Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. is an American film studio, production company and film distributor, a member of the Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group, a division of Sony Entertainment's Sony Pictures subsidiary of the Japanese multinational conglomerate Sony Corporation. What would become Columbia Pictures, CBC Film Sales Corporation, was founded on June 19, 1918 by Harry Cohn, his brother Jack Cohn, Joe Brandt, it went public two years later. In its early years, it was a minor player in Hollywood, but began to grow in the late 1920s, spurred by a successful association with director Frank Capra. With Capra and others, Columbia became one of the primary homes of the screwball comedy. In the 1930s, Columbia's major contract stars were Cary Grant. In the 1940s, Rita Hayworth became the studio's premier star and propelled their fortunes into the late 1950s. Rosalind Russell, Glenn Ford, William Holden became major stars at the studio, it is one of the leading film studios in the world and is a member of the "Big Five" major American film studios.
It was one of the so-called "Little Three" among the eight major film studios of Hollywood's Golden Age. Today, it has become the world's fifth largest major film studio; the studio was founded on June 19, 1918 as Cohn-Brandt-Cohn Film Sales by brothers Jack and Harry Cohn and Jack's best friend Joe Brandt, released its first feature film in August 1922. Brandt was president of CBC Film Sales, handling sales and distribution from New York along with Jack Cohn, while Harry Cohn ran production in Hollywood; the studio's early productions were low-budget short subjects: "Screen Snapshots", the "Hall Room Boys", the Chaplin imitator Billy West. The start-up CBC leased space in a Poverty Row studio on Hollywood's famously low-rent Gower Street. Among Hollywood's elite, the studio's small-time reputation led some to joke that "CBC" stood for "Corned Beef and Cabbage". Brandt tired of dealing with the Cohn brothers, in 1932 sold his one-third stake to Harry Cohn, who took over as president. In an effort to improve its image, the Cohn brothers renamed the company Columbia Pictures Corporation on January 10, 1924.
Cohn remained head of production as well. He would run one of the longest tenures of any studio chief. In an industry rife with nepotism, Columbia was notorious for having a number of Harry and Jack's relatives in high positions. Humorist Robert Benchley called it the Pine Tree Studio, "because it has so many Cohns". Columbia's product line consisted of moderately budgeted features and short subjects including comedies, sports films, various serials, cartoons. Columbia moved into the production of higher-budget fare joining the second tier of Hollywood studios along with United Artists and Universal. Like United Artists and Universal, Columbia was a horizontally integrated company, it controlled distribution. Helping Columbia's climb was the arrival of Frank Capra. Between 1927 and 1939, Capra pushed Cohn for better material and bigger budgets. A string of hits he directed in the early and mid 1930s solidified Columbia's status as a major studio. In particular, It Happened; until Columbia's existence had depended on theater owners willing to take its films, since as mentioned above it didn't have a theater network of its own.
Other Capra-directed hits followed, including the original version of Lost Horizon, with Ronald Colman, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, which made James Stewart a major star. In 1933, Columbia hired Robert Kalloch to be women's costume designer, he was the first contract costume designer hired by the studio, he established the studio's wardrobe department. Kalloch's employment, in turn, convinced leading actresses that Columbia Pictures intended to invest in their careers. In 1938, the addition of B. B. Kahane as Vice President would produce Charles Vidor's Those High Gray Walls, The Lady in Question, the first joint film of Rita Hayworth and Glenn Ford. Kahane would become the President of Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1959, until his death a year later. Columbia could not afford to keep a huge roster of contract stars, so Cohn borrowed them from other studios. At Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the industry's most prestigious studio, Columbia was nicknamed "Siberia", as Louis B. Mayer would use the loan out to Columbia as a way to punish his less-obedient signings.
In the 1930s, Columbia signed Jean Arthur to a long-term contract, after The Whole Town's Talking, Arthur became a major comedy star. Ann Sothern's career was launched when Columbia signed her to a contract in 1936. Cary Grant signed a contract in 1937 and soon after it was altered to a non-exclusive contract shared with RKO. Many theaters relied on westerns to attract big weekend audiences, Columbia always recognized this market, its first cowboy star was Buck Jones, who signed with Columbia in 1930 for a fraction of his former big-studio salary. Over the next two decades Columbia released scores of outdoor adventures with Jones, Tim McCoy, Ken Maynard, Jack Luden, Bob Allen, Russell Hayden, Tex Ritter, Ken Curtis, Gene Autry. Columbia's most popular cowboy was Charles Starrett, who signed with Columbia in 193
Noah Nicholas Emmerich is an American film actor, best known for his roles in films such as Beautiful Girls, The Truman Show, Miracle, Little Children and Super 8. From 2013 to 2018 he starred as FBI Agent Stan Beeman on the FX series The Americans for which he won the Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Drama Series in 2019. Emmerich was born youngest of three boys on February 27, 1965, in New York City, New York, to a Jewish family, his mother, Constance, is a concert pianist. Noah has two brothers: Toby Emmerich and Chief Operating Officer at New Line Cinema, as well as a screenwriter. Noah Emmerich learned to play the trumpet as a youth, he studied the Meisner technique of acting under Ron Stetston, an actor/director, senior member of the acting staff at the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York City. He is a graduate of Yale University, he sang in the "Yale Spizzwinks" an a cappella singing group. Emmerich starred in the film Beautiful Girls, his first starring role and earned him positive reviews from audiences and critics.
He went on to have supporting roles in such movies as The Truman Show and Frequency. In the 2000s, Emmerich began to star in more dramatic films, such as Julie Johnson, Beyond Borders, Little Children and Glory and many more, he played the main antagonist, Colonel Nelec, in J. J. Abrams's film Super 8, which earned positive reviews from critics and was a box office success. Most notably, he played as assistant coach Craig Patrick in the 2004 film Miracle. In 2016, Emmerich portrayed. Emmerich started his career doing guest roles in television series such as NYPD Blue and Melrose Place. Beginning in the 2000s Emmerich began to portray more prominent guest roles on television series such as Monk, White Collar and The Walking Dead, which earned him a Saturn Award nomination, his most notable role in a television series is as FBI Agent Stan Beeman on the FX series The Americans. The series has earned positive reviews from critics and Emmerich earned a Critic's Choice Award nomination for his performance.
The series has been renewed for a final season. Emmerich made his directorial debut on the season 3 episode of the series, entitled "Walter Taffet", he again directed episode 5 of season four. Emmerich was married to actress Melissa Fitzgerald from 1998 to 2003. On April 26, 2014, Emmerich married actress and producer Mary Regency Boies at the Gramercy Park Hotel in New York, he lives in Greenwich Village in New York City. Despite frequent speculation, Noah Emmerich is not related to the director Roland Emmerich. Noah Emmerich on IMDb Slate's podcast interview with Noah
Golden Gate Bridge
The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the one-mile-wide strait connecting San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. The structure links the American city of San Francisco, California – the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula – to Marin County, carrying both U. S. Route 101 and California State Route 1 across the strait; the bridge is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco and the United States. It has been declared one of the Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers; the Frommer's travel guide describes the Golden Gate Bridge as "possibly the most beautiful the most photographed, bridge in the world." At the time of its opening in 1937, it was both the longest and the tallest suspension bridge in the world, with a main span of 4,200 feet and a total height of 746 feet. Before the bridge was built, the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay.
A ferry service began as early as 1820, with a scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for the purpose of transporting water to San Francisco. The Sausalito Land and Ferry Company service, launched in 1867 became the Golden Gate Ferry Company, a Southern Pacific Railroad subsidiary, the largest ferry operation in the world by the late 1920s. Once for railroad passengers and customers only, Southern Pacific's automobile ferries became profitable and important to the regional economy; the ferry crossing between the Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco and Sausalito in Marin County took 20 minutes and cost $1.00 per vehicle, a price reduced to compete with the new bridge. The trip from the San Francisco Ferry Building took 27 minutes. Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Marin County. San Francisco was the largest American city still served by ferry boats; because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay, the city's growth rate was below the national average.
Many experts said that a bridge could not be built across the 6,700-foot strait, which had strong, swirling tides and currents, with water 372 ft deep at the center of the channel, frequent strong winds. Experts said that ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent operation. Although the idea of a bridge spanning the Golden Gate was not new, the proposal that took hold was made in a 1916 San Francisco Bulletin article by former engineering student James Wilkins. San Francisco's City Engineer estimated the cost at $100 million, impractical for the time, he asked bridge engineers. One who responded, Joseph Strauss, was an ambitious engineer and poet who had, for his graduate thesis, designed a 55-mile-long railroad bridge across the Bering Strait. At the time, Strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges—most of which were inland—and nothing on the scale of the new project. Strauss's initial drawings were for a massive cantilever on each side of the strait, connected by a central suspension segment, which Strauss promised could be built for $17 million.
Local authorities agreed to proceed only on the assurance that Strauss would alter the design and accept input from several consulting project experts. A suspension-bridge design was considered the most practical, because of recent advances in metallurgy. Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California; the bridge faced opposition, including litigation, from many sources. The Department of War was concerned; the navy feared that a ship collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of its main harbors. Unions demanded guarantees. Southern Pacific Railroad, one of the most powerful business interests in California, opposed the bridge as competition to its ferry fleet and filed a lawsuit against the project, leading to a mass boycott of the ferry service. In May 1924, Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the Bridge on behalf of the Secretary of War in a request to use federal land for construction. Deakyne, on behalf of the Secretary of War, approved the transfer of land needed for the bridge structure and leading roads to the "Bridging the Golden Gate Association" and both San Francisco County and Marin County, pending further bridge plans by Strauss.
Another ally was the fledgling automobile industry, which supported the development of roads and bridges to increase demand for automobiles. The bridge's name was first used when the project was discussed in 1917 by M. M. O'Shaughnessy, city engineer of San Francisco, Strauss; the name became official with the passage of the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District Act by the state legislature in 1923, creating a special district to design and finance the bridge. San Francisco and most of the counties along the North Coast of California joined the Golden Gate Bridge District, with the exception being Humboldt County, whose residents opposed the bridge's construction and the traffic it would generate. Strauss was chief engineer in charge of overall construction of the bridge project. However, because he had little understanding or experience with cable-suspension designs, responsibility for much of the engineering and architecture fell on other experts. Strauss's initial design proposal was unacceptable from a visual standpoint.
The final graceful suspension design was conceived and championed by Leon Moisseiff, the engineer of the Manhattan Bri
Lucas York Black is an American film and television actor. He is best known for his roles in the CBS television series American Gothic as well as roles in films such as Sling Blade, Crazy in Alabama, All the Pretty Horses, Friday Night Lights, The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift, Get Low and Seven Days in Utopia. Since September 2014, he has played Special Agent Christopher LaSalle on CBS' NCIS: New Orleans. Black was born in Decatur, Alabama, to Jan Gillespie, an office worker, Larry Black, a museum employee, he was raised a Southern Baptist. He grew up in Speake, played football for the Speake Bobcats, graduated from high school in May 2001. Black made his film debut in Kevin Costner's film The War, he subsequently was cast as Caleb Temple in CBS' television series American Gothic, which ran from 1995 to 1996, in the films Sling Blade, Ghosts of Mississippi, The X-Files. Black starred as Conner Strong in the TV film Flash, which aired on The Wonderful World of Disney. Black played a supporting role as Oakley in the historical drama Cold Mountain.
In 2004, he starred as Vernon, an autistic piano prodigy, in the indie musical drama Killer Diller, as Mike Winchell in the football-themed drama Friday Night Lights, directed by Peter Berg. Black starred as Nat Banyon in the indie thriller film Deepwater, directed by David S. Marfield, he described the latter film as the one in which he "had the most fun". Black starred, he portrayed the Brooklyn Dodgers shortstop Pee Wee Reese in the drama film 42. Black, having done previous sports films and played sports early in his life, found the filming experience "a lot more enjoyable because you get to reminisce about the days when I used to play, you get the experience of being on a team again with the actors and have that camaraderie with the players". In 2014, Lucas was cast in NCIS: New Orleans as a NCIS Special Agent Lasalle, a no-nonsense agent with a "work hard, play hard" motto. In 2015, Black returned to play Sean Boswell in Furious 7 making a cameo. In 2016, it was rumored that Lucas Black will return to play Sean Boswell in The Fate of the Furious but did not appear in the eighth installment.
In July 2016, Black had declared that in the Chris Mannix show he could not return to the franchise from the eighth installment due to his hard schedule with NCIS: New Orleans. Black married Maggie O'Brien, a lawyer, in 2010, they have three children. Lucas Black on IMDb Lucas Black at AllMovie
Richard Schiff is an American actor and comedian. He is best known for playing Toby Ziegler on The West Wing, a role for which he received an Emmy Award. Schiff made his directorial debut with The West Wing, directing an episode entitled "Talking Points", he is on the National Advisory Board of the Council for a Livable World. He has a recurring role on the HBO series Ballers. Since September 2017, he has had a leading role in ABC's medical drama The Good Doctor, as Dr. Glassman, president of a fictional teaching hospital in San Jose, California. Schiff was born on May 27, 1955, in Bethesda and was raised there, the second of three sons of Charlotte, a television and publishing executive, Edward Schiff, a real estate lawyer. Schiff dropped out of high school, but obtained an equivalency diploma. In 1973, he studied at The City College of New York but did not graduate, he moved to Colorado. Returning to New York in 1975, he began to study acting at CCNY and was accepted into their theater program.
Schiff and his family are Jewish. Schiff studied directing, he directed several off-Broadway plays, including Antigone in 1983 with a just-graduated Angela Bassett. In the mid-1980s Schiff landed several TV roles, he was seen by Steven Spielberg in an episode of the TV drama High Incident and was cast in The Lost World: Jurassic Park which led to being cast in more and to the role as White House Communications Director Toby Ziegler in the television series The West Wing. Schiff became known for his reclusive and intense approach to his craft as well as his low-key delivery style. In 1995, Schiff portrayed a lawyer in Se7en. In 1996, he guest starred on the TV series ER, appeared in NYPD Blue the following year. In 1996, he portrayed a corrupt probation officer in City Hall along with John Cusack. Schiff portrayed a doctor alongside Eddie Murphy in the 1998 Dr. Dolittle remake, he portrayed Col./Brig. Gen. Robert Laurel Smith in the 1998 HBO TV movie The Pentagon Wars, based on the real-life development of the US Army's Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle.
That same year, Schiff appeared in the movie Deep Impact. Schiff appeared in one episode of Becker during its first season. In 2001, he acted in the movie What's the Worst That Could Happen? starring Martin Lawrence and Danny DeVito. He played the part of the tough lawyer Mr. Turner in I Am Sam opposite Sean Penn and Michelle Pfeiffer and co-starred in People I Know with Al Pacino. Schiff appeared in Ray as Jerry Wexler. After working on The West Wing for 6 seasons, Schiff chose to leave the series, fulfilling his contractual obligations by appearing in half of the final season's episodes; that same year, he starred alongside Peter Krause in Civic Duty. Schiff had a cameo appearance as himself in the second-season finale of the series Entourage; the scene has Schiff at lunch with his agent Ari Gold, where he declares a desire to act in action movies. He appeared again as a fictionalised version of himself in Entourage. In early 2006, Schiff returned to his stage roots, starring in the premiere run of Underneath the Lintel, a one-act, single-character play by Glen Berger, at the George Street Playhouse in New Brunswick, New Jersey.
In February 2007, he appeared in the West End production of Underneath the Lintel in the Duchess Theatre in London and appeared on BBC Radio Five Live and talked at length to Simon Mayo about his experiences acting in The West Wing and his new West End production. In 2007, he appeared as Philip Cowen in the season finale of Burn Notice. A radio version of Underneath the Lintel, performed by Schiff, was broadcast by BBC Radio 4 on January 5, 2008. Schiff starred in Lanford Wilson's Talley's Folly at the McCarter Theatre Center in Princeton, New Jersey in the fall of 2008, as accountant Matt Friedman, opposite Margot White as Sally Talley; that year Schiff co-starred in Last Chance Harvey with Dustin Hoffman and Emma Thompson and Another Harvest Moon with Ernest Borgnine and appeared in the season finale of Eli Stone. Schiff portrayed Charles Fischer in Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles in the Season 2 episode "Complications"; the character was a traitor to the resistance. He was sent back in time to the present as a reward for his service to Skynet.
He played an Orthodox rabbi on an episode of In Plain Sight with former West Wing co-star Mary McCormack. In 2009, he co-starred in the movies Imagine That, with Eddie Murphy, Solitary Man, with Michael Douglas and Susan Sarandon. In 2009, he went back to London to shoot two other movies: The Infidel, in which he starred opposite Omid Djalili, Made in Dagenham, with Sally Hawkins and Bob Hoskins. Schiff appeared as a hypnotist in one episode of Monk's seventh season, he starred in Past Life. He had a recurring role in Criminal Minds: Suspect Behavior as FBI Director Jack Fickler. Schiff had a recurring role in The Cape, he has guest starred on Any Human Heart with Jim Broadbent playing the role of a psychiatrist and on White Collar's second season episode 15. He played the role of an ex-CIA agent in a terrorist organization in Johnny English Reborn. In April 2011, Schiff returned to the London West End in the play Smash! He played opposite Rob Lowe in the drama Knife Fight, starred opposite Josh Duhamel, Rosario Dawson and Bruce Willis in Fire with Fire.
