A bib is a garment worn hanging from the neck on the chest to protect clothing from accidentally spilled food. Bibs are used by young children infants, but by some adults. Bibs are worn when consuming certain "messy" foods, such as lobster. In addition, bibs are used for infants; the word, reported in English since 1580 stems from the verb bibben "to drink", from the Latin bibere, either because it was worn while drinking or because it "soaked up" spills. The term bib may refer to the part of a garment that covers the chest. For instance, an apron that covers the chest may be referred to as a bib apron; the part of a jumper dress or of an overall that covers the chest may be referred to as a bib. In sport, it may refer to a garment that used by a team to identify themselves on the field of play, or to identify a participant in a competition with a start number. Powerlifters wear a bib benchpress shirt across their chest area to help them lift more weight. In Netball, bibs are used by the umpire to identify players' positions so it can be determined, within their allowed area.
Paper bibs are commonly used in dentist offices to protect the patient's clothing during checkups and cleanings. Another medical use is during an x-ray, a lead bib can be put over a patient to prevent the radiation from reaching parts other than the part of the body being tested. Apron Bib shorts Water Faucet Dudou and Yếm, East Asian clothing sometimes translated as bibs EtymologyOnLine Babieswiki.com
Colley Cibber was an English actor-manager and Poet Laureate. His colourful memoir Apology for the Life of Colley Cibber describes his life in a personal and rambling style, he wrote 25 plays for his own company at Drury Lane, half of which were adapted from various sources, which led Robert Lowe and Alexander Pope, among others, to criticise his "miserable mutilation" of "crucified Molière hapless Shakespeare". He regarded himself as first and foremost an actor and had great popular success in comical fop parts, while as a tragic actor he was persistent but much ridiculed. Cibber's brash, extroverted personality did not sit well with his contemporaries, he was accused of tasteless theatrical productions, shady business methods, a social and political opportunism, thought to have gained him the laureateship over far better poets, he rose to ignominious fame when he became the chief target, the head Dunce, of Alexander Pope's satirical poem The Dunciad. Cibber's poetical work was derided in his time, has been remembered only for being poor.
His importance in British theatre history rests on his being one of the first in a long line of actor-managers, on the interest of two of his comedies as documents of evolving early 18th-century taste and ideology, on the value of his autobiography as a historical source. Cibber was born in Bloomsbury, London, he was the eldest child of Caius Gabriel Cibber, a distinguished sculptor from Denmark. His mother, Jane née Colley, came from a family of gentry from Rutland, he was educated at the King's School, from 1682 until the age of 16, but failed to win a place at Winchester College, founded by his maternal ancestor William of Wykeham. In 1688, he joined the service of his father's patron, Lord Devonshire, one of the prime supporters of the Glorious Revolution. After the revolution, at a loose end in London, he was attracted to the stage and in 1690 began work as an actor in Thomas Betterton's United Company at the Drury Lane Theatre. "Poor, at odds with his parents, entering the theatrical world at a time when players were losing their power to businessmen-managers", on 6 May 1693 Cibber married Katherine Shore, the daughter of Matthias Shore, sergeant-trumpeter to the King, despite his poor prospects and insecure inferior job.
Cibber and Katherine had 12 children between 1694 and 1713. Six died in infancy, most of the surviving children received short shrift in his will. Catherine, the eldest surviving daughter, married Colonel James Brown and seems to have been the dutiful one who looked after Cibber in old age following his wife's death in 1734, she was duly rewarded at his death with most of his estate. His middle daughters and Elizabeth, went into business. Anne had a shop that sold fine wares and foods, married John Boultby. Elizabeth had a restaurant near Gray's Inn, married firstly Dawson Brett, secondly Joseph Marples, his only son to reach adulthood, became an actor at Drury Lane, was an embarrassment to his father because of his scandalous private life. His other son to survive infancy, died in or after 1717 before reaching adulthood. Colley's youngest daughter Charlotte followed in her father's theatrical footsteps, but she fell out with him and her sister Catherine, she was cut off by the family. After an inauspicious start as an actor, Cibber became a popular comedian and adapted many plays, rose to become one of the newly empowered businessmen-managers.
