned with the town of Tonnay-Charente, in the western French département of Charente-Maritime.
Its American twin town is St. Pete Beach
The common nightingale or nightingale known as rufous nightingale, is a small passerine bird best known for its powerful and beautiful song. It was classed as a member of the thrush family Turdidae, but is now more considered to be an Old World flycatcher, Muscicapidae, it belongs to a group of more terrestrial species called chats. "Nightingale" is derived from "night", the Old English galan, "to sing". The genus name Luscinia is Latin for "nightingale" and megarhynchos is from Ancient Greek megas, "great" and rhunkhos "bill"; the common nightingale is larger than the European robin, at 15–16.5 cm length. It is plain brown above except for the reddish tail, it is buff to white below. Sexes are similar; the eastern subspecies L. m. hafizi and L. m. africana have paler upperparts and a stronger face-pattern, including a pale supercilium. The song of the nightingale has been described as one of the most beautiful sounds in nature, inspiring songs, fairy tales, books, a great deal of poetry, it is a migratory insectivorous species breeding in forest and scrub in Europe and south-west Asia, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa.
It is not found in the Americas. The distribution is more southerly than the closely related thrush nightingale Luscinia luscinia, it nests near the ground in dense vegetation. Research in Germany found that favoured breeding habitat of nightingales was defined by a number of geographical factors. Less than 400 m above mean sea level mean air temperature during the growing season above 14 °C more than 20 days/year on which temperatures exceed 25 °C annual precipitation less than 750 millimetres aridity index lower than 0.35 no closed canopyIn the UK, the bird is at the northern limit of its range which has contracted in recent years, placing it on the red list for conservation. Despite local efforts to safeguard its favoured coppice and scrub habitat, numbers fell by 53 percent between 1995 and 2008. A survey conducted by the British Trust for Ornithology in 2012 and 2013 recorded some 3,300 territories, with most of these clustered in a few counties in the south-east of England, notably Kent, Essex and East and West Sussex.
By contrast, the European breeding population is estimated at between 3.2 and 7 million pairs, giving it green conservation status. Common nightingales are so named because they sing at night as well as during the day; the name has been used for more than 1,000 years, being recognisable in its Old English form nihtgale, which means "night songstress". Early writers assumed; the song is loud, with an impressive range of whistles and gurgles. Its song is noticeable at night because few other birds are singing; this is. Only unpaired males sing at night, nocturnal song serves to attract a mate. Singing at dawn, during the hour before sunrise, is assumed to be important in defending the bird's territory. Nightingales sing more loudly in urban or near-urban environments, in order to overcome the background noise; the most characteristic feature of the song is a loud whistling crescendo, absent from the song of thrush nightingale. It has a frog-like alarm call; the common nightingale is an important symbol for poets from a variety of ages, has taken on a number of symbolic connotations.
Homer evokes the nightingale in the Odyssey, suggesting the myth of Procne. This myth is the focus of Tereus, of which only fragments remain. Ovid, too, in his Metamorphoses, includes the most popular version of this myth and altered by poets, including Chrétien de Troyes, Geoffrey Chaucer, John Gower, George Gascoigne. T. S. Eliot's "The Waste Land" evokes the common nightingale's song; because of the violence associated with the myth, the nightingale's song was long interpreted as a lament. The common nightingale has been used as a symbol of poets or their poetry. Poets chose the nightingale as a symbol because of its creative and spontaneous song. Aristophanes's Birds and Callimachus both evoke the bird's song as a form of poetry. Virgil compares the mourning of Orpheus to the “lament of the nightingale”. In Sonnet 102 Shakespeare compares his love poetry to the song of the common nightingale: "Our love was new, but in the spring, When I was wont to greet it with my lays. For some romantic poets, the nightingale began to take on qualities of the muse.
The nightingale has a long history with symbolic associations ranging from "creativity, the muse, nature's purity, and, in Western spiritual tradition and goodness." Coleridge and Wordsworth saw the nightingale more as an instance of natural poetic creation: the nightingale became a voice of nature. John Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale" pictures the nightingale as an idealized poet who has achieved the poetry that Keats longs to write. Invoking a similar conception of the nightingale, Shelley wrote in his “A Defense of Poetry": "A poet is a nightingale who sits in darkness and sings to cheer its own solitude with sweet sounds.
