Decoction is a method of extraction by boiling herbal or plant material to dissolve the chemicals of the material, which may include stems, roots and rhizomes. Decoction involves first mashing the plant material to allow for maximum dissolution, boiling in water to extract oils, volatile organic compounds and other various chemical substances. Decoction can be used to make herbal teas, leaf teas, coffees and similar solutions. Decoctions and infusions may produce liquids with differing chemical properties as the temperature and/or preparation difference may result in more oil-soluble chemicals in decoctions versus infusions; the process can be applied to meats and vegetables to prepare bouillon or stock, though the term is only used to describe boiled plant extracts for medicinal or scientific purposes. Decoction is the name for the resulting liquid. Although this method of extraction differs from infusion and percolation, the resultant liquids can sometimes be similar in their effects, or general appearance and taste.
The term dates back to 1350–1400 from present participle stem of Latin decoquere, de "from" + coquere "to cook". In brewing, decoction mashing is the traditional method where a portion of the mash is removed to a separate vessel, boiled for a time and returned to the main mash, raising the mash to the next temperature step. In herbalism, decoctions are made to extract fluids from hard plant materials such as roots and bark. To achieve this, the plant material is boiled for 1–2 hours in 1-5 liters of water, it is strained. Ayurveda utilizes this method to create Kashayam type of herbal medicines. For teas, decoction involves boiling the same amount of the herb and water that would be used for an infusion for about five to ten minutes. Concoction Percolation Infusion Maceration Tincture Herbalism How To Make a Herbal Decoction from unexplainable.net
An antifungal medication known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, candidiasis, serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, others. Such drugs are obtained by a doctor's prescription, but a few are available OTC. A polyene is a molecule with multiple conjugated double bonds. A polyene antifungal is a macrocyclic polyene with a hydroxylated region on the ring opposite the conjugated system; this makes polyene antifungals amphiphilic. The polyene antimycotics bind with sterols in the fungal cell membrane, principally ergosterol; this changes the transition temperature of the cell membrane, thereby placing the membrane in a less fluid, more crystalline state. As a result, the cell's contents including monovalent ions, small organic molecules leak and this is regarded one of the primary ways cell dies. Animal cells contain cholesterol instead of ergosterol and so they are much less susceptible.
However, at therapeutic doses, some amphotericin B may bind to animal membrane cholesterol, increasing the risk of human toxicity. Amphotericin B is nephrotoxic; as a polyene's hydrophobic chain is shortened, its sterol binding activity is increased. Therefore, further reduction of the hydrophobic chain may result in it binding to cholesterol, making it toxic to animals. Amphotericin B Candicidin Filipin – 35 carbons, binds to cholesterol Hamycin Natamycin – 33 carbons, binds well to ergosterol Nystatin Rimocidin Azoles inhibit conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol by inhibition of lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase. Bifonazole Butoconazole Clotrimazole Econazole Fenticonazole Isoconazole Ketoconazole Luliconazole Miconazole Omoconazole Oxiconazole Sertaconazole Sulconazole Tioconazole Albaconazole Efinaconazole Epoxiconazole Fluconazole Isavuconazole Itraconazole Posaconazole Propiconazole Ravuconazole Terconazole Voriconazole Abafungin Allylamines inhibit squalene epoxidase, another enzyme required for ergosterol synthesis.
Examples include amorolfin, butenafine and terbinafine. Echinocandins inhibit the creation of glucan in the fungal cell wall by inhibiting 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase: Anidulafungin Caspofungin MicafunginEchinocandins are administered intravenously for the treatment of resistant Candida species. Aurones - have been shown to possess antifungal properties Benzoic acid – has antifungal properties, such as in Whitfield's ointment, Friar's Balsam, Balsam of Peru. Ciclopirox – – is a hydroxypyridone antifungal that interferes with active membrane transport, cell membrane integrity, fungal respiratory processes, it is most useful against tinea versicolour. Flucytosine or 5-fluorocytosine – an antimetabolite pyrimidine analog Griseofulvin – binds to polymerized microtubules and inhibits fungal mitosis Haloprogin – discontinued due to the emergence of more modern antifungals with fewer side effects Tolnaftate – a thiocarbamate antifungal, which inhibits fungal squalene epoxidase Undecylenic acid – an unsaturated fatty acid derived from natural castor oil.
Crystal violet – a triarylmethane dye, it has antibacterial and anthelmintic properties and was important as a topical antiseptic. Castellani's paint Orotomide - pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor. Miltefosine disrupts fungal cell membrane dynamics by interacting with ergosterol Potassium iodide is the preferred treatment for lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis and subcutaneous zygomycosis; the mode of action is obscure. Coal tar Copper sulfate Selenium disulfide Sodium thiosulfate Piroctone olamine Iodoquinol, clioquinol Acrisorcin Zinc pyrithione Sulfur Apart from side effects like altered estrogen levels and liver damage, many antifungal medicines can cause allergic reactions in people. For example, the azole group of drugs is known to have caused anaphylaxis. There are many drug interactions. Patients must read in detail the enclosed data sheet of any medicine. For example, the azole antifungals such as ketoconazole or itraconazole can be both substrates and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein, which excretes toxins and drugs into the intestines.
Azole antifungals are both substrates and inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 family CYP3A4, causing increased concentration when administering, for example, calcium channel blockers, immunosuppressants, chemotherapeutic drugs, tricyclic antidepressants, macrolides and SSRIs. Before oral antifungal therapies are used to treat nail disease, a confirmation of the fungal infection should be made. Half of suspected cases of fungal infection in nails have a non-fungal cause; the side effects of oral treatment are significant and people without an infection should not take these drugs. Azoles are the group of anti fungals, they inhibit the enzyme 14 - alpha-sterol demethylase, a microsomal CYP, required for biosynthesis of Ergosterol for cytoplasmic membrane. This leads to accumulation of 14-alpha-methylsterols resulting in impairment of function of certain membrane bound enzymes and disruption close packing of acyl chains of phospholipids, thus inhibiting growth of the fungi; some azoles directly increase permeability of fungal cell membrane.
Antifungals portal Antimicrobial Fungicide Antifungal Drugs – Detailed information on antifungals
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering of vertebrates with three main functions: protection and sensation. Other animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have different developmental origin and chemical composition; the adjective cutaneous means "of the skin". In mammals, the skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue, guards the underlying muscles, bones and internal organs. Skin of a different nature exists in amphibians and birds. All mammals have some hair on their skin marine mammals like whales and porpoises which appear to be hairless; the skin is the first line of defense from external factors. For example, the skin plays a key role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss, its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation and the production of vitamin D folates. Damaged skin may heal by forming scar tissue; this is sometimes depigmented. The thickness of skin varies from location to location on an organism.
In humans for example, the skin located under the eyes and around the eyelids is the thinnest skin in the body at 0.5 mm thick, is one of the first areas to show signs of aging such as "crows feet" and wrinkles. The skin on the palms and the soles of the feet is the thickest skin on the body; the speed and quality of wound healing in skin is promoted by the reception of estrogen. Fur is dense hair. Fur augments the insulation the skin provides but can serve as a secondary sexual characteristic or as camouflage. On some animals, the skin is hard and thick, can be processed to create leather. Reptiles and fish have hard protective scales on their skin for protection, birds have hard feathers, all made of tough β-keratins. Amphibian skin is not a strong barrier regarding the passage of chemicals via skin and is subject to osmosis and diffusive forces. For example, a frog sitting in an anesthetic solution would be sedated as the chemical diffuses through its skin. Amphibian skin plays key roles in everyday survival and their ability to exploit a wide range of habitats and ecological conditions.
Mammalian skin is composed of two primary layers: the epidermis, which provides waterproofing and serves as a barrier to infection. It forms a protective barrier over the body's surface, responsible for keeping water in the body and preventing pathogens from entering, is a stratified squamous epithelium, composed of proliferating basal and differentiated suprabasal keratinocytes. Keratinocytes are the major cells, constituting 95% of the epidermis, while Merkel cells and Langerhans cells are present; the epidermis can be further subdivided into the following strata or layers: Stratum corneum Stratum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum germinativum Keratinocytes in the stratum basale proliferate through mitosis and the daughter cells move up the strata changing shape and composition as they undergo multiple stages of cell differentiation to become anucleated. During that process, keratinocytes will become organized, forming cellular junctions between each other and secreting keratin proteins and lipids which contribute to the formation of an extracellular matrix and provide mechanical strength to the skin.
Keratinocytes from the stratum corneum are shed from the surface. The epidermis contains no blood vessels, cells in the deepest layers are nourished by diffusion from blood capillaries extending to the upper layers of the dermis; the epidermis and dermis are separated by a thin sheet of fibers called the basement membrane, made through the action of both tissues. The basement membrane controls the traffic of the cells and molecules between the dermis and epidermis but serves, through the binding of a variety of cytokines and growth factors, as a reservoir for their controlled release during physiological remodeling or repair processes; the dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. The dermis provides tensile strength and elasticity to the skin through an extracellular matrix composed of collagen fibrils and elastic fibers, embedded in hyaluronan and proteoglycans. Skin proteoglycans are varied and have specific locations.
For example, hyaluronan and decorin are present throughout the dermis and epidermis extracellular matrix, whereas biglycan and perlecan are only found in the epidermis. It harbors many mechanoreceptors that provide the sense of touch and heat through nociceptors and thermoreceptors, it contains the hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels. The blood vessels in the dermis provide nourishment and waste removal from its own cells as well as for the epidermis; the dermis is connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane and is structurally divided into two areas: a superficial area adjacent to the epidermis, called the papillary region, a deep thicker area known as the reticular region. The papillary region is composed of loose areolar connective tissue; this is named for its fingerlike projections called papillae. The papillae provide the dermis with a "bumpy" surface that interdigitates with the epidermis, strengthening the connection between the tw
A pastille is a type of candy or medicinal pill made of a thick liquid, solidified and is meant to be consumed by light chewing and allowing it to dissolve in the mouth. They are used to describe certain forms of incense. A pastille is known as a troche, a medicated lozenge that dissolves like candy. A pastille was a pill-shaped lump of compressed herbs, burnt to release its medicinal properties. Literary references to the burning of medicinal pastilles include the short story "The Birth-Mark" by Nathaniel Hawthorne, the poem "The Laboratory" by Robert Browning, the novel Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë, they are mentioned in the novel McTeague by Frank Norris, when the title character's wife burns them to mask an unpleasant odor in the couple's rooms. In Dashiell Hammett's The Maltese Falcon, "a half-filled package of violet pastilles" are among the items found in Joel Cairo's pockets, they were widely used during the eighteenth century in Western cultures to take herbal curatives and medicines, which were developed into candies.
Pastilles are made by pouring a thick liquid into a powdered, sugared, or waxed mold and allowing the liquid to set and dry. The substances contained in the dried liquid are released when chewed and allowed to dissolve in the mouth; the substances are absorbed by the mucous membranes of the oral cavity or in the lower gastro-intestinal tracts. Various substances, be they for flavour, can be put into pastille forms. Due to the oily nature of these active substances, pastilles are based on a mixtures of starch and gum arabic, which emulsifies the substance and binds them in a hydrocolloidal matrix; the starch and gum reduces the rate in which the pastille dissolves and moderates the amount of active substances delivered at a time. Gum arabic hardens the pastilles and makes them more sturdy in storage and transport. Well known pastille type candies include: Läkerol Violets Mason Dots Mentos Vocalzone Throat Pastilles, natural throat pastilles for voice overuse Jujube Rowntree's Fruit Pastilles, small round sweets Vichy Pastilles, octagonal candy pastilles Wine gum Grether's Pastilles Pastiglie Leone, Herbal digestives and candy pastilles Gum drops Throat lozenge
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent; the mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is the case; the concentration of a solute in a solution is the mass of that solute expressed as a percentage of the mass of the whole solution. The term aqueous solution is. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances; the particles of solute in a solution cannot be seen by the naked eye. A solution does not allow beams of light to scatter. A solution is stable; the solute from a solution cannot be separated by filtration. It is composed of only one phase. Homogeneous means. Heterogeneous means; the properties of the mixture can be uniformly distributed through the volume but only in absence of diffusion phenomena or after their completion.
The substance present in the greatest amount is considered the solvent. Solvents can be liquids or solids. One or more components present in the solution other; the solution has the same physical state as the solvent. If the solvent is a gas, only gases are dissolved under a given set of conditions. An example of a gaseous solution is air. Since interactions between molecules play no role, dilute gases form rather trivial solutions. In part of the literature, they are not classified as solutions, but addressed as mixtures. If the solvent is a liquid almost all gases and solids can be dissolved. Here are some examples: Gas in liquid: Oxygen in water Carbon dioxide in water – a less simple example, because the solution is accompanied by a chemical reaction. Note that the visible bubbles in carbonated water are not the dissolved gas, but only an effervescence of carbon dioxide that has come out of solution. Liquid in liquid: The mixing of two or more substances of the same chemistry but different concentrations to form a constant.
Alcoholic beverages are solutions of ethanol in water. Solid in liquid: Sucrose in water Sodium chloride or any other salt in water, which forms an electrolyte: When dissolving, salt dissociates into ions. Solutions in water are common, are called aqueous solutions. Non-aqueous solutions are. Counter examples are provided by liquid mixtures that are not homogeneous: colloids, emulsions are not considered solutions. Body fluids are examples for complex liquid solutions. Many of these are electrolytes. Furthermore, they contain solute molecules like urea. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are essential components of blood chemistry, where significant changes in their concentrations may be a sign of severe illness or injury. If the solvent is a solid gases and solids can be dissolved. Gas in solids: Hydrogen dissolves rather well in metals in palladium. Liquid in solid: Mercury in gold, forming an amalgam Water in solid salt or sugar, forming moist solids Hexane in paraffin wax Solid in solid: Steel a solution of carbon atoms in a crystalline matrix of iron atoms Alloys like bronze and many others Polymers containing plasticizers The ability of one compound to dissolve in another compound is called solubility.
When a liquid can dissolve in another liquid the two liquids are miscible. Two substances that can never mix to form a solution are said to be immiscible. All solutions have a positive entropy of mixing; the interactions between different molecules or ions may be energetically favored or not. If interactions are unfavorable the free energy decreases with increasing solute concentration. At some point the energy loss outweighs the entropy gain, no more solute particles can be dissolved. However, the point at which a solution can become saturated can change with different environmental factors, such as temperature and contamination. For some solute-solvent combinations a supersaturated solution can be prepared by raising the solubility to dissolve more solute, lowering it; the greater the temperature of the solvent, the more of a given solid solute it can dissolve. However, most gases and some compounds exhibit solubilities that decrease with increased temperature; such behavior is a result of an exothermic enthalpy of solution.
Some surfactants exhibit this behaviour. The solubility of liquids in liquids is less temperature-sensitive than that of solids or gases; the physical properties of compounds such as melting point and boiling point change when other compounds are added. Together they are called colligative properties. There are several ways to quantify the amount of one compound dissolved in the other compounds collectively called concentration. Examples include molarity, volume fraction, mole fraction; the properties of ideal solutions can be calculated by the linear combination of the properties of
Enteral administration is food or drug administration via the human gastrointestinal tract. This contrasts with parenteral nutrition or drug administration, which occurs from routes outside the GI tract, such as intravenous routes. Enteral administration involves the esophagus and small and large intestines. Methods of administration include oral and rectal. Parenteral administration is via a central vein. In pharmacology, the route of drug administration is important because it affects drug metabolism, drug clearance, thus dosage; the term is from Greek enteros, "intestine". Enteral administration may be divided into three different categories, depending on the entrance point into the GI tract: oral and rectal; the mechanism for drug absorption from the intestine is for most drugs passive transfer, a few exceptions include levodopa and fluorouracil, which are both absorbed through carrier-mediated transport. For passive transfer to occur, the drug has to diffuse through the lipid cell membrane of the epithelial cells lining the inside of the intestines.
The rate at which this happens is determined by two factors: Ionization and lipid solubility. Factors influencing gastrointestinal absorption: Gastrointestinal motility. Splanchnic blood flow. Particle size and formulation. Physicochemical factors. Drugs given by enteral administration may be subjected to significant first pass metabolism, therefore, the amount of drug entering the systemic circulation following administration may vary for different individuals and drugs. Rectal administration is not subject to extensive first pass metabolism. Enteric Feeding tube
A gel is a solid jelly-like soft material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough. Gels are defined as a dilute cross-linked system, which exhibits no flow when in the steady-state. By weight, gels are liquid, yet they behave like solids due to a three-dimensional cross-linked network within the liquid, it is the crosslinking within the fluid that gives a gel its structure and contributes to the adhesive stick. In this way gels are a dispersion of molecules of a liquid within a solid in which liquid particles are dispersed in the solid medium; the word gel was coined by 19th-century Scottish chemist Thomas Graham by clipping from gelatine. Gels consist of a solid three-dimensional network that spans the volume of a liquid medium and ensnares it through surface tension effects; this internal network structure may result from physical bonds or chemical bonds, as well as crystallites or other junctions that remain intact within the extending fluid. Any fluid can be used as an extender including water and air.
Both by weight and volume, gels are fluid in composition and thus exhibit densities similar to those of their constituent liquids. Edible jelly is a common example of a hydrogel and has the density of water. Polyionic polymers are polymers with an ionic functional group; the ionic charges prevent the formation of coiled polymer chains. This allows them to contribute more to viscosity in their stretched state, because the stretched-out polymer takes up more space; this is the reason gel hardens. See polyelectrolyte for more information. A hydrogel is a network of polymer chains that are hydrophilic, sometimes found as a colloidal gel in which water is the dispersion medium. A three-dimensional solid results from the hydrophilic polymer chains being held together by cross-links; because of the inherent cross-links, the structural integrity of the hydrogel network does not dissolve from the high concentration of water. Hydrogels are absorbent natural or synthetic polymeric networks. Hydrogels possess a degree of flexibility similar to natural tissue, due to their significant water content.
As responsive "smart materials," hydrogels can encapsulate chemical systems which upon stimulation by external factors such as a change of pH may cause specific compounds such as glucose to be liberated to the environment, in most cases by a gel-sol transition to the liquid state. Chemomechanical polymers are also hydrogels, which upon stimulation change their volume and can serve as actuators or sensors; the first appearance of the term'hydrogel' in the literature was in 1894. Common uses for hydrogels include: Scaffolds in tissue engineering; when used as scaffolds, hydrogels may contain human cells to repair tissue. They mimic 3D microenvironment of cells. Hydrogel-coated wells have been used for cell culture Environmentally sensitive hydrogels; these hydrogels have the ability to sense changes of pH, temperature, or the concentration of metabolite and release their load as result of such a change. Sustained-release drug delivery systems Providing absorption and debriding of necrotic and fibrotic tissue Hydrogels that are responsive to specific molecules, such as glucose or antigens, can be used as biosensors, as well as in DDS.
Disposable diapers where they absorb urine, or in sanitary napkins Contact lenses EEG and ECG medical electrodes using hydrogels composed of cross-linked polymers Water gel explosives Rectal drug delivery and diagnosis Encapsulation of quantum dots Breast implants Glue Granules for holding soil moisture in arid areas Dressings for healing of burn or other hard-to-heal wounds. Wound gels are excellent for helping to maintain a moist environment. Reservoirs in topical drug delivery. Materials mimicking animal mucosal tissues to be used for testing mucoadhesive properties of drug delivery systemsCommon ingredients include polyvinyl alcohol, sodium polyacrylate, acrylate polymers and copolymers with an abundance of hydrophilic groups. Natural hydrogel materials are being investigated for tissue engineering. Hydrogels show promise for use in agriculture, as they can release agrochemicals including pesticides and phosphate fertiliser increasing efficacy and reducing runoff, at the same time improve the water retention of drier soils such as sandy loams.
An organogel is a non-crystalline, non-glassy thermoreversible solid material composed of a liquid organic phase entrapped in a three-dimensionally cross-linked network. The liquid can be, for an organic solvent, mineral oil, or vegetable oil; the solubility and particle dimensions of the structurant are important characteristics for the elastic properties and firmness of the organogel. These systems are based on self-assembly of the structurant molecules. Organogels have potential for use in a number of applications, such as in pharmaceuticals, art conservation, food. A xerogel is a solid formed from a gel by drying with unhindered shrinkage. Xerogels retain high porosity and enormous surface area, along with small pore size; when solvent removal occurs under supercritical conditions, the network doe