Mean center of the United States population
The mean center of the United States population is determined by the United States Census Bureau from the results of each national census. The Bureau defines it as follows: The concept of the center of population as used by the U. S. Census Bureau is that of a balance point; the center of population is the point at which an imaginary, weightless and flat surface representation of the 50 states and the District of Columbia would balance if weights of identical size were placed on it so that each weight represented the location on one person. More this calculation is called the mean center of population. After moving 600 mi west by south during the 19th century, the shift in the mean center of population during the 20th century was less pronounced, moving 324 mi west and 101 mi south. Nearly 79% of the overall southerly movement happened between 1950 and 2000. Given the strong pull of Texas and the Western US, the population center would be heading towards and one day entering Oklahoma; the 20.2-mile shift projected for the 2010–2020 period would be the shortest centroid movement since the Great Depression intercensal period of 1930–1940.
Center of population Median center of United States population Geographic center of the United States Geographic center of the contiguous United States
Franklin County, Missouri
Franklin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 101,492, its county seat is Union. The county is named after Founding Father Benjamin Franklin. Franklin County is part of the St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area and contains many of the city's exurbs, it is located along the south side of the Missouri River. The county has wineries that are included in the Hermann AVA and is part of the region known as the Missouri Rhineland, which extends on both sides of the Missouri River. Occupied by succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples, this area was populated by the historic Osage tribe at the time of European encounter; the region was first settled by Europeans during the rule of the Spanish Empire. The Spanish log fort San Juan del Misuri was built in present-day Washington. After the American Revolutionary War, migrants from the new United States started moving West. Among them were the family and followers of Daniel Boone, an explorer from Kentucky who settled the area starting in 1799.
For the next two decades, most settlers came from the Upper South Kentucky and Virginia, bringing their slaves with them to work the land. In 1833 substantial numbers of German immigrant families began settling in the area, soon they outnumbered the slave owners in the county; the German newcomers were opposed to slavery, their sons would become Union supporters during the U. S. Civil War. Former governor and Confederate General Sterling Price led his cavalry though the county during his Missouri raid of 1864. Before the war Franklin County had served by steamboats that moved freight and passenger traffic on the Missouri River. Afterwards, it became a railroad transportation center. Manufacturing industries were established at the end of the Civil War and successive ones have continued. Bias Vineyard, near the small city of Berger, is located within the Hermann American Viticultural Area, designated in 1983. Röbller Vineyard and Winery near New Haven is in the Hermann AVA. Wineries along both sides of the Missouri River are part of the Missouri Rhineland, whose vineyards were started by German immigrants in the mid-19th century.
Before Prohibition, Missouri was the second-largest wine-producing state in the nation. Everything was closed down except for limited production of wine allowed for religious purposes; the state's wine industry had to be rebuilt, taking place since the 1960s. The rural county has had severe problems with local production and consumption of methamphetamine; the struggles of the county with adverse effects of the drug, was explored in a 2005 A&E documentary entitled Meth: A County in Crisis. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 931 square miles, of which 923 square miles is land and 8.0 square miles is water. It third-largest by total area; the center of the Missouri River forms the nominal northern border of the county, although the river has changed its course since boundaries were first established: a portion of St. Charles County near St. Albans is now south of the river, while a portion of Franklin County near Augusta is north of the river; the Bourbeuse River flows for 107 miles through the county.
It cuts a deep, narrow valley and is crooked. It empties into the Meramec River near Union; this river is undeveloped, with limited access and few bridges over it. During low water, a number of fords allow crossing; the county is located in the Ozarks region, with steep hills and deep valleys, caves and sinkholes characteristic of karst areas. The underlying rock is carbonate, including limestone and dolomite. Mining activity in the county included ores of lead, copper and deposits of refractory clay; the soils in most of the county tend to be thin, rocky red clay, are poor for most agriculture, while the soil near the Missouri River is dark and thick, used for row crops such as corn and soybeans. Much of the county is covered with thick forests, reestablished since the 1920s. Urbanization is increasing in the county surrounding Washington and Union, along Interstate 44. St. Albans is now a continuation of the suburban region of St. Louis County while the majority of the county retains a rural character and includes extensive wilderness areas, typical of exurban areas.
Warren County St. Charles County St. Louis County Jefferson County Washington County Crawford County Gasconade County Interstate 44 U. S. Route 50 U. S. Route 66 Route 30 Route 47 Route 100 Route 185 As of the census of 2000, there were 93,807 people, 34,945 households, 25,684 families residing in the county; the population density was 102 people per square mile. There were 38,295 housing units at an average density of 42 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.47% White, 0.94% Black or African American, 0.27% Asian, 0.24% Native American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races. 0.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 44.9% were of German, 13.0% American, 10.7% Irish and 7.7% English ancestry. There were 34,945 households out of which 36.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.40% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.50% were non-families. 22.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.66 and the average family si
Interstate 44 in Missouri
Interstate 44 in the U. S. state of Missouri runs northeast from the Oklahoma state line near Joplin to I-70 in downtown St. Louis, it runs for about 293 miles in the state. Interstate 44 enters Missouri in Newton County at the eastern terminus of the Will Rogers Turnpike, 200 yards south of the Kansas state line; the first interchange in Missouri is the eastern terminus of both U. S. Highway 166 and U. S. Highway 400; this highway next goes through southern Joplin and begins a concurrency with Interstate 49/U. S. Highway 71 at Exit 11 just after entering Jasper County; the freeway turns to a more easterly heading, I-49/U. S. 71 splits off to the north at Exit 18. I-44 next enters Lawrence County. Near Mount Vernon, the highway curves to the northeast; the section of highway to Halltown is a new highway, not supplanting any previous highways. At Halltown, the road curves back to due east, beginning to follow the general pathway of old U. S. Highway 66. I-44 goes around the western and northern sides of Springfield, serving as the western terminus of the James River Freeway, as well as crossing both Route 13 and U.
S. Highway 65; the Interstate Highway continues northeast. In Pulaski County, I-44 enters the Mark Twain National Forest, leaves it to provide access to Waynesville, St. Robert, Fort Leonard Wood, before re-entering the national forest; the freeway leaves the forest in Phelps County west of Rolla. I-44 goes through Rolla, where it meets U. S. Highway 63, it continues its northeast course, passing near St. James, Bourbon and Saint Clair. I-44 next goes north of Pacific before moving into St. Louis County. I-44 bisects Eureka before serving as the southern boundary of Route 66 State Park. I-44 runs across unincorporated land before entering Fenton and having an interchange with Interstate 270 in Sunset Hills. I-44 goes through Crestwood, Oakland, Webster Groves, Shrewsbury before entering the City of St. Louis. I-44 runs on a due east course through St. Louis; the two highways run concurrently for about two miles until I-55 turns east at an interchange with Interstate 64 to cross the Mississippi River on the Poplar Street Bridge.
I-44 continues north through Downtown St. Louis on the former route of Interstate 70 to its junction with that highway at the Stan Musial Veterans Memorial Bridge. I-44 follows the general route of, replaced, historic U. S. Route 66 from Halltown to downtown St. Louis. From rural Joplin at exit 15 to Mount Vernon at exit 49, it follows a decommissioned section of U. S. Route 166; the eastern terminus of I-44 was changed when the Stan Musial Veterans Memorial Bridge opened in February 2014, rerouting I-70 over the river along a more northern alignment. I-44 now takes the old I-70 alignment through the below-grade section of roadway in St. Louis, making the new eastern terminus a merging interchange with I-70 near Cass Avenue; the eastbound lanes of I-44 join the westbound lanes of I-70, the westbound lanes of I-44 branch off the eastbound lanes of I-70. All of Interstate 44's business loops are in Missouri. Most of these Business Loops were the former U. S. Route 66. Missouri has the unusual occurrence of a business loop and business spur from the same interstate intersecting
Mark Twain National Forest
Mark Twain National Forest is a U. S. National Forest located in the southern half of Missouri. MTNF was established on September 11, 1939, it is named for a Missouri native. The MTNF covers 3,068,800 acres of which 1,506,100 acres is public owned, 78,000 acres of which are Wilderness, National Scenic River area. MTNF represents 11 % of all forested land in Missouri. MTNF is divided into six distinct ranger districts: Ava-Cassville-Willow Springs, Eleven Point, Houston-Rolla, Cedar Creek, Poplar Bluff, Potosi-Fredericktown, the Salem; the six ranger districts comprise nine overall unique tracts of forests. Its headquarters are in Missouri; some unique features of the Mark Twain include Greer Spring, the largest spring on National Forest land and part of the Eleven Point National Scenic River, pumps an average of 214 million gallons of water per day into the river. The public can visit the Glade Top Trail National Scenic Byway, which offers views of over 30 miles to the Boston Mountains in Arkansas.
The 350-mile Ozark Trail system winds through much of the National Forest. The Mark Twain National Forest, as we know it today, was created on February 17, 1976; the Mark Twain National forest has a rather unusual history – for it was once known as both the Clark National Forest and the Mark Twain National Forest – both being proclaimed on September 11, 1939. In June 1973 the Clark and Mark Twain NF were brought under one headquarters in Rolla and became known as the National forests in Missouri. On Feb. 17, 1976, the forests were renamed the Mark Twain National Forest. Missouri’s only national forest, The Mark Twain, encompasses 1.5 million acres within the Ozark Highlands. Located across southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, the Ozark Highlands are an ancient landscape characterized by large permanent springs, over 5,000 caves, rocky barren glades, old volcanic mountains and nationally recognized streams. Portions of the Ozarks were the areas glaciated. In the 1870s, citizens of southern Missouri began an era of extensive logging of the state's native oak and pine forests.
Lumber mills were commonplace, but by the 1920s they had disappeared, along with much of the state's native forests. Thus, in 1939 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the MTNF into existence. In March 1933, he created the Emergency Conservation Work Act, better known as the Civilian Conservation Corps. In the area that would become Mark Twain National Forest, hundreds of young men at over fifty CCC sites worked at building roads and planting hundreds of acres of pine to preserve and enhance the natural resources of southern Missouri. Many of their contributions can still be visited and enjoyed today including the Rolla Ranger Station Historic District and Winona Ranger Station Historic District. Although it is far from being the largest National Forest in acreage, Mark Twain National Forest is located in more counties than any other; as of September 30, 2007, its 1,490,862 acres were spread over parts of 29 counties in southern and central Missouri. "Mark Twain National Forest". USDA Forest Service.
Retrieved February 6, 2006
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Phelps County, Missouri
Phelps County is a county located in the central portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 45,156; the largest city and county seat is Rolla. The county was organized on November 13, 1857, was named after U. S. Representative and Governor of Missouri John Smith Phelps. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, it included the mean center of U. S. population in 2000. Phelps County comprises MO Micropolitan Statistical Area. Much of the county is included within the Ozark Highlands American Viticultural Area. Vineyards and wineries were first established in the county by Italian immigrants in Rolla. Since the 1960s, winemakers have revived and created numerous vineyards in Missouri and won national and international tasting awards; the first Phelps County Court convened on November 1857 in the John Dillon cabin. The historic courthouse was begun in mid-summer of 1860, used as a Union hospital during the American Civil War and served as the courthouse until February 1994, at which time all county offices were relocated in the new Phelps County Courthouse.
The new courthouse was dedicated on May 22, 1994. The first settlers came to this area in 1818 building along the riverbanks. In 1844 John Webber built the first house within the present city limits of Rolla. One year Lieutenant James Abert started the first railroad reconnaissance survey in Rolla. Abert was to become the first professor of Civil Engineering at the Missouri School of Mines; the founder of Rolla, Edmund Ward Bishop, was a railroad construction contractor in New York. He came to this part of the country in 1853 with the job of building the “Frisco Branch of the Southwest Railroad.” Because of an urgent demand, Phelps County was created by legislative action on November 13, 1857 from portions of Pulaski and Crawford counties. A special commission was appointed to select the site for a county seat, with instructions to locate the site on the mail line of the railroad as near the center of the county as possible. Bishop offered a tract of some 50 acres for the official town site, it was accepted.
There was disagreement over the site - the "westerners" wanted Rolla, the "easterners" wanted Dillon, so the General Assembly did not declare Rolla to be the official county seat until 1861. The group favoring Dillon 600 of them, signed a petition of protest citing the fact that only two of the three commission members had met to consider the possible sites for the county seat, they contested the decision all the way through the Missouri Supreme Court. Before the high court could make a decision, the Legislature took action on January 14, 1860, confirming the location of the county seat at Rolla. Smarting under a considerable amount of criticism concerning the matter, all members of the county court resigned during April 1858, but withdrew their resignations, it was settled in favor of Rolla. Rolla was surveyed, laid out and named in 1858. Bishop wanted to call it Phelps Center. John Webber preferred the name "Hardscrabble" for the obvious reasons. George Coppedge, another original settler, of North Carolina, favored "Raleigh" after his hometown.
The others agreed with Coppedge on the condition that it shouldn't have "that silly spelling, but should be spelled'Rolla.' The county seat locating commission designated the area now known as Rolla to be the county seat. The town of Rolla did not exist as of November 1857, when the county was created. Only the J. Stever office and John Webber's home were located in the area. Early court business included the location and opening of roads from the county seat to various places within the state, including St. Louis, Jefferson City, Lake Spring, Salem, it is in this last road order, dated in July 1858, that the use of the name Rolla first appears in the court records. The name was used earlier, in May 1858, in a deed of railroad land to the county. On April 26, 1859, the county court ordered the 50 acres donated by Mr. Bishop for the site of the county seat to be surveyed; the survey was conducted by A. E. Buchanan, a young railroad surveyor. Buchanan delivered his plat to the county court on May 31, 1859.
The railroad ran its first train on December 1860, making Rolla the terminus of the road. Until the continuation of the Frisco, all goods were loaded on wagons and transported to Springfield and south and west on what is now U. S. Highway 66. During the American Civil War, Rolla was an important military post with as many as 20,000 Union troops here; the original Phelps County Court House was transformed into a hospital during the war. In April 1861, Fort Sumter was fired upon and a decision was made to support the South. On May 10, the Circuit Court session saw a heated debate of secession, which caused a breakup of the proceedings; as the story goes, Circuit Court Judge James McBride soon departed to assume command as a Confederate general under Sterling Price. Outside the courthouse, a group of men drew down the United States flag and raised a Confederate flag, hastily pieced together by the women of Rolla; the tension was thick when the group moved to the newspaper office of Charles Walder, a Union supporter and editor of the Rolla Express.
Walder was forced to cease printing. Southern sympathizers patrolled the town day and night ordering Union sympathizers to leave town. On June 14 of that year, General Franz Sigel arrived by train with his 3rd Missouri Infantry and took over the town. From that day until the close of the war, Rolla was in Union hands; the 13th Illinois Infantry Regiment, under Colonel John B. Wyman, was brought i
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use