Meganola albula is a moth of the family Nolidae. It is found in the Palearctic ecozone; the wingspan is 18–24 mm. The length of the forewings is 10–11 mm; the moth flies in one generation from mid-June to August. The larvae feed on Fragaria vesca and Vaccinium species. Since the 19th-century, it has spread north being first recorded in England in 1859, Denmark 1938, Schleswig-Holstein 1945 and Gotland 1949 ^ The flight season refers to Belgium and the Netherlands; this may vary in other parts of the range. Kent Black Arches on UKmoths Lepidoptera of Belgium Lepiforum.de Vlindernet.nl
Vipera berus, the common European adder or common European viper, is a venomous snake, widespread and can be found throughout most of Western Europe and as far as East Asia. Known by a host of common names including common adder and common viper, adders have been the subject of much folklore in Britain and other European countries, they are not regarded as dangerous. Bites can be painful, but are fatal; the specific name, berus, is New Latin and was at one time used to refer to a snake the grass snake, Natrix natrix. The common adder is found in different terrains, habitat complexity being essential for different aspects of its behaviour, it feeds on small mammals, birds and amphibians, in some cases on spiders and insects. The common adder, like most other vipers, is ovoviviparous. Females breed once every two or three years, with litters being born in late summer to early autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. Litters range in size from three to 20 with young staying with their mothers for a few days.
Adults grow to a mass of 50 to 180 g. Three subspecies are recognized, including the nominate subspecies, Vipera berus berus described here; the snake is not considered to be threatened. The name'adder' is derived from nædre, an Old English word that had the generic meaning of serpent in the older forms of many Germanic languages, it was used in the Old English version of the Christian Scriptures for the devil and the serpent in the Book of Genesis. In the 14th century,'a nadder' in Middle English was rebracketed to'an adder'. In keeping with its wide distribution and familiarity through the ages, Vipera berus has a large number of common names in English, which include: Common European adder, common European viper, European viper, northern viper, common adder, crossed viper, European adder, common viper, European common viper, cross adder, or common cross adder. In Denmark and Sweden, the snake is known as hugorm and huggorm translated as'striking snake'. In Finland, it is known as kyykäärme or kyy, in Estonia it is known as rästik, while in Lithuania it is known as angis.
Thick-bodied, adults grow to 60 cm in total length, with an average of 55 cm. Maximum size varies by region; the largest, at over 90 cm, are found in Scandinavia. In France and Great Britain, the maximum size is 80–87 cm. Mass ranges from 50 g to about 180 grams; the head is large and distinct and its sides are flat and vertical. The edge of the snout is raised into a low ridge. Seen from above, the rostral scale is not visible, or only just. Behind the rostral, there are two small scales. Dorsally, there are five large plates: a squarish frontal, two parietals, two long and narrow supraoculars; the latter are distinct, each separated from the frontal by one to four small scales. The nostril is situated in a shallow depression within a large nasal scale; the eye is large—equal in size or larger than the nasal scale—but smaller in females. Below the supraoculars are six to 13 small circumorbital scales; the temporal scales are smooth. There are 10 -- six to 10 supralabials. Of the latter, the numbers 3 and 4 are the largest, while 4 and 5 are separated from the eye by a single row of small scales.
Midbody there are 21 dorsal scales rows. These are keeled scales, except for those bordering the ventral scales; these scales seem loosely attached to the skin and lower rows become wide. The ventral scales number 132–150 in males and 132–158 in females; the anal plate is single. The subcaudals are paired, numbering 32–46 in males and 23–38 in females; the colour pattern varies, ranging from light-coloured specimens with small, dark dorsal crossbars to brown ones with faint or clear, darker brown markings, on to melanistic individuals that are dark and lack any apparent dorsal pattern. However, most have some kind of zigzag dorsal pattern down the entire length of their bodies and tails; the head has a distinctive dark V or X on the back. A dark streak runs from the eye to the neck and continues as a longitudinal series of spots along the flanks. Unusually for snakes, the sexes are possible to tell apart by the colour. Females are brownish in hue with dark-brown markings, the males are pure grey with black markings.
The basal colour of males will be lighter than that of the females, making the black zigzag pattern stand out. The melanistic individuals are females. Vipera berus has a wide range, it can be found across the Eurasian land-mass.