He took over the management of Drury Lane in 1710 and took a commercial, if not artistically successful, line in the job. In 1730, he was made Poet Laureate, an appointment which attracted widespread scorn from Alexander Pope and other Tory satirists. Off-stage, he was a keen gambler, was one of the investors in the South Sea Company. In the last two decades of his life, Cibber remained prominent in society, summered in Georgian spas such as Tunbridge and Bath, he was friendly with the writer Samuel Richardson, the actress Margaret Woffington and the memoirist–poet Laetitia Pilkington. Aged 73 in 1745, he made his last appearance on the stage as Pandulph in his own "deservedly unsuccessful" Papal Tyranny in the Reign of King John. In 1750, he fell ill and recommended his friend and protégé Henry Jones as the next Poet Laureate. Cibber recovered and Jones passed into obscurity. Cibber died at his house in Berkeley Square, London, in December 1757, leaving small pecuniary legacies to four of his five surviving children, £1,000 each to his granddaughters Jane and Elizabeth, the residue of his estate to his eldest daughter Catherine.
He was buried on 18 December at the Grosvenor Chapel on South Audley Street. Cibber's colourful autobiography An Apology for the Life of Colley Cibber, Comedian was chatty, anecdotal and inaccurate. At the time of writing the word "apology" meant an apologia, a statement in defence of one's actions rather than a statement of regret for having transgressed; the text ignores his wife and family, but Cibber wrote in detail about his time in the theatre his early years as a young actor at Drury Lane in the 1690s, giving a vivid account of the cut-throat theatre company rivalries and chicanery of the time, as well as providing pen portraits of the actors he knew. The Apology is vain and self-serving, as both his contemporaries and commentators have pointed out, but it serves as Cibber's rebuttal to his harshest critics Pope. For the early p
John II Casimir Vasa
John II Casimir was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia, titular King of Sweden 1648–1660. In Poland, he is known and referred as Jan Kazimierz, his parents were Sigismund III Constance of Austria. His older brother, predecessor on the throne, was Władysław IV Vasa. In 1638 he embarked at Genoa for Spain to negotiate a league with Philip IV against France, but suffering shipwreck on the coast of Provence, he was seized and by order of Cardinal Richelieu imprisoned at Vincennes, where he remained two years, was only released on promise of his brother the king of Poland never to wage war against France, he travelled through various countries of western Europe, entered the order of Jesuits in Rome, was made cardinal by Innocent X, after his return to Poland he again became a layman, having succeeded his brother in 1648, married his widow, Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga. His reign commenced amid the confusion and disasters caused by the great revolt of the Cossacks under Chmielnicki, who had advanced into the heart of Poland.
The power of the king had been stripped of all its prerogatives by the growing influence of the nobles. Russia and Sweden, which had long been active enemies of Poland, availed themselves of its distracted condition, renewed their attacks. George II Rakoczy of Transylvania invaded the Polish territory, while diet after diet was dissolved by abuses of the liberum veto. Charles X Gustav of Sweden triumphantly marched through the country, occupied Kraków while John Casimir fled to Silesia. Before Częstochowa, the Swedes met with an unexpected check, a confederation of the nobles against all enemies of the country having been formed, Stefan Czarniecki won a series of victories over the Swedes, Transylvanians and Russians; the wars with the Swedes and Russians were terminated by treaties involving considerable cessions of provinces on the Baltic and the Dnieper on the part of Poland, which lost its sway over the Cossacks, who put themselves under the protection of the czar. During these long disturbances John Casimir, though feeble and of a peaceful disposition proved his patriotism and bravery.
The intrigues of his wife in favor of the duke of Enghien, son of the prince of Condé, as successor to the throne, having brought about a rebellion under Hetman Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski, a bloody though short civil war, the king resolved upon abdication, resigned his crown at the diet of Warsaw on 16 September 1668. In the following year he retired to France, where he was hospitably treated by Louis XIV, his wife had died without issue before his abdication. John Casimir's reign was one of the most disastrous in the history of Poland, whose dismemberment by the houses of Moscow and Habsburg, as it took place 100 years after his death, he predicted in a memorable speech to the diet of 1661, he was the last monarch on the Polish throne from the House of Vasa. Official titles in Latin: Ioannes Casimirus, Dei Gratia rex Poloniae, magnus dux Lithuaniae, Prussiae, Samogitiae, Smolenscie, Czernichoviaeque. English translation: John Casimir, by God's grace King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Prussia, Samogitia, Smolensk, Severia and, Chernihiv.
John Casimir was born in Kraków on 22 March 1609. His father, Sigismund III, the grandson of Gustav I of Sweden, had in 1592 succeeded his own father to the Swedish throne, only to be deposed in 1599 by his uncle, Charles IX of Sweden; this led to a long-standing feud wherein the Polish kings of the House of Vasa claimed the Swedish throne, resulting in the Polish–Swedish War of 1600–1629. Poland and Sweden were on opposite sides in the Thirty Years' War, although in that conflict Poland for the most part avoided taking part in any major military actions and campaigns, instead supporting the Austrian Habsburg and Catholic fraction, his mother, Queen Constance, was the daughter of Charles II of Austria and Maria Anna of Bavaria and the younger sister of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. John Casimir for most of his life remained in the shadow of his older half-brother, Władysław IV Vasa, he had few friends among the Polish nobility. Unfriendly, dividing his time between lavish partying and religious contemplation, disliking politics, he did not have a strong power base nor influence at the Polish court instead supporting unfavorable Habsburg policies.
He did, display talent as a military commander, showing his abilities in the Smolensk War against Muscovy. Between 1632 and 1635, Władysław IV sought to enhance his brother's influence by negotiating a marriage for John Casimir to Christina of Sweden to an Italian princess, but to no avail. In 1637 John Casimir undertook a diplomatic mission to Vienna, which he abandoned to join the army of the Holy Roman Empire and fight against the French. After his regiment was defeated in battle, he spent a year living lavishly at the Viennese court where his strong anti-Cossack interests and political views were shaped under the direct influence of the Austrian Emperor. In 1636 he returned to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and fell in love with Baroness Guldentern, but his desire to marry her was thwarted by King Władysław. In return, Władysław attempted to make him the sovereign of the Duchy of Courland, but this was vetoed by the Commonwealth parliamen
A necktie, or a tie, is a long piece of cloth, worn by men, for decorative purposes around the neck, resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat. Variants include the ascot tie, bow tie, bolo tie, zipper tie, Knit Tie and clip-on tie; the modern necktie and bow tie are descended from the cravat. Neckties are unsized, but may be available in a longer size. In some cultures men and boys wear neckties as part of formal wear; some women wear them as well but not as as men. Neckties can be worn as part of a uniform, whereas some choose to wear them as everyday clothing attire. Neckties are traditionally worn with the top shirt button fastened, the tie knot resting between the collar points. There is a long history of neckwear worn by Persian soldiers, whether as part of a uniform or as a symbol of belonging to a particular group; some form of neckwear other than the outdoor scarf can be traced intermittently through many centuries. Historical studies indicate that the Croats started migrating from the Iranian homeland to Croatia and Bosnia about 3,000 years ago.
However, a much larger migration took place about 1,700 years ago. The believed explanation for this migration was the suppression of the followers of Manichean faith during the Sassanian era; the early immigrants called themselves Khoravat or Croat in order to distinguish with other tribes of that region. These Iranian-origin immigrants did something more to stress the difference: they tied a handkerchief around their necks, something which gained global popularity under the name of Cravat; the modern necktie that spread from Europe traces back to Croatian mercenaries serving in France during the Thirty Years' War. These mercenaries from the Croatian Military Frontier, wearing their traditional small, knotted neckerchiefs, aroused the interest of the Parisians; because of the difference between the Croatian word for Croats and the French word, the garment gained the name cravat. The boy-king Louis XIV began wearing a lace cravat around 1646, when he was seven, set the fashion for French nobility.
