Erie–Meadville, PA Combined Statistical Area
The Erie–Meadville, PA Combined Statistical Area is made up of two counties in northwestern Pennsylvania. The United States Office of Management and Budget has recognized the Erie and Meadville areas along with the counties of Erie and Crawford to make a Combined Statistical Area, located in northwestern Pennsylvania. Though these county line boundaries are rather arbitrary since Erie serves as the regional hub for the bordering areas of southwestern New York and northeastern Ohio; as of the 2010 United States Census the CSA had a population total of 369,331. The Combined Statistical Area ranked 7th in the state of Pennsylvania and 102nd in the United States. Erie County – population 280,566 Corry Edinboro Erie Girard Lake City Lawrence Park North East Northwest Harborcreek Union City Wesleyville Crawford County – population 88,765 Meadville Titusville List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas List of Combined Statistical Areas
Pymatuning Reservoir is a man-made lake in Crawford County and Ashtabula County, Ohio in the United States, on land, once a large swamp. Much of it is incorporated into two state parks: Pymatuning State Park in Pennsylvania, Pymatuning State Park in Ohio; the first known inhabitants were the Mound builders. Two of their mounds were flooded by the creation of Pymatuning Lake; the Lenape were living in the area. The lake is named for the chief who lived in the area at Pihmtomink; the Lenape were pushed out of the area by a member of the Iroquois Confederacy. The Seneca were defeated by General Anthony Wayne's forces during the Northwest Indian War and left the area under the terms of the Treaty of Greenville; this treaty marked the end of Native Americans inhabiting the area. The first settlers to the area were farmers, whose life was not easy, as the land was swampy and difficult to reclaim. Farm animals that wandered off were lost in the quicksands of the swamp, or fell prey to predators like foxes and mountain lions.
The swamps were infested with mosquitoes. An unsolved murder case is associated with the Pymatuning Swamp: in 1932 by herpetologist Norman Edouard Hartweg, while he was searching for reptiles, ran into a body of a lady; the police concluded that she had been murdered elsewhere, but her identity was never confirmed, nor the murderer identified. Building a dam on the Shenango River was first explored in 1911. A massive flood in 1913 took several lives; the Pennsylvania General Assembly approved a budget of $1.2 million to build at dam across the Shenango, but Governor John K. Tener slashed the budget to just $100,000; the Pennsylvania legislature took action again in 1917, this time approving a $400,000 budget under the condition that the needed land in Ohio be purchased by the private sector. The Pymatuning Land Company was raised the funds to purchase the needed Ohio properties; the land was acquired in full by 1931 when Governor Gifford Pinchot approved $1.5 million to complete the dam. 7,000 men began work on the dam in 1931 and the project was completed in 1934, with a final total cost of $3,717,739.
The lake now holds 64.3 billion US gallons of water, covering 17,088 acres over a length of 17 miles with a width of 1.6 miles at the widest and 70 miles of shoreline, with a maximum depth of 35 feet. The lake has served to provide a water supply for the Shenango and Beaver valleys, it has lessened the damage caused by floods, provided recreation for the people of Ohio and Pennsylvania. Two state parks, each named "Pymatuning State Park", are on the lake in Pennsylvania. A scenic 2-mile-long causeway bridge spans the middle of the lake, connecting the towns of Espyville on the Pennsylvania side of the lake and Andover on the Ohio side; the bridge is crowned in the middle, with tall pillars and broad ducts underneath to allow lakewater to flow across the reservoir, to permit the passage of sailboats and other pleasure craft travelling from one half of the lake to the other. The bridge is equipped with small concrete and earthen pull-offs large enough for several vehicles apiece, with concrete staircases and walkways below the parking spaces to allow travelers to stroll down and fish or sightsee beside the bridge.
The Pennsylvania portion has a spillway separating the upstream-most portion of the lake from the rest. A parking area along the spillway serves a popular warm-weather attraction known as where the ducks walk on the fish because visitors throw stale bread to the thousands of fish that congregate there. Pymatuning Lake - Lakelubbers Pymatuning Lake - Lake Community Index Ohio DNR fishing map of Pymatuning Lake
Pymatuning State Park (Pennsylvania)
Pymatuning State Park is a Pennsylvania state park covering 21,122 acres in Conneaut, North Shenango, Sadsbury, South Shenango, West Fallowfield and West Shenango Townships, Crawford County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. Pymatuning State Park is the largest state park in Pennsylvania and contains the 17,088 acres of Pymatuning Lake, three-quarters of, in Pennsylvania and one-quarter of, in Ohio. A three-mile causeway extends between Ohio near the center of the lake; the lake provides boating year round. There are Clark Island and Blackjack in the park; the park is home to the University of Pittsburgh's Pymatuning Laboratory of Ecology. Like all Pennsylvania state parks, admission to the Pymatuning State Park is free; the northern access for Pymatuning State Park can be reached from U. S. Route 6 and the southern access is reached from U. S. Route 322. Pymatuning State Park was chosen by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and its Bureau of Parks as one of "25 Must-See Pennsylvania State Parks".
Pymatuning State Park is on land, once a large swamp. The first known inhabitants were the Mound Builders. Two of their mounds were flooded over by the creation of Pymatuning Lake; the Lenape were living in the area. The lake is named for the chief, who lived in the area at Pihmtomink; the Lenape were pushed out of the area by the Seneca tribe a member of the larger Iroquois Confederacy. The Seneca were defeated by General Anthony Wayne's forces during the Northwest Indian War and left the area under the terms of the Treaty of Greenville; this treaty marked the beginning of the white man's domination of the area. The first settlers to the area were farmers. Life was not easy for the farmers; the land was swampy and difficult to reclaim. Farm animals that wandered off were lost in the quicksands of the swamp or fell prey to predators like foxes and mountain lions; the swamps were infested with mosquitoes. Building a dam on the Shenango River was first explored in 1911. A massive flood in 1913 took several lives.
The Pennsylvania General Assembly approved a budget of $1.2 million to build at dam across the Shenango, but Governor John K. Tener slashed the budget to just $100,000; the legislature took action again in 1917. This time approving a $400,000 budget under the condition that the needed land in Ohio be purchased by the private sector; the Pymatuning Land Company was formed and raised the needed funds to purchase the needed Ohio properties. The land was acquired in full by 1931 when Governor Gifford Pinchot approved $1.5 million to complete the dam. 7,000 men began work on the dam in 1931, the project was completed in 1934. The final cost of building the dam was $3,717,739. Pymatuning Lake was formed in the 1930s by a dam on the Shenango River; the lake features camping areas in both Pennsylvania and Ohio. The northeastern part of Pymatuning Lake, east of the spillway and three miles south of Linesville, is a protected gameland where colonies of 20,000 Canada geese and many more ducks winter each year.
The lake is the result of an earth dam three miles north of Jamestown, whose outflow forms the Shenango River. A north-south spillway crosses the northern part of the lake, with the gameland on the east side. Along this spillway are a wildlife museum and the Linesville spillway, a site famous as "The Place Where the Ducks Walk on the Fishes' Backs". Many people throw bread into the water here, the resulting density of fish enables the ducks and other waterfowl to walk on top of the carp to vie for the thrown food; the spillway was renovated in 2007. The Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources had planned to prohibit bread as food for the carp and ducks on January 1, 2009, only permitting commercial fish food as part of an effort to clean up the area and increase its wild nature, but subsequently reconsidered. Motorboats up to 20 horsepower are permitted on Pymatuning Lake. All boats must have a current registration with any state or a launch permit from the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission.
There are three marinas in the Pennsylvania owned part of the lake. These marinas have mooring facilities and rent pontoon boats, motorboats and motors, they have stores that sell bait and snacks. Pymatuning State Park is open for year-round fishing on Pymatuning Lake, it is a warm water fishery. The most common species are largemouth and smallmouth bass, bluegill, perch and muskellunge; the lake is a popular ice fishing destination during the winter months. All anglers are expected to follow the regulations of the fish commission. Licenses from Ohio and Pennsylvania are permitted if the fishermen are fishing from a boat in any section of the lake. Only Pennsylvania licensed fishermen can fish from the Pennsylvania shore and only Ohio licensed fishermen are permitted to fish from the Ohio shore. One of the largest warm water fish hatcheries in the world is owned and operated by the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission at Pymatuning State Park. There are four beaches. All four are open from 8:00 a.m. until sunset ending mid-September.
Lifeguards are not p
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Pennsylvania Route 285
Pennsylvania Route 285 is an 27.1-mile-long, east–west state highway located in Crawford county in Pennsylvania, United States. The western terminus is the Ohio state line on Lake Pymatuning; the eastern terminus is at PA 173 in Cochranton. PA 285 goes by many names along its route; the names along its route includes Steele's Court, Third Street, Brooks Crossing Road, Townhouse Court. The route begins on the Ohio state line over Lake Pymatuning in North Shenango Township, at the terminus of OH 85; the route heads east, going in and out of Pymatuning State Park before short concurrencies with US 6, US 322/PA 18 in the town of Conneaut Lake. After exiting the town to the south, the route winds southeast to the intersections of US 19 and I-79 in Greenwood Township; the route continues east for several miles before terminating in the town of Cochranton, at an intersection with PA 173. First signed in 1936, the route would be signed in different areas along the route. In the early 1970s, the route was moved from its old alignment from Hartstown Road to Conneaut Lake, where it had a concurrency with US 322 into the town.
In the early 1970s, the route's eastern terminus was moved from US 62 to its current terminus on PA 173. The entire route is in Crawford County. U. S. Roads portal Pennsylvania portal Pennsylvania Highways - Pennsylvania Route 285
Pennsylvania Route 18
Pennsylvania Route 18 is a major north–south highway in Western Pennsylvania whose southern terminus is at West Virginia Route 69 at the state line in Greene County, Pennsylvania near the village of Garrison, while the northern terminus is at PA Route 5 in Lake City, Pennsylvania. At a length of 205 miles, PA 18 is the only state route in Pennsylvania — north–south or east–west — to traverse the entire state, it has the distinction of being the longest state route in Pennsylvania. Traveling northward from West Virginia Route 69 at the West Virginia state line, Route 18 winds through rural Greene County, passing through the villages of Garrison, New Freeport, Nettle Hill, White Cottage and Holbrook, before making its first junction with another state highway, PA Route 21, just west of the village of Rogersville and over 15 miles from the state line. Here the two routes overlap for nearly 6 miles, winding east-northeast through Rogersville and the village of East View, crossing the South Fork of Ten Mile Creek numerous times before reaching the village of West Waynesburg.
At this point, Route 18 leaves the concurrency and turns northwest, traveling 12 miles to the county line, following along Browns Creek, passing through the villages of Rees Mill and Nineveh. Route 18 enters Washington County, intersects with the eastern terminus of PA Route 231 and turns to the northeast and traveling over 5 miles, passing near the villages of Old Concord and Sparta. Next, the route meets PA Route 221, the two overlap for just over a mile, heading northwest through the village of Prosperity. After the village, Route 18 leaves the concurrency and heads northward through the villages of Van Buren and Gabby Heights as it approaches the city of Washington nearly 10 miles later. In Washington, Route 18 overlaps with US 40, the routes head west, intersect with the western terminus of PA Route 136, turn northwest. US 40 leaves the concurrency, nearly a mile Route 18 interchanges with I-70, connecting via city streets to the entrance and exit ramps. Before departing the city, 0.4 miles the route intersects with the eastern terminus of PA Route 844, turns northward, passes through the village of Oak Grove.
Route 18 passes through the village of Gretna 8.5 miles and overlaps with PA Route 50 for 0.5 miles a couple miles west of the village of Hickory before continuing north-northwest. The route passes by the village of Atlasburg and through the village of Slovan before reaching the borough of Burgettstown 7.5 miles later. Route 18 meets US 22 nearly 4 miles north of the borough, passes through the village of Florence at Old US 22 before reaching the county line just over 3 miles later; the route enters the borough of Frankfort Springs as it enters Beaver County, meets the southern terminus of PA Route 168 at the north end of the borough. Passing through nearly 5 miles of state park land, Route 18 meets US 30 in the village of Harshaville; the route junctions with PA Route 151 at the village of Mechanicsburg about 1.5 miles and passes through the village of McCleary. As Route 18 approaches the Ohio River, it turns east-northeast before its first interchange with I-376 about 2 miles west of the borough of Monaca.
The route enters the borough, turns north-northwest, crosses the Ohio River on the Rochester-Monaca Bridge, enters the borough of Rochester. In Rochester, Route 18 intersects with the PA Route 51/PA Route 65 overlap, PA Route 68 before turning northwest, west north-northwest, it merges with PA Route 65 along the east bank of the Beaver River. The concurrency enters the borough of New Brighton, where Route 18 leaves the concurrency over 2 miles crosses the Beaver River, enters the city of Beaver Falls, continues northward 2 miles. Route 18 joins with PA Route 588, intersects with the southern terminus of PA Route 551 2 miles just before leaving the city and entering the borough of Big Beaver; the route passes through the borough of Homewood about 1.5 miles and re-enters Big Beaver, where it interchanges with I-76 and The Pennsylvania Turnpike. Route 18 passes through the borough of Koppel nearly 1.5 miles where it intersects with PA Route 351, re-enters Big Beaver a third time before leaving Beaver County 1.3 miles later.
As the route enters Lawrence County, it enters the borough of New Beaver. Route 18 turns northwestward, passes through the borough of Wampum 2 miles where it intersects with the western terminus of PA Route 288; the route re-enters New Beaver turns northward before its second intersection with PA Route 168 over 3.5 miles near the village of Moravia. Route 18 enters the city of New Castle nearly 4 miles as it crosses the Mahoning River, meets PA Route 108; the two join and turn east northeast through the village of Mahoningtown, situated between the Mahoning and Shenango rivers. The concurrency passes under US 422 about 0.8 miles before turning eastward and crossing the Shenango River. The concurrency intersects 1.3 miles with PA Route 168, the three routes overlap for 0.9 miles, heading northward. Routes 108 and 168 leave the concurrency, Route 18 continues northward; the route is joined with Business US 422 near downtown New Castle for nearly 0.5 miles. Business US 422 leaves westward and Route 18 continues northward out of the city.
Route 18 passes th
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol