A photographer is a person who makes photographs. As in other arts, the definitions of amateur and professional are not categorical. An amateur photographer takes snapshots for pleasure to remember events, places or friends with no intention of selling the images to others. A professional photographer is to take photographs for a session and image purchase fee, by salary or through the display, resale or use of those photographs. A professional photographer may be an employee, for example of a newspaper, or may contract to cover a particular planned event such as a wedding or graduation, or to illustrate an advertisement. Others, like fine art photographers, are freelancers, first making an image and licensing or making printed copies of it for sale or display; some workers, such as crime scene photographers, estate agents and scientists, make photographs as part of other work. Photographers who produce moving rather than still pictures are called cinematographers, videographers or camera operators, depending on the commercial context.
The term professional may imply preparation, for example, by academic study or apprenticeship by the photographer in pursuit of photographic skills. A hallmark of a professional is that they invest in continuing education through associations. Many associations offer the opportunity to test and exhibit acumen in order to attain credentials such as Certified Professional Photographer or Master Photographer. While there is no compulsory registration requirement for professional photographer status, operating a business requires having a business license in most cities and counties. Having commercial insurance is required by most venues if photographing a wedding or a public event. Photographers who operate a legitimate business can provide these items. Photographers can be categorized based on the subjects; some photographers explore subjects typical of paintings such as landscape, still life, portraiture. Other photographers specialize in subjects unique to photography, including street photography, documentary photography, fashion photography, wedding photography, war photography, aviation photography and commercial photography.
It is worth noting that the type of work commissioned will have pricing associated with the image's usage. The exclusive right of photographers to copy and use their products is protected by copyright. Countless industries purchase photographs on products; the photographs seen on magazine covers, in television advertising, on greeting cards or calendars, on websites, or on products and packages, have been purchased for this use, either directly from the photographer or through an agency that represents the photographer. A photographer uses a contract to sell the "license" or use of his or her photograph with exact controls regarding how the photograph will be used, in what territory it will be used, for which products; this is referred to as usage fee and is used to distinguish from production fees. An additional contract and royalty would apply for each additional use of the photograph; the contract may be for other duration. The photographer charges a royalty as well as a one-time fee, depending on the terms of the contract.
The contract may be for exclusive use of the photograph. The contract can stipulate that the photographer is entitled to audit the company for determination of royalty payments. Royalties vary depending on the industry buying the photograph and the use, for example, royalties for a photograph used on a poster or in television advertising may be higher than for use on a limited run of brochures. A royalty is often based on the size at which the photo will be used in a magazine or book, cover photos command higher fees than photos used elsewhere in a book or magazine. Photos taken by a photographer while working on assignment are work for hire belonging to the company or publication unless stipulated otherwise by contract. Professional portrait and wedding photographers stipulate by contract that they retain the copyright of their photos, so that only they can sell further prints of the photographs to the consumer, rather than the customer reproducing the photos by other means. If the customer wishes to be able to reproduce the photos themselves, they may discuss an alternative contract with the photographer in advance before the pictures are taken, in which a larger up front fee may be paid in exchange for reprint rights passing to the customer.
There are major companies who have maintained catalogues of stock photography and images for decades, such as Getty Images and others. Since the turn of the 21st century many online stock photography catalogues have appeared that invite photographers to sell their photos online and but for little money, without a royalty, without control over the use of the photo, the market it will be used in, the products it will be used on, time duration, etc. Commercial photographers may promote their work to advertising and editorial art buyers via printed and online marketing vehicles. Many people upload their photographs to social networking websites and other websites, in order to share them with a particular group or with the general public; those interested in legal precision may expl
Paul Edward Winfield was an American television and stage actor. He was known for his portrayal of a Louisiana sharecropper who struggles to support his family during the Great Depression in the landmark film Sounder, which earned him an Academy Award nomination, he portrayed Martin Luther King Jr. in the 1978 television miniseries King, for which he was nominated for an Emmy Award. Winfield was known for his roles in The Terminator, Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, Star Trek: The Next Generation, he received five Emmy nominations overall. Winfield was born in Los Angeles, California, to Lois Beatrice Edwards, a union organizer in the garment industry, his stepfather from the age of eight was Clarence Winfield, a city trash collector and construction worker. He graduated from Manual Arts High School in Los Angeles. From there, he attended the University of Portland, 1957–59. A life member of The Actors Studio, Winfield carved out a diverse career in film, television and voiceovers by taking groundbreaking roles at a time when black actors were cast.
He first appeared in the 1965 Perry Mason episode, "The Case of the Runaway Racer," as Mitch, a race car mechanic. His first major feature film role was in the 1969 film The Lost Man starring Sidney Poitier. Winfield first became well-known to television audiences when he appeared for several years opposite Diahann Carroll on the groundbreaking television series Julia. Filmed during a high point of racial tensions in the United States, the show was unique in featuring a black female as the central character, he starred as Martin Luther King Jr. in the 1978 miniseries King. In 1973, Winfield was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for the 1972 film Sounder, his co-star in that film, Cicely Tyson, was nominated for Best Actress. Prior to their nominations and Diana Ross's for Lady Sings the Blues the same year, only three other black Americans – Dorothy Dandridge, Sidney Poitier and James Earl Jones – had been nominated for a leading role, he appeared, in a different role, in the 2003 Disney-produced television remake of Sounder, directed by Kevin Hooks, his co-star from the original.
Winfield played the part of "Jim the Slave" in Huckleberry Finn, a musical based on the novel by Mark Twain. Winfield would recall late in his career that as a young actor he had played one of the two leads in Of Mice and Men in local repertory, made up in whiteface, since a black actor playing it would have been unthinkable. Winfield starred in miniseries, including Scarlett, two based on the works of novelist Alex Haley: Roots: The Next Generations and Queen: The Story of an American Family. Winfield gained a new segment of fans for his brief but memorable roles in several science fiction television series and movies, he portrayed Starfleet Captain Clark Terrell of the USS Reliant, an unwilling minion of Khan Noonien Singh, in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan and Lieutenant Ed Traxler, a friendly but crusty cop partnered with Lance Henriksen in The Terminator starring Arnold Schwarzenegger. In 1996, he was part of the'name' ensemble cast in Tim Burton's comic homage to 1950s science fiction Mars Attacks!, playing the complacently self-satisfied Lt. General Casey.
On the small screen Star Trek franchise, he appeared as Dathon, an alien captain who communicates in metaphor, in the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "Darmok". He appeared in the second season Babylon 5 episode "Gropos" as General Richard Franklin, the father of regular character Dr. Stephen Franklin, on the fairy tale sitcom The Charmings as The Evil Queen's wise-cracking Magic Mirror, he portrayed the character of Julian Barlow in the television series 227 during its last two seasons. Winfield took on roles as homosexual characters in the films Mike's Murder in 1984 and again in 1998 in the film Relax... It's Just Sex, he found success off-camera due to his unique voice. He provided voices on the cartoons Spider-Man, The Magic School Bus, Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child, Batman Beyond, Gargoyles, K10C, The Simpsons, on the latter voicing the Don King parody Lucius Sweet. In his voiceover career, he is best known as the narrator for the A&E true crime series City Confidential, a role he began in 1998 and continued with until his death in 2004.
Throughout his career, Winfield managed to perform in the theater. His only Broadway production, Checkmates, in 1988, co-starring Ruby Dee, was the Broadway debut of Denzel Washington, he appeared in productions at the Mark Taper Forum in Los Angeles, The Shakespeare Theatre in Washington, D. C. Winfield was nominated for an Emmy Award for his performances in King and Roots: The Next Generations, he won an Emmy Award, in 1995, for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series, for his appearance as Judge Harold Nance in an episode of the CBS drama Picket Fences. Winfield remained discreet about it in the public eye. Prior to realizing his sexuality, he lived with his Sounder co-star Cicely Tyson for 18 months, his partner of 30 years, architect Charles Gillan Jr. died on March 2002, of bone cancer. Winfield long battled diabetes, he died of a heart attack in 2004 at age 64, at Queen of Angels – Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center in Los Angeles. Winfield and Gillan are interred together at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Los Angeles.
Paul Winfield at the African American Registry Paul Winfield at the Internet Broadway Database Paul Winfield on IMDb Paul Winfield at the TCM Movie Database P
The San Francisco Examiner
The San Francisco Examiner is a daily newspaper distributed in and around San Francisco, published since 1863. The longtime "Monarch of the Dailies" and flagship of the Hearst Corporation chain, the Examiner converted to free distribution early in the 21st century and is owned by the San Francisco Media Company LLC; the San Francisco Examiner was sold to Black Press Group, a Canadian media publisher, in 2011. As of 2014, The San Francisco Media Company LLC is held under Oahu Publications Inc. a subsidiary of Black Press Group Ltd. The Examiner was founded in 1863 as the Democratic Press, a pro-Confederacy, pro-slavery, pro-Democratic Party paper opposed to Abraham Lincoln, but after his assassination in 1865, the paper's offices were destroyed by a mob, starting on June 12, 1865, it was called the Daily Examiner. In 1880, mining engineer, entrepreneur and US Senator George Hearst bought the Examiner. Seven years after being elected to the U. S. Senate, he gave it to his son, William Randolph Hearst, 23 years old.
The elder Hearst "was said to have received the failing paper as partial payment of a poker debt."William Randolph Hearst hired S. S. Chamberlain, who had started the first American newspaper in Paris, as managing editor and Arthur McEwen as editor, changed the Examiner from an evening to a morning paper. Under him, the paper's popularity increased with the help of such writers as Ambrose Bierce, Mark Twain, the San Francisco-born Jack London, through the Examiner's version of yellow journalism, with ample use of foreign correspondents and splashy coverage of scandals such as two entire pages of cables from Vienna about the Mayerling Incident. William Randolph Hearst created the masthead with the "Hearst Eagle" and the slogan Monarch of the Dailies by 1889 at the latest. After the great earthquake and fire of 1906 destroyed much of San Francisco, the Examiner and its rivals — the San Francisco Chronicle and the San Francisco Call — brought out a joint edition; the Examiner offices were destroyed on April 18, 1906, but when the city was rebuilt, a new structure, the Hearst Building, arose in its place at Third and Market streets.
It opened in 1909, in 1937 the facade and lobby underwent an extensive remodeling designed by architect Julia Morgan. Through the middle third of the twentieth century, the Examiner was one of several dailies competing for the city's and the Bay Area's readership. Strident competition prevailed between the two papers in the 1960s. Circulation battles ended in a merging of resources between the two papers. For 35 years starting in 1965, the San Francisco Chronicle and Examiner operated under a Joint Operating Agreement whereby the Chronicle published a morning paper and the Examiner published in the afternoon; the Examiner published the Sunday paper's news sections and glossy magazine, the Chronicle contributed the features. Circulation was 100,000 on weekdays and 500,000 on Sundays. By 1995, discussion was brewing in print media about the possible shuttering of the Examiner due to low circulation and an disadvantageous revenue sharing agreement for the Chronicle. In its stylebook and by tradition, the Examiner refers to San Francisco as "The City", both in headlines and text of stories.
San Francisco slang has traditionally referred to the newspaper in abbreviated slang form as "the Ex". When the Chronicle Publishing Company divested its interests, the Hearst Corporation purchased the Chronicle. To satisfy antitrust concerns, Hearst sold the Examiner to ExIn, LLC, a corporation owned by the politically connected Fang family, publishers of the San Francisco Independent and the San Mateo Independent. San Francisco political consultant Clint Reilly filed a lawsuit against Hearst, charging that the deal did not ensure two competitive newspapers and was instead a generous deal designed to curry approval. However, on July 27, 2000, a federal judge approved the Fangs' assumption of the Examiner name, its archives, 35 delivery trucks, a subsidy of $66 million, to be paid over three years. From their side, the Fangs paid Hearst US$100 for the Examiner. On February 24, 2003, the Examiner became a free daily newspaper, printed Sunday through Friday. On February 19, 2004, the Fang family sold the Examiner and its printing plant, together with the two Independent newspapers, to Philip Anschutz of Denver, Colorado.
His new company, Clarity Media Group, launched The Washington Examiner in 2005 and published The Baltimore Examiner from 2006 to 2009. In 2006, Anschutz donated the archives of the Examiner to the University of California, Berkeley Bancroft Library, the largest gift to the library. Under Clarity ownership, the Examiner pioneered a new business model for the newspaper industry. Designed to be read the Examiner is presented in a compact size without story jumps, it focuses on local news, business and sports with an emphasis on content relevant to local readers. It is delivered free to select neighborhoods in San Francisco and San Mateo counties, to single-copy outlets throughout San Franc
Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
GLBT Historical Society
The GLBT Historical Society maintains an extensive collection of archival materials and graphic arts relating to the history of LGBT people in the United States, with a focus on the LGBT communities of San Francisco and Northern California. The society sponsors The GLBT Historical Society Museum, a stand-alone museum that has attracted international attention; the Swedish Exhibition Agency has cited the institution as one of just "three established museums dedicated to LGBTQ history in the world."Referred to as San Francisco's "queer Smithsonian," the GLBT Historical Society is one of 30 LGBT archives in the United States—and is among the handful of such organizations to benefit from a paid staff and to function as a full-fledged center for exhibitions, programming and production of oral histories. It is recognized by the Internal Revenue Service as a tax-exempt 5013 educational association and is registered with the State of California as a nonprofit corporation; the archives, reading room and administrative offices of the GLBT Historical Society are located at 989 Market St. Lower Level, in San Francisco's Mid-Market district.
The GLBT Historical Society Museum, which serves as a separate center for exhibitions and programs, is located at 4127 18th St. in the city's Castro neighborhood. The roots of the Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Historical Society extend to the early 1980s, when Willie Walker and Greg Pennington met and discovered that they shared an interest in gay and lesbian history, they joined forces to pool their personal collections of gay and lesbian periodicals, dubbing the ad hoc initiative the San Francisco Gay Periodical Archive. At the same time, Walker was involved in a private study group, the San Francisco Lesbian and Gay History Project; each member of the Lesbian and Gay History Project was asked to develop a major project for presentation to the group. Walker presented the concept at the History Project meeting on Sept. 5, 1984, with encouragement from the project, Pennington, project member Eric Garber and several others held five working meetings before deciding that the plan would require a much larger and more diverse organizing group.
According to the GLBT Historical Society newsletter, "With this in mind, Walker sent a letter to 160 organizations and 100 individuals inviting them to what turned out to be the pivotal meeting at the San Francisco Public Library on March 16, 1985. There were 63 people at the library that Saturday afternoon.'We made the decision that everyone at the meeting was a member,' Pennington remembers.'And we chose the name, the San Francisco Bay Area Gay and Lesbian Historical Society. On May 18, we held a public membership meeting to adopt the bylaws and elect the first board of directors.'” Over the course of its history, the Historical Society has renamed itself twice to better reflect the scope of its holdings and the range of identities and practices represented in its collections and programs. In 1990, the organization changed its name to the Gay and Lesbian Historical Society of Northern California, thus clarifying the geographical reach of its primary collections. At the end of 1999, responding to concerns raised by bisexual and transgender community members and their allies, the institution adopted its current name—the Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Historical Society—to more state the inclusive mission the society had pursued since it was founded.
In everyday usage, the institution employs a short form of its name: the GLBT Historical Society. The archival collections of the Historical Society were housed in the living room of Walker's apartment at 3823 17th St. in San Francisco. In 1990, the society moved into its own space, in the basement of the Redstone Building on 16th Street near South Van Ness—a building which housed the gay and lesbian theater company Theater Rhinoceros; the collections grew and by 1995 the Historical Society moved into a 3,700-square-foot space on the fourth floor of 973 Market St. The society moved again in 2003 to a location on the third floor of a building at 657 Mission St. that housed other cultural institutions: the Cartoon Art Museum, San Francisco Camerawork and the Catharine Clark Gallery. The 6,600-square-foot space included two dedicated exhibition galleries, a reading room, a large reserve for the archival collections, several offices for staff and volunteers; the society used one of the galleries for presentation of history talks and panel discussions, many of which were videotaped for posting on the Web.
In November 2010, in anticipation of the opening of its new GLBT History Museum, the society closed its galleries and program space at 657 Mission St. while maintaining its archives, reading room and administrative offices at that location. At the end of May 2016, the GLBT Historical Society closed its archives at 657 Mission St. in preparation for a move to an expanded space with improved facilities for researchers and staff at 989 Market St. in San Francisco. The archives reopened at the end of June 2016 at the new location, which offers 6,500 square feet devoted to archival and office space; the Historical Society has had six executive directors during the course of its history. The organization was run di
University of Georgia
The University of Georgia referred to as UGA or Georgia, is a public flagship research university with its main campus in Athens, Georgia. Founded in 1785, it is one of the oldest public universities in the United States; the Center for Measuring University Performance ranks the University of Georgia among the top research universities in the nation and the university is classified by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education as a Research I university. It classifies the student body as "more selective," its most selective admissions category, while the ACT Assessment Student Report places UGA student admissions in the "highly selective" category, the highest category. Incoming students include those from 47 countries around the world; the university is ranked as one of the "Best National Universities for Undergraduate Teaching", tied for 13th overall among all public national universities in the 2019 U. S. News & World Report rankings, is a Kiplinger's and Princeton Review top ten in value.
The university is organized into 17 constituent schools and colleges offering more than 140 degree programs. The university's historic North Campus is listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places as a designated historic district; the contiguous campus areas include rolling hills and extensive green space including nature walks, fields and large and varied arboreta. Close to the contiguous campus is the university's 58-acre Health Sciences Campus that has an extensive landscaped green space, more than 400 trees, several additional historic buildings. Athens has ranked among America's best college towns due to its vibrant restaurant and music scenes. In addition to the main campus in Athens with its 460 buildings, the university has two smaller campuses located in Tifton and Griffin; the university has two satellite campuses located in Lawrenceville. The university operates several outreach stations spread across the state; the total acreage of the university in 30 Georgia counties is 41,539 acres.
The university owns a residential and research center in Washington, D. C. and three international residential and research centers located at Oxford University in Oxford, England, at Cortona, at Monteverde, Costa Rica. Over 750 student organizations including academic associations, honor societies, cultural groups and intramural athletics, religious groups, social groups and fraternities and community service programs, philanthropic groups are integral parts of student life; the University of Georgia's intercollegiate sports teams known by their Georgia Bulldogs nickname, compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and the Southeastern Conference. UGA served as a founding member of the SEC in 1932. In their more than 120-year history, the university's varsity sports teams have won 45 national championships, 264 individual national championships, 170 conference championships, 45 Olympic medals; the Georgia Redcoat Marching Band, the official marching band of the university, performs at athletic and other events.
In 1784, Lyman Hall, a Yale University graduate and one of three doctors to sign the Declaration of Independence, as Governor of Georgia persuaded the Georgia legislature to grant 40,000 acres for the purposes of founding a "college or seminary of learning." Besides Hall, credit for founding the university goes to Abraham Baldwin who wrote the original charter for University of Georgia. From Connecticut, Baldwin graduated from and taught at Yale University before moving to Georgia; the Georgia General Assembly approved Baldwin's charter on January 27, 1785 and UGA became the first university in the United States to gain a state charter. Considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, Baldwin would represent Georgia in the 1786 Constitutional Convention that created the Constitution of the United States and go on to be President pro tempore of the United States Senate; the task of creating the university was given to the Senatus Academicus, which consisted of the Board of Visitors – made up of "the governor, all state senators, all superior court judges and a few other public officials" – and the Board of Trustees, "a body of fourteen appointed members that soon became self-perpetuating."
The first meeting of the university's Board of Trustees was held in Augusta, Georgia on February 13, 1786. The meeting installed Baldwin as the university's first president. For the first sixteen years of the school's history, the University of Georgia only existed on paper. By the new century, a committee was appointed to find suitable land to establish a campus. Committee member John Milledge purchased 633 acres of land on the west bank of the Oconee River and gifted it to the university; this tract of land, now a part of the consolidated city–county of Athens-Clarke County, was part of Jackson County. As of 2013, 37 acres of that land remained as part of the North Campus; because Baldwin was elected to the U. S. Senate, the school needed a new president. Baldwin chose his former fellow professor at Yale, Josiah Meigs, as his replacement. Meigs became the school's president, as well as the only professor. After traveling the state to recruit a few students, Meigs opened the school with no building in the fall of 1801.
The first school building patterned after Yale's Connecticut Hall was built the year later. Yale's early influence on the new university extended into the classical curriculum with emphasis on Latin and Greek. By 1803, the students
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed