Earl Kenneth Hines, universally known as Earl "Fatha" Hines, was an American jazz pianist and bandleader. He was one of the most influential figures in the development of jazz piano and, according to one major source, is "one of a small number of pianists whose playing shaped the history of jazz"; the trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie wrote, "The piano is the basis of modern harmony. This little guy came out of Earl Hines, he changed the style of the piano. You can find the roots of Herbie Hancock, all the guys who came after that. If it hadn't been for Earl Hines blazing the path for the next generation to come, it's no telling where or how they would be playing now. There were individual variations but the style of... the modern piano came from Earl Hines."The pianist Lennie Tristano said, "Earl Hines is the only one of us capable of creating real jazz and real swing when playing all alone." Horace Silver said, "He has a unique style. No one can get that sound, no other pianist". Erroll Garner said, "When you talk about greatness, you talk about Art Tatum and Earl Hines".
Count Basie said that Hines was "the greatest piano player in the world". Earl Hines was born in Duquesne, Pennsylvania, 12 miles from the center of Pittsburgh, in 1903, his father, Joseph Hines, played cornet and was the leader of the Eureka Brass Band in Pittsburgh, his stepmother was a church organist. Hines intended to follow his father on cornet, but "blowing" hurt him behind the ears, whereas the piano did not; the young Hines took lessons in playing classical piano. By the age of eleven he was playing the organ in his Baptist church, he had a "good ear and a good memory" and could replay songs after hearing them in theaters and park concerts: "I'd be playing songs from these shows months before the song copies came out. That astonished a lot of people and they'd ask where I heard these numbers and I'd tell them at the theatre where my parents had taken me." Hines said that he was playing piano around Pittsburgh "before the word'jazz' was invented". With his father's approval, Hines left home at the age of 17 to take a job playing piano with Lois Deppe and His Symphonian Serenaders in the Liederhaus, a Pittsburgh nightclub.
He got his board, two meals a day, $15 a week. Deppe, a well-known baritone concert artist who sang both classical and popular songs used the young Hines as his concert accompanist and took him on his concert trips to New York. In 1921 Hines and Deppe became the first African Americans to perform on radio. Hines's first recordings were accompanying Deppe – four sides recorded for Gennett Records in 1923, still in the early days of sound recording. Only two of these were issued, one of, a Hines composition, "Congaine", "a keen snappy foxtrot", which featured a solo by Hines, he entered the studio again with Deppe a month to record spirituals and popular songs, including "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child" and "For the Last Time Call Me Sweetheart". In 1925, after much family debate, Hines moved to Chicago, Illinois the world's jazz capital, the home of Jelly Roll Morton and King Oliver. Hines started in Elite No. 2 Club but soon joined Carroll Dickerson's band, with whom he toured on the Pantages Theatre Circuit to Los Angeles and back.
Hines met Louis Armstrong in the poolroom of the Black Musicians' Union, local 208, on State and 39th in Chicago. Hines was 21, Armstrong 24, they played the union's piano together. Armstrong was astounded by Hines's avant-garde "trumpet-style" piano playing using dazzlingly fast octaves so that on none-too-perfect upright pianos "they could hear me out front". Richard Cook wrote in Jazz Encyclopedia that most dramatic departure from what other pianists were playing was his approach to the underlying pulse: he would charge against the metre of the piece being played, accent off-beats, introduce sudden stops and brief silences. In other hands this might sound clumsy or all over the place but Hines could keep his bearings with uncanny resilience. Armstrong and Hines shared a car. Armstrong joined Hines in Carroll Dickerson's band at the Sunset Cafe. In 1927, this became Armstrong's band under the musical direction of Hines; that year, Armstrong revamped his Okeh Records recording-only band, Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five, hired Hines as the pianist, replacing his wife, Lil Hardin Armstrong, on the instrument.
Armstrong and Hines recorded what are regarded as some of the most important jazz records made.... with Earl Hines arriving on piano, Armstrong was approaching the stature of a concerto soloist, a role he would play more or less throughout the next decade, which makes these final small-group sessions something like a reluctant farewell to jazz's first golden age. Since Hines is magnificent on these discs the results seem like eavesdropping on great men speaking quietly among themselves. There is nothing in jazz finer or more moving than the playing on "West End Blues", "Tight Like This", "Beau Koo Jack" and "Muggles"; the Sunset Cafe closed in 1927. Hines and the drummer Zutty Singleton agreed that they would become the "Unholy Three" – they would "stick together and not play for anyone unless the three of us were hired", but as Louis Armstrong and His Stompers, they ran into difficulties trying to establish their own venue, the Warwick Hall Club. Hines went to New York and returned to find that Armstrong and Singleton had rejoined the rival Dickerson band at the new Savoy Ballro
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
David L. Lawrence Convention Center
The David L. Lawrence Convention Center is a 1,500,000-square-foot convention and exhibition building in downtown Pittsburgh in the U. S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It is served by two exits on Interstate 579; the initial David L. Lawrence Convention Center was completed on the site on February 7, 1981, but as part of a renewal plan the new redesigned center was opened in 2003 and funded in conjunction with nearby Heinz Field and PNC Park, it sits on the southern shoreline of the Allegheny River. It is one of the first in the world, it is owned by the Sports & Exhibition Authority of Allegheny County. In the early 1970s a site on the opposite side of Downtown Pittsburgh was considered for a modern convention center, on the shores of the Monongahela River. On September 20, 1971 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania failed to approve that location, site work began on the present site as the city and county submitted it to the commonwealth on December 10, 1974. There was a proposal in mid-1974 to locate the center at the transitioning Penn Station.
The center had its ceremonial groundbreaking on June 8, 1977. On February 7, 1981 the original $35 million structure opened with a ribbon cutting ceremony by Mayor Richard Caliguiri, County Commissioner Tom Foerster and Governor Dick Thornburgh. After the Commonwealth approved funding for the redesigned center on February 3, 1999 Rafael Viñoly Architects, P. C. was chosen as the designer for the modern center on February 28, 1999. Viñoly along with Dewhurst MacFarlane & Partners and Goldreich Engineering P. C. constructed the $354 million riverfront landmark to contain 313,400 sq ft of exhibit space, 76,500 sq ft of additional exhibit space, a 31,610 sq ft ballroom, 51 meeting rooms, two 250-seat lecture halls and telecommunications capabilities and 4,500 sq ft of retail space. The architect, Viñoly, began the design with a goal in mind of achieving the status of a "green" building. In 2003, the building was awarded Gold Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certification by the U. S. Green Building Council, making it the first such convention center in the U.
S. and the largest "green" building in the world. The current building replaced the former convention center of the same name, constructed in 1981; the old convention center lacked a ballroom. All of the old building was demolished to make way for the current structure, built on the same site; the building won the 2004 Supreme Award for structural engineering excellence from the Institution of Structural Engineers. The convention center is home to prominent conventions, such as Anthrocon, the Pittsburgh RV Show, Pittsburgh Boat Show, Pittsburgh Home and Garden Show and the acclaimed Pittsburgh International Auto Show; the center—though a structure of 2003 construction—chose to retain the name of the earlier convention center on the site completed in 1981 in honor of David Leo Lawrence. Lawrence was an American politician who served as the Democratic Governor of Pennsylvania from 1959 to 1963, only retiring because of the state's term limit of 1 per governor, he is to date the only mayor of Pittsburgh to be elected Governor of Pennsylvania.
He had been the longest tenured mayor of Pittsburgh and the primary force behind Pittsburgh's urban renewal projects including the Mellon Arena, Gateway Center, Fort Pitt Tunnel and Point State Park. He was Pennsylvania's first Catholic Governor, a major force in the national Democratic Party from the 1930s to the 1960s. Historians credit him with among other behind-the-scenes labors, leading a compromise at the 1944 National Democratic Convention that made Harry Truman president; as well as healing a divided national convention of 1960 that resulted in the John F. Kennedy/Lyndon B. Johnson ticket, it is for these reasons as well as his work in the state and the city that he was dubbed "kingmaker" by party leaders. On February 13, 1982 a Car Expo Mercury display featuring a 130 lb. Leesburg, Florida cougar named Tom Tom mauled a 9 year old Upper St. Clair boy before Pittsburgh Police officers shot the animal dead; the boy survived after being treated at Allegheny General Hospital for several days.