This new article of clothing started a fashion craze in Europe. From its introduction by the French king, men wore lace cravats, or jabots, that took a large amount of time and effort to arrange; these cravats were tied in place by cravat strings, arranged neatly and tied in a bow. International Necktie Day is celebrated on October 18 in Croatia and in various cities around the world, e.g. in Dublin, Tübingen, Tokyo and other towns. The Battle of Steenkerque took place in 1692. In this battle, the princes, while hurriedly dressing for battle, wound these cravats around their necks, they twisted the ends of the fabric together and passed the twisted ends through a jacket buttonhole. These cravats were referred to as Steinkirks. In 1715, another kind of neckwear, called "stocks" made its appearance; the term referred to a leather collar, laced at the back, worn by soldiers to promote holding the head high in a military bearing. The leather stock afforded some protection to the major blood vessels of the neck from saber or bayonet attacks.
General Sherman is seen wearing a leather stock in several American Civil War-era photographs. Stock ties were just a small piece of muslin folded into a narrow band wound a few times round the shirt collar and secured from behind with a pin, it was fashionable for the men to wear their hair past shoulder length. The ends were tucked into a black silk bag worn at the nape of the neck; this was known as the bag-wig hairstyle, the neckwear worn with it was the stock. The solitaire was a variation of the bag wig; this form had matching ribbons stitched around the bag. After the stock was in place, the ribbons would be brought forward and tied in a large bow in front of the wearer. Sometime in the late 18th century, cravats began to make an appearance again; this can be attributed to a group of young men called the macaronis. These were young Englishmen who returned from Europe and brought with them new ideas about fashion from Italy; the French contemporaries of the macaronis were the incroyables. At this time, there was much interest in the way to tie a proper cravat and this led to a series of publications.
This began in 1818 the publication of with Neckclothitania, a style manual that contained illustrated instructions on how to tie 14 different cravats. Soon after, the immense skill required to tie the cravat in certain styles became a mark of a man's elegance and wealth, it was the first book to use the word tie in association with neckwear. It was about this time, their popularity eclipsed the white cravat, except for evening wear. These remained popular through to the 1850s. At this time, another form of neckwear worn was the scarf; this was where a neckerchief or bandana was held in place by slipping the ends through a finger or scarf ring at the neck instead of using a knot. This may have been adopted from them. With the industrial revolution, more people wanted neckwear, easy to put on, was comfortable, would last an entire workday. Neckties were designed long and easy to knot, they did not come undone; this is the necktie design still worn by millions of men. By this time, the sometimes complicated array of knots and styles of neckwear gave way to the neckties and bow ties, the latter a much smaller, more convenient version of the cravat.
Another type of neckwear, the Ascot tie, was considered de rig
Battle of Waterloo
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in Belgium, part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands at the time. A French army under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh Coalition: a British-led allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington, a Prussian army under the command of Field Marshal Blücher; the battle marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars. Upon Napoleon's return to power in March 1815, many states that had opposed him formed the Seventh Coalition and began to mobilise armies. Wellington and Blücher's armies were cantoned close to the northeastern border of France. Napoleon chose to attack them separately in the hope of destroying them before they could join in a coordinated invasion of France with other members of the coalition. On 16 June, he attacked the bulk of the Prussian army at the Battle of Ligny with his main force, while a portion of the French army attacked an Anglo-allied army at the Battle of Quatre Bras.
Despite holding his ground at Quatre Bras, the defeat of the Prussians forced Wellington to withdraw north to Waterloo on the 17th. Napoleon sent a third of his forces to pursue the Prussians, who had withdrawn parallel to Wellington in good order; this resulted in the simultaneous Battle of Wavre with the Prussian rear-guard. Upon learning that the Prussian army was able to support him, Wellington decided to offer battle on the Mont-Saint-Jean escarpment across the Brussels road. Here he withstood repeated attacks by the French throughout the afternoon of the 18th, aided by the progressively arriving Prussians. In the evening, Napoleon committed his last reserves, the senior battalions of the French Imperial Guard infantry; the desperate final attack of the Guard was narrowly beaten back. With the Prussians breaking through on the French right flank, Wellington's Anglo-allied army counter-attacked in the centre, the French army was routed. Waterloo was Napoleon's last. According to Wellington, the battle was "the nearest-run thing you saw in your life."
Napoleon abdicated four days and coalition forces entered Paris on 7 July. The defeat at Waterloo ended Napoleon's rule as Emperor of the French and marked the end of his Hundred Days return from exile; this ended the First French Empire and set a chronological milestone between serial European wars and decades of relative peace. The battlefield is located in the municipalities of Braine-l'Alleud and Lasne, about 15 kilometres south of Brussels, about 2 kilometres from the town of Waterloo; the site of the battlefield today is dominated by the monument of the Lion's Mound, constructed from earth taken from the battlefield itself. On 13 March 1815, six days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw. Four days the United Kingdom, Russia and Prussia mobilised armies to defeat Napoleon. Critically outnumbered, Napoleon knew that once his attempts at dissuading one or more members of the Seventh Coalition from invading France had failed, his only chance of remaining in power was to attack before the coalition mobilised.
Had Napoleon succeeded in destroying the existing coalition forces south of Brussels before they were reinforced, he might have been able to drive the British back to the sea and knock the Prussians out of the war. Crucially, this would have bought him time to recruit and train more men before turning his armies against the Austrians and Russians. An additional consideration for Napoleon was that a French victory might cause French-speaking sympathisers in Belgium to launch a friendly revolution. Coalition troops in Belgium were second-line, as many units were of dubious quality and loyalty, most of the British veterans of the Peninsular War had been sent to North America to fight in the War of 1812; the initial dispositions of British commander Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, were intended to counter the threat of Napoleon enveloping the Coalition armies by moving through Mons to the south-west of Brussels. This would have pushed Wellington closer to the Prussian forces, led by Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, but may have cut Wellington's communications with his base at Ostend.
In order to delay Wellington's deployment, Napoleon spread false intelligence which suggested that Wellington's supply chain from the channel ports would be cut. By June, Napoleon had raised a total army strength of about 300,000 men; the force at his disposal at Waterloo was less than one third that size, but the rank and file were nearly all loyal and experienced soldiers. Napoleon divided his army into a left wing commanded by Marshal Ney, a right wing commanded by Marshal Grouchy and a reserve under his command. Crossing the frontier near Charleroi before dawn on 15 June, the French overran Coalition outposts, securing Napoleon's "central position" between Wellington's and Blücher's armies, he hoped this would prevent them from combining, he would be able to destroy first the Prussian's army Wellington's. Only late on the night of 15 June was Wellington certain that the Charleroi attack was the main French thrust. In the early hours of 16 June, at the Duchess of Richmond's ball in Brussels, he received a dispatch from the Prince of Orange and was shocked by the speed of Napoleon's advance.
He hastily ordered his army to concentrate on Quatre Bras, where the Prince of Orange, with the brigade of Prince Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, was holding a tenuous position against the soldiers of Ney's left wing. Ney's orders were to secure the crossroads of Quatre Br
An ascot tie, or ascot or hanker-tie, is a neckband with wide pointed wings, traditionally made of pale grey patterned silk. This wide tie is patterned, folded over, fastened with a tie pin or tie clip, it is reserved for formal wear with morning dress for daytime weddings and worn with a cutaway morning coat and striped grey formal trousers. This type of dress cravat is made of a thicker, woven type of silk similar to a modern tie and is traditionally either grey or black; the ascot is descended from the earlier type of cravat widespread in the early 19th century, most notably during the age of Beau Brummell, made of starched linen and elaborately tied around the neck. In the 1880s, amongst the upper-middle-class in Europe men began to wear a more loosely tied version for formal daytime events with daytime full dress in frock coats or with morning coats, it remains a feature of morning dress for weddings today. The Royal Ascot race meeting at the Ascot Racecourse gave the ascot its name, although such dress cravats were no longer worn with morning dress at the Royal Ascot races by the Edwardian era.
The ascot was still worn for business with morning dress in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In British English, the casual form is called a cravat, or sometimes as a day cravat to distinguish it from the formal dress cravat, it is made from a thinner woven silk, more comfortable when worn against the skin with ornate and colourful printed patterns. Students at the United States Army Officer Candidate School wear ascots as part of their uniform, black for basic officer candidates and white for senior officer candidates. Pararescue trainees upon completion of extended training day are given a blue ascot. In the United States Navy the ascot is now worn for ceremonial purposes with Enlisted Full Dress Whites and Enlisted Full Dress Blue in the Ceremonial Guard. In the Dutch Army, it is a part of the uniform, for barrack use, the ascot is in the weapon colors, with a logo, when in combat uniform, a DPM or desert version is used; the Royal Danish Army employs an ascot for the ceremonial version of the barrack dress, its colors vary between each company.
"Uniform Regulations for the Army". Army Operational Command. DK: parawings.com. September 2012. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016. Villarosa, Riccardo: The Elegant Man - How to Construct the Ideal Wardrobe. Random House, 1992. ISBN 0-679-42101-7 How to tie the Ruche knot How to tie an Ascot Tie
William III of England
William III widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Utrecht and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II, he is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy". William inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II, who died a week before William's birth, his mother, was the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, William married his fifteen-year-old first cousin, the daughter of his maternal uncle James, Duke of York. A Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic King of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith. In 1685, William's Catholic uncle and father-in-law, became king of England and Ireland. James's reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain.
William, supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, invaded England in what became known as the Glorious Revolution. On 5 November 1688, he landed at the southern English port of Brixham. James was deposed and William and his wife became joint sovereigns in his place. William and Mary reigned together until Mary's death on 28 December 1694, after which William ruled as sole monarch. William's reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him to take power in Britain when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. William's victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by loyalists in Northern Ireland and Scotland, his reign in Britain marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover. William III was born in The Hague in the Dutch Republic on 4 November 1650. Baptised William Henry, he was the only child of stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange, Mary, Princess Royal.
Mary was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and Ireland and sister of King Charles II and King James II and VII. Eight days before William was born, his father died of smallpox. A conflict ensued between his mother and paternal grandmother, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, over the name to be given to the infant. Mary wanted to name him Charles after her brother, but her mother-in-law insisted on giving him the name William to bolster his prospects of becoming stadtholder. William II had appointed his wife as his son's guardian in his will. On 13 August 1651, the Hoge Raad van Holland en Zeeland ruled that guardianship would be shared between his mother, his paternal grandmother and Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, whose wife, Louise Henriette, was William II's eldest sister. William's mother showed little personal interest in her son, sometimes being absent for years, had always deliberately kept herself apart from Dutch society. William's education was first laid in the hands of several Dutch governesses, some of English descent, including Walburg Howard and the Scottish noblewoman, Lady Anna Mackenzie.
From April 1656, the prince received daily instruction in the Reformed religion from the Calvinist preacher Cornelis Trigland, a follower of the Contra-Remonstrant theologian Gisbertus Voetius. The ideal education for William was described in Discours sur la nourriture de S. H. Monseigneur le Prince d'Orange, a short treatise by one of William's tutors, Constantijn Huygens. In these lessons, the prince was taught that he was predestined to become an instrument of Divine Providence, fulfilling the historical destiny of the House of Orange-Nassau. From early 1659, William spent seven years at the University of Leiden for a formal education, under the guidance of ethics professor Hendrik Bornius. While residing in the Prinsenhof at Delft, William had a small personal retinue including Hans Willem Bentinck, a new governor, Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein, his paternal uncle. Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt and his uncle Cornelis de Graeff pushed the States of Holland to take charge of William's education and ensure that he would acquire the skills to serve in a future—though undetermined—state function.
This first involvement of the authorities did not last long. On 23 December 1660, when William was ten years old, his mother died of smallpox at Whitehall Palace, while visiting her brother, the restored King Charles II. In her will, Mary requested that Charles look after William's interests, Charles now demanded that the States of Holland end their interference. To appease Charles, they complied on 30 September 1661; that year, Zuylenstein began to work for Charles and induced William to write letters to his uncle asking him to help William become stadtholder someday. After his mother's death, William's education and guardianship became a point of contention between his dynasty's supporters and the advocates of a more republican Netherlands; the Dutch authorities did their best at first to ignore these intrigues, but in the Second Anglo-Dutch War one of Charles's peace conditions was the improvement of the position of his nephew. As a countermeasure in 1666, when William was sixteen, the States made him a ward of the government, or a "Child of State".
All pro-English courtiers, including Zuylen