Borough of Rossendale
Rossendale is a district with borough status in Lancashire, holding a number of small former mill towns centred on the valley of the River Irwell in the industrial North West. Rossendale combines modest size urban development with rural villages and is south of the more populated town of Burnley, east of Blackburn and north of Bolton, Bury and Rochdale, centred 15 miles north of Manchester. In the 2001 census the population of Rossendale was 65,652, spread between the larger towns of Bacup and Rawtenstall; the population at the 2011 Census had risen to 67,922. The district was formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, from the municipal boroughs of Bacup, Rawtenstall, part of Ramsbottom Urban District and Whitworth Urban District. Rossendale is twinned with the German town of Bocholt, located close to the Netherlands border; the name "Rossendale" may refer geographically to Rossendale Valley, refers to the medieval Forest or "Chase" of Rossendale, which encompassed the same area as the modern district.
Rossendale is part of the Darwen constituency. Jake Berry MP has been the Member of Parliament for Rossendale and Darwen since 2010. All of Rossendale is unparished, except for Whitworth. Rossendale is part of the Forest of Rossendale, which consists of the steep-sided valleys of the River Irwell and its tributaries, which flow from the Pennines southwards to Manchester and cut through the moorland, characteristic of the area, it was given the designation of "forest" in medieval times denoting a hunting reserve. The larger settlements grew into market towns through the late Middle Ages. Farming and a cottage woollen industry developed during the reign of Henry VIII, but Rossendale's population only expanded during the period of the Industrial Revolution; the population was 16,033 in 1801. Its wet and damp climate are ideally suited to the development of watermills, to the mechanisation of the wool and cotton spinning and weaving industries in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the middle of the 19th century a felt industry developed, from this the manufacturing of slippers so that footwear became a major employer in the area.
The area became one of the cradles of the Industrial Revolution, was known as'The Golden Valley'. There was great hardship among working people during this time, but many fortunes were made among the mill-owning classes. There was large-scale immigration from Ireland to find work building the railways and in the mills, which led to several instances of serious civil disturbances between the two communities. Michael Davitt, the Irish republican leader was among these immigrants, settling in Haslingden, where he received his education after losing an arm at the age of 11 in a mill accident; the area is notable for its quarrying, Rossendale Flagstone was used throughout the country in the 19th century. The flagstones in Trafalgar Square in London were quarried in Rossendale. Upland farming is still carried out of sheep but of cattle; the history of Rossendale is well documented through the efforts of the historian Chris Aspin, a specialist on the textile industry, Derek Pilkington, whose efforts led to the preservation of Higher Mill in Helmshore, now Helmshore Mills Textile Museum.
The Whitworth Doctors were local surgeons and bone setters whose reputation spread far and wide, so that they treated patients from throughout the country, including Princess Elizabeth and the Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1819 William Hewitt described them as "the most remarkable men of their class that appeared in England". With the steady decline of the cotton industry Rossendale suffered from serious economic decline which has only halted, the area still has pockets of poverty. However, the opening of fast road connections with Manchester, allied to the attractiveness of the local countryside has meant that Rossendale has developed a sizeable commuter population. In its wake this is bringing some signs of economic revival, Rawtenstall in particular now houses a number of shops that sell niche fashion and luxury consumer goods alongside Asda and Tesco superstores. This, coupled with redevelopment plans to regenerate the Valley Precinct and bus depot, are intended to attract more businesses and visitors into Rossendale.
R. S. Ireland is based near Haslingden. Rawtenstall has Fitzpatricks Herbal Health, this is the last remaining functioning temperance bar in England, that makes and sells its own non-alcoholic drinks, such as sarsaparilla, black beers and blood tonic; the name Rossendale first appeared in 1292. A record of the name as Rocendal suggests Celtic ros "moor, heath", with Old Norse dalr "dale, valley", hence moor valley i.e. the valley of the River Irwell. The borough is linked by the motorway network to Manchester and Blackburn via the A56/M65 and M66 motorways. Bordering Greater Manchester southwards, it is 17.4 miles to Deansgate via the Edenfield by-pass and M66, with a journey time of around 30 minutes in a car. Alternatively the A56 route can be taken via Edenfield, Bury centre, Whitefield and Broughton. There was once a rail link south to Manchester via Bury, but this was closed in 1966 as part
Dave Pearson (painter)
David Samuel Pearson known as "Dave Pearson", was an English painter and educator, "a great example of an artist whose life was dedicated to serving the imagination". Prolific, throughout his life he produced a prodigious quantity of work. Dave Pearson was born in Clapton, London in 1937, his father, was a tailor and his mother Ann went on, in life, to become a prolific self-taught artist. Pearson was evacuated to Leicester at the age of 7, attended Parmiter's Grammar School in Bethnal Green, he went on to study painting at both Saint Martin's School of the Royal Academy Schools. In 1963 he began teaching at Preston School of Art but soon moved to Manchester School of Art where he remained until his retirement in 2002, he lived and kept a studio in Haslingden, Rossendale, as well as at Globe Arts in Rossendale. Although he exhibited, notably at the Bluecoat Gallery, Liverpool. In 1959 Dave Pearson exhibited as part of the Young Contemporaries exhibition in London, followed this with an exhibition Astronauts at the New Arts Centre.
Shortly after his move to Manchester his work was based on the work of Van Gogh, having been inspired by seeing Lust for Life. He filled his house and studio with larger-than-life installations, including The Potato Eaters and The Bedroom, he produced a series of nearly 400 drawings and paintings based on the Book of Revelation. By the 1980s he was working on another large series of drawings and paintings based on English Calendar Customs and a series based on the Abbots Bromley Horn Dance - In the Seven Woods. Inspired by the Yeats poem Sailing to Byzantium, throughout the 1990s Dave produced an enormous body of work and staged a series of ambitious one person shows in the north of England with paintings specially created to fit the dimensions of each space. At the Bede Gallery, where the space was not quite big enough, he covered the floor with mirrors so he could use every inch of the ceiling. Byzantium and Jerusalem Part One, in which he filled the Holden Gallery in Manchester quite floor to ceiling, followed in 1997, described as "reminiscent more of an ancient mediterranean orthodox monastery than what one expects to encounter in an art gallery".
As well as literary sources, other themes for his work have included Palmers Yard and the Jarrow March, war memorials, mediaeval bestiaries, ancient sites in Orkney and latterly his own illness and mortality. Throughout his life he continued to exhibit in the Europe. During his life he produced well over 13,000 pieces of work. Adrian Henri, in Environments and Happenings noted his obsessional quality, went on to describe Dave as "one of the most exciting new artists around"; the estate was inherited by Dave Pearson's son Christopher, who made over the artwork to a trust, the Dave Pearson Trust. The estate was returned to Christopher Pearson in 2018. For much of his working life Pearson was a lecturer, Senior Lecturer, in the Department of Fine Arts at Manchester Metropolitan University, 1964-2002; as an artist he was phenomenally productive and passionate, he encouraged and nurtured these qualities in his students throughout his long teaching career. As the painter Stuart Bradshaw commented "Dave the teacher was much less of a teacher than Dave the artist."
If Pearson was a great exemplar of what an artist is, he was no respecter of budgets, bureaucracy or limitations of any kind and was renowned for his ability to use a whole year's worth of course materials in a week-long project. The Dave Pearson Trust has rescued Pearson's studio in Haslingden, left on his death in a dilapidated and semi-ruined condition; the Trust is cataloging the enormous body of work, holding occasional exhibitions both at the restored studio and galleries, which has helped develop a wider interest in the artist. In September 2011 a film, To Byzantium, directed by the film-maker Derek Smith, was released that shows a group of friends rescuing the artist's work and describing the development of his work. In November 2010 the film was shown in the UK on the Community Channel, submitted to the New York Film Festivals World's Best Television and film, the Sheffield Documentary Festival; as a result of this, the involvement of the critic and poet, Edward Lucie-Smith, there was a large exhibition of Pearson's work at the Bermondsey Project gallery in London, in April/May 2012.
Several other exhibitions have followed from this, another large-scale exhibition at the Turnpike Gallery, Leigh, in Summer 2018 that showed work hung in the same space in 1994. Official website An Artist's Estate.
North West Ambulance Service
The North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the ambulance service for North West England. It is one of 10 Ambulance Trusts providing England with Emergency medical services, is part of the National Health Service, receiving direct government funding for its role. NWAS was formed on 1 July 2006, it was created by the merge of 4 previous services as part of Health Minister Lord Warner's plans to combine ambulance services. Based in Bolton, the new Trust provides services to 7 million people in Greater Manchester, Merseyside, Lancashire and the North Western fringes of the High Peak district of Derbyshire in an area of some 5,500 square miles. There is no charge to patients for use of the service, under the Patient's charter, every person in the United Kingdom has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency. NWAS provides emergency ambulance response via the 999 system, as well as operating the NHS 111 advice service for North West England, they operate non-emergency patient transport services, in 2013/2014 carried out 1.2 million such journeys.
Since 2016, the PTS in Cheshire and Wirral has instead been carried out by West Midlands Ambulance Service. NWAS utilise a mixed fleet of emergency ambulances based on the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter or Fiat Ducato, the former consisting of a demountable box body on a chassis, the latter a van conversion; the Trust uses Skoda Octavia estates as the main Rapid response car although since 2017 begun using BMW i3 electric cars and use Renault Masters for Intermediate, Urgent care and Patient Transport vehicles. In Central Manchester, some paramedics respond on specially converted bicycles; the Trust operates from 104 ambulance stations across the North West. The most northerly station is at Carlisle, the furthest south is at Crewe, it maintains three Emergency Operations Centres for the handling of 999 calls and dispatch of emergency ambulances. Parkway Anfield Preston In 2017, NWAS signed an agreement to purchase a new EOC and area office for £2.9m at Liverpool International Business Park next to Liverpool John Lennon Airport As of 2019, this building has been converted and services are being moved from the Anfield site.
Over recent years, the Trust has combined many of their older ambulance stations into purpose-built facilities shared with other emergency services, including Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue, Lancashire Fire and Rescue and Greater Manchester Police. NWAS was the first ambulance trust to be inspected by the Care Quality Commission, in August 2014; the Commission found the trust provided safe and effective services which were well-led and with a clear focus on quality but it was criticised for taking too many callers to hospital and for sending ambulances when other responses would have been more appropriate. The Trust was subsequently inspected in 2018 and was found to have improved with a rating of "Good" Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom Healthcare in Greater Manchester North West Air Ambulance List of NHS trusts NWAS Website
Rawtenstall is a town at the centre of the Rossendale Valley in Lancashire, with a population of 22,000. It is the seat for the borough of Rossendale; the town lies 17.4 miles north of Manchester, 22 miles east of Preston and 45 miles south east of the county town of Lancaster. Nearby towns include Bacup and Ramsbottom; the name Rawtenstall has been given two possible interpretations. The older is a combination of the Middle English routen, from the Old Norse rauta and the Old English stall'pool in a river'; the second, more recent one, relates to Rawtenstall's identification as a cattle farm in 1324 and combines the Old English ruh'rough' and tun-stall'the site of a farm', or possibly,'buildings occupied when cattle were pastured on high ground'. The earliest settlement at Rawtenstall was in the early Middle Ages, during the time when it formed part of the Rossendale Valley in the Honour of Clitheroe, consisted of simple dwellings for forest servants and animals. More substantial buildings may have followed in the 15th and 16th centuries with corn and flour mills.
The town entered a major period of growth during the Industrial Revolution, as new mills were constructed to process cotton. The climate and weather were conducive to the industry, as was the town's nearby location to the developing industrial and mercantile centre at Manchester, dubbed'Cottonopolis'. Only a few of these mills survive today, none are still operational. During this period, the brothers Thomas and Peter Whitehead became important entrepreneurs in the town, they built a number of mills, including one of the earliest mills in the valley, at Lower Mill, the still existing Ilex Mill. They built substantial houses for themselves at Holly Mount, as well as large numbers of terraced houses for their workers; the population of Rawtenstall quadrupled in the first half of the 19th century and would double again in the second half. Other industries active in this period included quarrying and small scale coal mining, as well as an expanding commercial sector; as with many small mid-Lancashire towns, it saw a population decline in the 20th century, going from 30,000 inhabitants in the 1911 census to 21,500 in the 1971 census.
With the decline of the traditional manufacturing industries, shoemaking became one of the last survivors. The firm of H. W. Tricketts, in nearby Waterfoot, had been a major producer and exporter of footwear across the British Empire, but the last shoemaking firms closed as production moved overseas. A local board was formed for the town in 1874 and the district it governed was extended to cover parts of the townships of Lower Booths, Higher Booths and Haslingden in the ancient parish of Whalley and Cowpe, Newhall Hey and Hall Carr, part of Tottington in the ancient parish of Bury. Subsequently, Rawtenstall was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1891 and in 1894 a civil parish was created to match the borders of the borough. Following the local government reorganisation in 1974 Rawtenstall became part of the Borough of Rossendale. Rawtenstall is part of the Rossendale and Darwen constituency, after the constituency of Rossendale was abolished in 1983; the constituency sends one member of parliament to the House of Commons.
As of May 2013, both Lancashire County Council and the local council, Rossendale Borough Council, are controlled by the Labour Party. Jake Berry MP has been the Member of Parliament for Rossendale and Darwen since 2010, its neighbouring communities in the valley are Bacup and Ramsbottom. The area is bounded to the north by Loveclough and Whitewell Bottom, to the east by Waterfoot and Cowpe and to the south by Townsend Fold and Horncliffe; the River Irwell passes through the town on the first part of its route between Bacup and Manchester, collecting Limy Water close to the junction of Bury Road with Bocholt Way. Over recent years the area has become popular with visitors, attracted by historic buildings, dramatic landscapes and fine walking country. Like most of the United Kingdom, Rawtenstall has an oceanic climate; the town is served locally by Rosso, with a large bus station close to the centre, as well as frequent express services X43 to Burnley and Manchester run by Burnley Bus Company. The town has had bus routes since the early 1930s.
Lancashire and Rossendale are planning to replace the station with a modern bus interchange. In 2007 a proposal to demolish the station and build a Lidl store on the site was considered; the new Lidl store was completed in 2009. Rawtenstall railway station serves the town, but since the closure of the main line to Manchester, it now operates as a tourist route, as part of the East Lancashire Railway, of which Rawtenstall station forms the northern terminus; the M66 motorway from Manchester is linked to Rawtenstall via the A56 bypass, allowing for a driving time between Manchester and Rawtenstall of around half an hour. The town has a number of primary and secondary schools, including Bellmont School, St Paul's C of E Primary, Cloughfold Primary School, Leabrook School, Alder Grange Community and Technology School and All Saints' Catholic High School. Though located in Waterfoot, rather than Rawtenstall, the traditional grammar school and Rawtenstall Grammar School takes part of its name from the town.
Rawtenstall has a public library, built in 1906 with Carnegie funding. The Rossendale Valley's local newspaper, the Rossendale Free Press was based in Rawtenstall, before being bought out by the Manchester Evening News in 2009 and subsequently moving to Manchester. Rawtenstall has one of the largest indoor markets in Rossendale (a sign
Ray Lowry was an English cartoonist and satirist, possessing a distinctive style and wit. He contributed to The Guardian, Private Eye, Tatler, NME among many other publications. In his years he lived in Rossendale, Lancashire. Lowry was born the son of a bricklayer in Cadishead and attended Urmston Grammar School, he worked in Manchester and London, although he had no formal art education, he became known as a cartoonist during the 1970s. It was less well known that he was a painter of urban landscapes, following in the footsteps of his unrelated namesake L. S. Lowry. Ray Lowry drew cartoons for a wide range of publications. With the emergence of the underground press in the 1960s his work was published in Oz and International Times, which led to a long and better-paid relationship with the New Musical Express, including a weekly cartoon strip, "Only Rock'n'Roll". Lowry's love of raw rock and roll was the perfect complement to the new punk mentality that emerged in the late 1970s, he saw the Sex Pistols' on their Anarchy tour at the Electric Circus in Manchester and there he met The Clash.
He struck up a friendship with the members of the band, which led to an invitation to accompany them on their tour of the United States in 1979. From this he created the artwork for the sleeve of their album London Calling, using a photograph by Pennie Smith. During the 1980s Lowry was a regular contributor to The Guardian, he continued to create memorable art. And remained obsessed by rock and roll. Near the end of his life he produced a long series of colour images inspired by the tour of the UK by the American rockers Eddie Cochran and Gene Vincent. Lowry moved to Rossendale in Lancashire. Although he no longer worked for periodicals, he never stopped drawing. Near the end of his life he was taken up by the See Gallery in Rossendale. An exhibition at the See in 2008 proved successful and he began to plan new schemes, including paintings inspired by the novel Under the Volcano, by another unrelated namesake, Malcolm Lowry. After years of ill health Ray Lowry died at the age of 64 and was found at his home in Waterfoot, Lancashire, on the morning of 14 October 2008.
The Ray Lowry Foundation was set up in 2009 by Lowry's son and Julian Williams and Jackie Taylor of the See Gallery. The aim of the Foundation is to ensure that his work will be remembered and appreciated, to create a fund in his name that will provide financial assistance and mentorship to individuals and art projects; this will include providing a scholarship to a student studying a course in art for a higher degree and making financial awards linked to individual art projects. The Foundation has helped with placing Lowry's work as part of an exhibition about Malcolm Lowryat the BlueCoat Gallery, a major public exhibition of Ray Lowry's own work at the Salford Gallery and Museum in December 2009. A major exhibition was planned for Leeds in 2010. A retrospective of Ray Lowry's work was held at the Idea Generation Gallery, from 18 June to 4 July 2010 in aid of The Ray Lowry Foundation; as part of the exhibition Tracey Emin, Nick Hornby, Billy Childish, Harry Hill, Paul Simonon, Humphrey Ocean and 23 others produced reinterpretations of Ray Lowry's sleeve for London Calling in aid of the Foundation.
Collections of his workOnly Rock'n' Roll 1980 ISBN 0-86104-320-0 This Space to Let 1986 ISBN 0-349-12208-3 Ink 1998 ISBN 1-899344-21-7As an illustratorThe Penguin Book of Rock and Roll Writing 1992 ISBN 0-14-016836-2 Rock Talk 1994 ISBN 1-899344-00-4 Funny Talk 1995 ISBN 1-899344-01-2 A Riot of our Own: Night and Day with The "Clash" 1997 ISBN 0-575-40080-3
Lancashire Fire and Rescue Service
The Lancashire Fire and Rescue Service is the county-wide, statutory emergency fire and rescue service for the Shire county of Lancashire and includes the unitary authorities of Blackpool and Blackburn with Darwen. Lancashire Fire & Rescue Service is made up of 6 Area Commands as follows: Northern, Eastern, Western and Pennine. Within these areas there are 18 wholetime, 17 retained and 4 day crewed stations providing Lancashire with 24hr fire cover. Water Rescue Ladder: P1/P2 Light 4x4 Vehicle: M1 Aerial Ladder Platform: A2 Multi Purpose Vehicle: M1 Multi Purpose Vehicle + Inshore Rescue Boat: T2 Flatbed Vehicle + Softrack Vehicle: T1 Command Support Unit: C1 Prime Mover + Environmental Protection Unit: T9 Prime Mover + Breathing Apparatus Support Unit: T2 Prime Mover + Bulk Foam Unit: T1/T2 Prime Mover + Major Incident Support Unit: T1 Prime Mover + High Volume Pumping: T8 Prime Mover + High Volume Hose Layer: Water Tower CBRN Response: Incident Response Unit: H9 Urban Search and Rescue: Line Rescue Unit: R1/R2 Search & Rescue Dog Unit: R9 Prime Movers: T6/T7/T8USAR Pods: Module 1 - Technical Search Equipment Module 2 - Heavy Transport, Confined Space & Hot Cutting Module 3 - Breaching & Breaking Equipment Module 4 - Multi Purpose Vehicle Module 5 - Shoring Operations Fire service in the United Kingdom Lancashire Constabulary GRIP List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Official Website
Helmshore is a village in the Rossendale Valley, England, south of Haslingden between the A56 and the B6235, 16 miles north of Manchester. The population at the 2011 census was 5,805; the area around Helmshore is moorland. Post-Ice Age this would have been forested, bog oak can still be found on the flat peatland tops over 250 metres high; the forest declined in the Neolithic period, disappeared during the Bronze Age as a result of climatic change although hastened by human activity. There is some evidence of human habitation in the area during the Neolithic period: stone implements found on Bull Hill and in the Musbury valley, the stones at Thirteen Stone Hill near Grane, there are a complex network of both local and long-distance old tracks crossing the area; the village is dominated by the spectacular flat-topped Musbury Tor, once the centre of the medieval hunting park, or Forest. Either side of the Tor are two valleys: Alden valley in the south-west and Musbury valley to the north-west. The'whole land of Musbury' was granted to John de Lacy by Lewis de Bernavill.
A licence for a'free warren' was granted to the Earl of Lincoln in 1294. Work on fencing the Park was completed by 1304–05, with palings being erected; the park, with its'herbage and agistments' was said to be worth 13s. 4d. in 1311. In 1329 and 1330 it is described as'Queen Isabel's park of Musbury', fines were being applied for trespass to, among others, the rector of Bury. Stretches of the ditch enclosure are visible at Grane and Alden valleys, deer are still seen in the area. There are several current placenames identifying the Park. One of the main early tracks that passed through Helmshore was a route from the south on Holcombe Moor, goes through Haslingden on its way to Whalley; this connected with Watling Street at Affetside, a well-established way from Bolton to Rossendale. In Anglo-Saxon times, Whalley church was an important Minster and the mother church of an enormous parish. In the medieval period, several chapels-of-ease were attached to Whalley church for the'ease' of the scattered population providing access to the Mass and the sacraments.
After the move made by the Cistercian monks of Stanlow to Whalley at the end of the 13th century, traffic would have increased along this route. To the south on the old pilgrim road is Robin Hood's Well, above, a cairn and memorial stone in memory of Ellen Strange believed to be a young girl murdered by her lover – an event recorded in a Victorian ballad by John Fawcett Skelton but now known to be a murder of a wife by a husband in 1761 that has become replaced by a colourful, but fictional, story; the ballad was commemorated by Bob Frith and the Horse and Bamboo Theatre group by an event at the site in June 1978. The memorial stone depicts the murdered woman; these routes fell into disuse for anything other than foot traffic after the turnpike improvements of the 19th century. Helmshore owes its development to a damp climate, ideally suited to the development of the wool and linen industries. During the early part of the Industrial Revolution, from the 1790s on, small mills were built on the river valleys, such as Alden Valley where there are still ruins, close to the farming areas – indeed most mill-owners were farmers.
But by the latter half of the 19th century these mills became redundant and industry expanded enormously as mill owners such as the Turner family built terraced dwellings to house the workforce necessary to run their cotton mills close to the roads and railways. During this period Helmshore superseded Musbury as the main name for the community. Helmshore became a mill workers' settlement, comprising an extensive area of woollen and cotton mills and associated workers' housing built along the valley of the River Ogden; the Turner family, whose tan pits and Hollin Bank mills were built as water-powered mills in the early 19th century, first established the settlement. The surviving mills converted to cotton production; the area expanded with the opening of the railway in 1848, includes the Station Hotel and St Thomas's Church. The housing is mixed, with some two-up, two-down terraces, top-and-bottom houses and a few surviving back-to-back cottages. There was a major railway accident in Helmshore in September 1860.
There were eleven lives lost and 77 people were injured. The accident happened on the line between Snig Hole and the Ogden Viaduct, both local beauty spots, 400 yards from Helmshore station. About 3,000 people had gone from East Lancashire on three excursion trains to Salford to visit the attractions at Belle Vue Gardens; the second train with about 1,000 passengers and 31 carriages got to Helmshore Station where it stopped to let out some passengers. "When the guard released the brakes there was a jerk and 16 carriages broke away from the train and started sliding down the line between Helmshore and Ramsbottom. Mr Shaw, the superintendent, saw what had happened and unhooked the engine from the train in order to go down the other line to warn the third train, but he was too late; the carriages had run 400 yards down the line and collided with the oncoming train." On 25 September 1916 a 179m-long German military Zeppelin airship flew over Helmshore on a bombing mission. It was following the railway, attempting to inflict damage on the transport system.
One bomb dropped near Clod Lane, where there was a gun cotton factory. Ewood Bridge station was destroyed by bombs and, after passing over Helmshore, the Zeppelin flew on to Holcombe where it did further damage; the railway that ran through Helmshore