On February 12, 2002, less than two weeks before the scheduled opening of the new center, a 165-ton truss, under construction collapsed, killing one and injuring two workers. The truss was part of the second phase of construction, scheduled for opening in 2003, did not delay the February 23 opening of phase one. On February 5, 2007, a section of concrete floor from the second floor loading dock collapsed under the weight of a tractor-trailer and fell onto the water feature area below. There were no injuries; the building remained closed until investigations by the contractors were completed on March 9, the fault was repaired, the convention center reopened. June 8, 1977: Groundbreaking at 10th Street and Ft. Duquesne Way. February 7, 1981: Ribbon cutting ceremony by Mayor Richard Caliguiri, County Commissioner Tom Foerster and Governor Dick Thornburgh as the 9 day Premier Expo kicks off free to the public with exhibits from the consulates of China, Italy, Greece, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
HJ Heinz and Westinghouse bringing two interactive talking robots to their displays and US Steel and Alcoa hosting large exhibits. April 13, 1982: Rev. Jerry Falwell October 8–11, 1982: The Pit
Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
The Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh is the public library system in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Its main branch is located in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, it has 19 branch locations throughout the city. Like hundreds of other Carnegie libraries, the construction of the main library, which opened in 1895, several neighborhood branches, was funded by industrialist Andrew Carnegie; the Pittsburgh area holds the distinction of housing the first branches in the United States. The Pittsburgh Photographic Library is a photography repository held by the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh of over 50,000 prints and negatives relating to history of Pittsburgh; the City of Pittsburgh was home to eight Carnegie libraries constructed at the turn of the 20th century. In 1881, Andrew Carnegie offered a US$250,000 grant to the city for the construction of a public library on the condition that the city provided the land and annual funding for the maintenance of the property; the city declined Carnegie's initial offer out of concern that a publicly funded library was not a state-sanctioned use of public tax funds.
With the passing of several years and the state legislature's endorsement of the project, the city reconsidered the offer and reached out to Carnegie in the interest of accepting his grant. In 1890, the City of Pittsburgh accepted an expanded grant of $1 million for the building of the main library in Oakland and five branches in the neighborhoods of Lawrenceville, West End, Wylie Avenue, Mount Washington, Hazelwood. While the initial plan only called for those five branches, the Pittsburgh would go on to receive another three Carnegie libraries in the East Liberty, South Side, Homewood neighborhoods. Construction on the main library was finished in 1895 while the branch libraries were constructed over the following fifteen years, ending with the completion of the Homewood branch in 1910. Six of the original Carnegie library branch locations continue to serve as public libraries in their respective neighborhoods: Lawrenceville, West End, Mount Washington, South Side, Homewood; the East Liberty branch was demolished in the 1960s as part of a redevelopment plan, the Wylie Avenue branch was moved to a new location in 1982.
Allegheny Beechview Brookline Carrick Downtown and Business East Liberty Hazelwood Hill District Homewood Knoxville Lawrenceville Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped Main Mt. Washington Sheraden South Side Squirrel Hill West End Woods Run For decades the CLPgh has partnered with suburban area branches, in 2014 talks were started seeking innovative ways to combine some services; the Our Library, Our Future voter initiative was a campaign spearheaded by the library and community supporters to increase funding for the library by raising local property taxes. The voter initiative would raise the millage rate in the city of Pittsburgh by a quarter of a mill. On November 4, 2011, city voters voted in favor of the referendum by a 72% majority; the increase in taxes gives the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh an additional three million dollars a year. In 2018, it was reported that nearly 320 rare books, maps and other items were stolen from the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh's main branch in Oakland, which houses the system's rare book collection.
The items, which included a 1787 document signed by Thomas Jefferson, are valued at more than $8 million. In July 2018, a former library archivist and a Pittsburgh-area bookseller were charged with the thefts, which took place over a period of two decades, it is one of the largest rare-book theft cases in history. According to the criminal complaints detailing alleged scheme, the archivist said that he "often removed items from the Oliver Room at the library's main branch in Oakland by carrying individual plates maps in manila folders, or for books or larger items, by brazenly rolling them up and walking out." The archivist is alleged to have turned the rare items over to the bookseller, who would sell them through his store. Allegheny Regional Asset District Pennsylvania Library Association Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5434-6. Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Works by Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh at Internet Archive
Maxwell Lemuel Roach was an American jazz drummer and composer. A pioneer of bebop, he worked in many other styles of music, is considered alongside the most important drummers in history, he worked with many famous jazz musicians, including Coleman Hawkins, Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Miles Davis, Duke Ellington, Thelonious Monk, Abbey Lincoln, Dinah Washington, Charles Mingus, Billy Eckstine, Stan Getz, Sonny Rollins, Eric Dolphy, Booker Little. He was inducted into the DownBeat Hall of Fame in 1980 and the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 1992. Roach led his own groups, most notably a pioneering quintet co-led with trumpeter Clifford Brown and the percussion ensemble M'Boom, he made numerous musical statements relating to the civil rights movement. Max Roach was born to Alphonse and Cressie Roach in the Township of Newland, Pasquotank County, North Carolina, which borders the southern edge of the Great Dismal Swamp. Many confuse the Township of Newland with Newland Town in North Carolina.
Although his birth certificate lists his date of birth as January 10, 1924, Roach has been quoted by Phil Schaap as having stated that his family believed he was born on January 8, 1925. Roach's family moved to the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York when he was 4 years old, he grew up in his mother being a gospel singer. He started to play bugle in parade orchestras at a young age. At the age of 10, he was playing drums in some gospel bands. In 1942, as an 18-year-old graduated from Boys High School, he was called to fill in for Sonny Greer with the Duke Ellington Orchestra when they were performing at the Paramount Theater in Manhattan, he starting going to the jazz clubs on 52nd Street and at 78th Street & Broadway for Georgie Jay's Taproom, where he played with schoolmate Cecil Payne. His first professional recording took place in December 1943, he was one of the first drummers, along with Kenny Clarke. Roach performed in bands led by Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, Coleman Hawkins, Bud Powell, Miles Davis.
He played on many of Parker's most important records, including the Savoy Records November 1945 session, which marked a turning point in recorded jazz. His early brush work with Powell's trio at fast tempos, has been praised. Roach studied classical percussion at the Manhattan School of Music from 1950 to 1953, working toward a Bachelor of Music degree; the school awarded him an Honorary Doctorate in 1990. In 1952, Roach co-founded Debut Records with bassist Charles Mingus; the label released a record of a May 15, 1953 concert billed as "the greatest concert ever", which came to be known as Jazz at Massey Hall, featuring Parker, Powell and Roach. Released on this label was the groundbreaking bass-and-drum free improvisation, Percussion Discussion. In 1954, Roach and trumpeter Clifford Brown formed a quintet that featured tenor saxophonist Harold Land, pianist Richie Powell, bassist George Morrow. Land was replaced by Sonny Rollins; the group was a prime example of the hard bop style played by Art Blakey and Horace Silver.
Brown and Powell were killed in a car accident on the Pennsylvania Turnpike in June 1956. The first album Roach recorded after their deaths was Max Roach + 4. After Brown and Powell's deaths, Roach continued leading a configured group, with Kenny Dorham on trumpet, George Coleman on tenor, pianist Ray Bryant. Roach expanded the standard form of hard bop using 3/4 waltz rhythms and modality in 1957 with his album Jazz in 3/4 Time. During this period, Roach recorded a series of other albums for EmArcy Records featuring the brothers Stanley and Tommy Turrentine. In 1955, he played drums for vocalist Dinah Washington at recordings, he appeared with Washington at the Newport Jazz Festival in 1958, filmed, at the 1954 live studio audience recording of Dinah Jams, considered to be one of the best and most overlooked vocal jazz albums of its genre. In 1960 he composed and recorded the album We Insist!, with vocals by his then-wife Abbey Lincoln and lyrics by Oscar Brown Jr. after being invited to contribute to commemorations of the hundredth anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.
In 1962, he recorded a collaboration with Mingus and Duke Ellington. This is regarded as one of the finest trio albums recorded. During the 1970s, Roach formed a percussion orchestra; each member performed on multiple percussion instruments. Personnel included Fred King, Joe Chambers, Warren Smith, Freddie Waits, Roy Brooks, Omar Clay, Ray Mantilla, Francisco Mora, Eli Fountain. Long involved in jazz education, in 1972 Roach was recruited to the faculty of the University of Massachusetts Amherst by Chancellor Randolph Bromery, he taught at the university until the mid-1990s. In the early 1980s, Roach began presenting solo concerts, demonstrating that this multi-percussion instrument could fulfill the demands of solo performance and be satisfying to an audience, he created memorable compositions in these solo concert, a solo record was released by the Japanese jazz label Baystate. One of his solo concerts is available on video, which includes video of a recording date for Chattahoochee Red, featuring his working quartet, Odean Pope, Cecil Bridgewater, Calvin Hill.
Roach embarked on a series of duet recordings. Departing from the style he was best known for, most of the music on these recordings is free improvisation, created with Cecil
Pittsburgh Public Schools
Pittsburgh Public Schools is the public school district in Pittsburgh, United States and adjacent Mount Oliver. The combined land area of these municipalities is 58.3 square miles with a population of 342,503 according to the 2000 census. In March 2012, Linda Lane was named as the superintendent, she has a performance-based contract until Jan 2014. Lane served as Deputy Superintendent from 2006 until her promotion. In June 2016, Anthony Hamlet was confirmed as the new Superintendent after a month-long controversy over his credentials; the school district operates 54 schools with 3,900 full-time employees and serves 24,652 students with a 2016 General Fund Budget of $570.4 million, or $23,100/ student. Locations: Administration Building—341 S. Bellefield Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213—40.444716°N 79.950660°W / 40.444716. This act provided government aid for the establishment of a city school system which included the creation of four wards that were self-governed. Twenty years the wards were disbanded, the Central Board of Education was founded.
This board would govern the entire school district which would consist of nine wards or sub- districts. The first city superintendent of schools was elected in 1868. In 1911, the School Code of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania modified the existing system to include a Board of Public education that would oversee sixty-one sub-districts and two central boards; the Public School Code of 1949 further regulated the provisions and establishment of Pennsylvania state schools.. The following 2012-2013 rankings are based on mandatory Pennsylvania System of School Assessment testing of 11th grade students in reading and math. Only public high schools participate in PSSA testing. Taylor Allderdice High School: Ranked 382 out of 592 Pennsylvania Public High Schools Carrick High School: Ranked 492 out of 592 Pennsylvania Public High Schools Brashear High School: Ranked 521 out of 592 Pennsylvania Public High Schools Perry Traditional Academy HS: Ranked 557 out of 592 Pennsylvania Public High Schools Milliones University Prep HS: No test results listed Westinghouse High School: No test results listed The following City of Pittsburgh high schools serve the denoted City of Pittsburgh neighborhoods: Taylor Allderdice High School Glen Hazel, Hazelwood, Lincoln Place, East Hills, New Homestead, Park Place, Point Breeze, Squirrel Hill and Swisshelm Park.
Carrick High School Allentown, Arlington Heights, Bon Air, Overbrook, Mt. Oliver, Southside Slopes and St. Clair. Brashear High School Banksville, Brookline, Chartiers City, Crafton Heights, Duquesne Heights, East Carnegie, Esplen, Mount Washington, Ridgemont, South Shore, Southside Flats, West End and Windgap. Perry Traditional Academy High School Allegheny Center, Allegheny West, Brighton Heights, California-Kirkbride, Central Northside, East Allegheny, Manchester, Marshall-Shadeland, North Shore, Northview Heights, Perry North, Perry South, Spring Garden, Spring Hill-City View, Summer Hill and Troy Hill. Milliones University Preparatory High School Bedford Dwellings, Bluff, Central Business District, Central Lawrenceville, Crawford-Roberts, Garfield, Lower Lawrenceville, Middle Hill, Polish Hill, Stanton Heights, Strip District, Terrace Village, Upper Hill, Upper Lawrenceville and West Overland. Westinghouse High School East Hills, East Liberty, Highland Park, Homewood North, Homewood South, Homewood West, Lincoln-Lemington-Belmar and Point Breeze North.
As part of the final right-sizing plan approved by the Board in February 2006, eight of the poorer performing schools were transformed into Accelerated Learning Academies. The eight schools were: Arlington Accelerated Learning Academy, Colfax Accelerated Learning Academy, Fort Pitt Accelerated Learning Academy, Martin Luther King Accelerated Learning Academy, Murray Accelerated Learning Academy, Northview Accelerated Learning Academy, A. J. Rooney Accelerated Learning Academy, Weil Technology Accelerated Learning Academy; these schools were put on a longer school year calendar with 10 extra days, as well as a longer school day adding 45 minutes of instructional time. The ALAs use the America's Choice Design Model, developed by the National Center on Education and the Economy. In early 2006 the district contracted with Kaplan K12 Learning Services to develop a core curriculum for grades 6 through 12; the core curriculum will be phased in over the course of three years: during the 2006-7 school year the district will implement the new curriculum for English in grades 6–10 and Math in grades 6, 9 and 10.
Lesson plans and curriculum coaching will be provided to teachers, the students will undergo benchmark testing every 6 weeks to assess student progress. Each school will have curriculum coaches on-site to aid teachers and provide them with professional development; the Key Concepts presented in the curriculum will be aligned with the state standards tested for in the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment annual tests. In July, 2010, Bill Gates note
August Wilson was an American playwright whose work included a series of ten plays, The Pittsburgh Cycle, for which he received two Pulitzer Prizes for Drama. Each work in the series is set in a different decade, depicts comic and tragic aspects of the African-American experience in the 20th century. Wilson was born Frederick August Kittel Jr. in the Hill District of Pittsburgh, the fourth of six children. His father, Frederick August Kittel Sr. was a Sudeten German immigrant, a baker/pastry cook. His mother, Daisy Wilson, was an African-American woman from North Carolina who cleaned homes for a living. Wilson's anecdotal history reports that his maternal grandmother walked from North Carolina to Pennsylvania in search of a better life. Wilson's mother raised the children alone until he was five in a two-room apartment above a grocery store at 1727 Bedford Avenue. Wilson wrote under his mother's surname; the economically depressed neighborhood where he was raised was inhabited predominantly by black Americans and Jewish and Italian immigrants.
Wilson's mother divorced his father and married David Bedford in the 1950s, the family moved from the Hill District to the predominantly white working-class neighborhood of Hazelwood, where they encountered racial hostility. They were soon forced out on to their next home. In 1959, Wilson was one of fourteen African-American students at Central Catholic High School, from which he dropped out after one year, he attended Connelley Vocational High School, but found the curriculum unchallenging. He dropped out of Gladstone High School in the 10th grade in 1960 after his teacher accused him of plagiarizing a 20-page paper he wrote on Napoleon I of France. Wilson hid his decision from his mother. At the age of 16 he began working menial jobs, where he met a wide variety of people on whom some of his characters were based, such as Sam in The Janitor Wilson's extensive use of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh resulted in its "awarding" him an honorary high school diploma. Wilson, who said he had learned to read at the age of 4, began reading black writers at the library when he was 12 and spent the remainder of his teen years educating himself through the books of Ralph Ellison, Richard Wright, Langston Hughes, Arna Bontemps, others.
Wilson knew that he wanted to be a writer, but this created tension with his mother, who wanted him to become a lawyer. She forced him to leave the family home and he enlisted in the United States Army for a three-year stint in 1962, but left after one year and went back to working various odd jobs as a porter, short-order cook and dishwasher. Frederick August Kittel Jr. changed his name to August Wilson to honor his mother after his father's death in 1965. That same year, he discovered the blues as sung by Bessie Smith, he bought a stolen typewriter for $10, which he pawned when money was tight. At 20, he submitted work to such magazines as Harper's, he began to write in bars, the local cigar store, cafes—longhand on table napkins and on yellow notepads, absorbing the voices and characters around him. He liked to write on cafe napkins because, he said, it freed him up and made him less self-conscious as a writer, he would gather the notes and type them up at home. Gifted with a talent for catching dialect and accents, Wilson had an "astonishing memory", which he put to full use during his career.
He learned not to censor the language he heard when incorporating it into his work. Malcolm X's voice influenced Wilson's work. Both the Nation of Islam and the Black Power spoke to him regarding self-sufficiency, self-defense, self-determination, he appreciated the origin myths that Elijah Muhammad supported. In 1969 Wilson married Brenda Burton, a Muslim, converted to Islam, he and Brenda had one daughter, Sakina Ansari-Wilson, divorced in 1972. In 1968, he co-founded the Black Horizon Theater in the Hill District of Pittsburgh along with his friend Rob Penny. Wilson's first play, was performed for audiences in small theaters and public housing community centers for 50 cents a ticket. Among these early efforts was Jitney, which he revised more than two decades as part of his 10-play cycle on 20th-century Pittsburgh, he had no directing experience. He recalled: "Someone had looked around and said,'Who's going to be the director?' I said,'I will.' I said. So I went to look for a book on. I found one called The Fundamentals of Play Directing and checked it out."In 1976 Vernell Lillie, who had founded the Kuntu Repertory Theatre at the University of Pittsburgh two years earlier, directed Wilson's The Homecoming.
That same year Wilson saw Sizwe Banzi is Dead at the Pittsburgh Public Theater, his first professional play. Wilson and poet Maisha Baton started the Kuntu Writers Workshop to bring African-American writers together and to assist them in publication and production. Both organizations are still active. In 1978 Wilson moved to Saint Paul, Minnesota, at the suggestion of his friend, director Claude Purdy, who helped him secure a job writing educational scripts for the Science Museum of Minnesota. In 1980 he received a fellowship for The Playwrights' Center in Minneapolis, he continued writing plays. For three years, he was a part-time cook for the Little Brothers of the Poor. Wilson had a long association with the Penumbra Theatre Company of St. Paul, which premiered some of his plays, he wro