Schiff played an important plot character in three episodes of CBS's NCIS, bridging seasons 9 and 10, as Harper Dearing, the replacement for Osama bin Laden on the Most Wanted Wall for attacks against the United States Navy. Schiff has been cast to star in the new Show
Media circus is a colloquial metaphor, or idiom, describing a news event for which the level of media coverage — measured by such factors as the number of reporters at the scene and the amount of material broadcast or published — is perceived to be excessive or out of proportion to the event being covered. Coverage, sensationalistic can add to the perception the event is the subject of a media circus; the term is meant to critique the coverage of the event by comparing it to the spectacle and pageantry of a circus. Usage of the term in this sense became common in the 1970s, it can be called a media feeding frenzy or just media frenzy when they cover the media coverage. Although the idea is older, the term media circus began to appear around the mid-1970s. An early example is from the 1976 book by author Lynn Haney, in which she writes about a romance in which the athlete Chris Evert was involved: "Their courtship, after all, had been a'media circus.'" A few years The Washington Post had a similar courtship example in which it reported, "Princess Grace herself is still traumatized by the memory of her own media-circus wedding to Prince Rainier in 1956."
The term has become popular with time since the 1970s. Reasons for being critical of the media are varied. Media circuses make up the central plot device in the 1951 movie Ace in the Hole about a self-interested reporter who, covering a mine disaster, allows a man to die trapped underground, it cynically examines the relationship between the news they report. The movie was subsequently re-issued as The Big Carnival, with "carnival" referring to what we now call a "circus"; the movie was based on real-life Floyd Collins who in 1925 was trapped in a Kentucky cave drawing so much media attention that it became the third largest media event between the two World Wars. Events described as a media circus include: The disappearance, assumed death, of Natalee Holloway; the Azaria Chamberlain disappearance of 2-month-old baby in outback Australia. The Beaconsfield Mine collapse. 2009 Violence against Indians in Australia controversy. Schapelle Corby Drug smuggler; the murder of Isabella Nardoni. Conrad Black, business magnate of newspapers, convicted of fraud and corporate destruction, imprisoned in Florida.
Toronto mayor Rob Ford's life, including his usage of drugs and involvement with organized crime. Paul Bernardo and Karla Homolka. Omar Khadr. Murder of Victoria Stafford. Jian Ghomeshi. Luka Rocco Magnotta, gay porn actor convicted of killing Chinese roommate and mailing remains to the Prime Minister and an elementary school in British Columbia. Elijah Marsh, a 3-year-old Toronto boy of black descent who wandered outside in February 2015 in just a diaper and boots and froze to death. 2010 Copiapó mining accident. The Death of Luis Andres Colmenares; the investigation on the murder of Grégory Villemin. The capture of Mohamed Merah in March 2012; the funerals of singer Johnny Hallyday in December 2017. Amanda Knox; the missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370. Joran van der the death of Stephany Flores Ramirez; the assumed discovery of the Nazi gold train in Wałbrzych, 2015 Disappearance and alleged murder of Elodia Ghinescu on OTV, which aired a couple hundred episodes on the matter. Oscar Pistorius on trial for death of his girlfriend Reeva Steenkamp.
Suicide and funeral of K-pop star and SHINee member Kim Jong-hyun Tham Luang cave rescue Mykola Melnychenko's involvement in the Cassette Scandal. The Charlie Gard case; the life and funeral of Jade Goody. The News International phone hacking scandal. Overshadowed stories on the Libyan/Syrian Civil Wars, East African famine, economic crisis; the disappearance of Madeleine McCann. The McLibel case. Christine Jorgensen caused a media sensation when she returned from Denmark to the U. S. in 1952 after undergoing the "world's first sex change" operation. "Ex-GI Becomes Blonde Bombshell" was the headline in the New York Daily News on December 1, 1952. Coverage of the investigation and trial of the 1969 murders of Sharon Tate and four others by the Manson family. David Gelman, Peter Greenberg, et al. in Newsweek on January 31, 1977: "Brooklyn born photographer and film producer Lawrence Schiller managed to make himself the sole journalist to witness the execution of Gary Gilmore in Utah.... In the Gilmore affair, he was like a ringmaster in what became a media circus, with sophisticated newsmen scrambling for what he had to offer."
The rescue of baby Jessica McClure The Central Park jogger case of 1989. The O. J. Simpson murder case of 1994-1995; the Blizzard of'96. "...this storm...so hyped by the media in the same way that the O. J. Simpson murder case became hyped as the "Trial of the century"; the Elián González custody conflict. The trial of Martha Stewart. "The stone-faced Stewart never broke stride as she cut a path through the media circus." The 2005 trial of Michael Jackson on child moles
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl